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/n, t, d/ are laminaldenti-alveolar[n?, t?, d?], while /s, z/ are dentalized laminal alveolar [s?, z?], pronounced with the blade of the tongue very close to the back of the upper front teeth, with the tip resting behind lower front teeth.
Kurdish contrasts plain alveolar /l/ and velarized postalveolar/?/ lateral approximants. Unlike in English, the sounds are separate phonemes rather than allophones.
Postvocalic /d/ is lenited to an approximant . This is a regional feature occurring in other Iranian languages as well and called by Windfuhr the "Zagros d".
Distinguishes between aspirated and unaspirated voiceless stops, which can be aspirated in all positions. Thus /p/ contrasts with /p?/, /t/ with /t?/, /k/ with /k?/, and the affricate /t/ with /t/.
Although is considered an allophone of /w/, some phonologists argue that it should be considered a phoneme.
is an allophone of /n/, occurring in the about 11 to 19 words that have the consonant group ⟨nz⟩. The word yânza is pronounced as [j?:?z?a].
Kurdish has labialized counterparts to the velar plosives, the voiceless velar fricative and the uvular stop. Thus /k/ contrasts with /k?/, /?/ with //, /x/ with /x?/, and /q/ with /q?/. These labialized counterparts do not have any distinct letters or digraph. Examples are the word xulam ('servant') which is pronounced as [x'l?:m], and qoç ('horn') is pronounced as [qnd].
After /?/, /t/ is palatalized to [t?]. An example is the Central Kurdish word gâlta ('joke'), which is pronounced as [g?:?'t?æ].
/k/ and /?/ are strongly palatalized before the front vowels /i/ and /e/ as well as , becoming acoustically similar to /t/ and /d/.
When preceding /n/, /s, z/ are palatalized to /?/. In the same environment, /?/ also becomes /?/.
In some cases, /p, t, k, s, z/ are pharyngealized to [p?, t?, k?, s?, z?]. For example, the word sed/?ed is pronounced as ['sd]
Furthermore, while [f?] and  are unique to Central Kurdish, Kurmanji has [t].
/?/ and /?/ are non-native phonemes that are mostly present in words of Arabic origin. Even though they are usually replaced by /h/ and /x/ respectively, they are facultative. Thus the word heft/?eft ('seven' /'ft/) can be pronounced as either ['h?ft] or ['ft], and xerîb/?erîb ('stranger', /'ri:b/) as either [x?'ri:b] or ['ri:b].
/?/ is only present in words of Arabic origin and is only present in initial position. An Arabic loanword like "Hasan" would thus be pronounced as /'s?n/. The phoneme is absent in some Kurmanji and Southern Kurdish dialects.
/?/ is mainly present in Arabic loan words and affect the pronunciation of that vowel. However, many Kurds avoid using the glottal phoneme for nationalist and purist reasons since the glottal phoneme is seen as the embodiment of Arabic influence in Kurdish.
The vowel inventory differs by dialect, some dialect having more vowel phonemes than others. /i:, ?, u:, ?, e:, o:, ?:/ are the only vowel phonemes present in all three Kurdish dialects.
In some words, /?/ and /u/ are realized as . This allophone occurs when ⟨i⟩ is present in a closed syllable that ends with /m/ and in some certain words like dims ('molasses'). The word vedixwim ('I am drinking') is thus pronounced as [v?d?'xm], while dims is pronounced as [d?ms].
/ø:/ only exists in Southern Kurdish, represented by ⟨ö⟩. In Kurmanji, it is only present facultatively in loan words from Turkish, as it mostly merges with /o:/. The word öks (from Turkish ökse meaning 'clayish mud') is pronounced as either [ø:ks] or [o:ks].
Glides and diphthongs
The glides , , and appear in syllable onsets immediately followed by a full vowel. All combinations except the last four are present in all three Kurdish dialects. If the word used as an example is unique to a dialect, the dialect is mentioned.