Korean Mixed Script
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Korean mixed script
?
?
Hunmin jeong-eum.jpg
Type
Alternative – utilizes both logographic (Hanja) and alphabetic (Hangul) characters
LanguagesKorean language
Time period
1443 to the present
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924Kore, 287
Korean mixed script
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationHanja-honyong / Gukhanmun-honyong
McCune-ReischauerHancha-honyong / Kukhanmun-honyong

Korean mixed script, known in Korean as hanja honyong (Korean?; Hanja?), Hanja-seokkeosseugi (, ), 'Chinese character mixed usage,' or gukhanmun honyong (; ), 'national Sino-Korean mixed usage,' is a form of writing the Korean language that uses a mixture of the Korean alphabet or hangul () and hanja (, ), the Korean name for Chinese characters. The distribution on how to write words usually follows that all native Korean words, including grammatical endings, particles and honorific markers are generally written in hangul and never in hanja. Sino-Korean vocabulary or hanja-eo (; ), either words borrowed from Chinese or created from Sino-Korean roots, were generally always written in hanja although very rare or complex characters were often substituted with hangul. Although the Korean alphabet was introduced and taught to people beginning in 1446, most literature until the early twentieth century was written in literary Chinese known as hanmun (; ).

Although examples of mixed-script writing are as old as hangul itself, the mixing of hangul and hanja together in sentences became the official writing system of the Korean language at the end of the nineteenth century, when reforms ended the primacy of literary Chinese in literature, science and government. This style of writing, in competition with hangul-only writing, continued as the formal written version of Korean for most of the twentieth century. The script slowly gave way to hangul-only usage in North Korea by 1949, while it continues in South Korea to a limited extent. However, with the decrease in hanja education, the number of hanja in use has slowly dwindled and in the twenty-first century, very few hanja are used at all.[1]

Development

The development of hanja-honyong required two major developments in orthographic traditions of the Korean Peninsula. The first was the adoption of hanja, around the beginning of the Three Kingdom period of Korea. The second was the introduction of hangul in 1446.

Hanja

Hanmun

The calligraphy of Korean scholar, poet and painter Gim Jeonghui (; ) of the early nineteenth century. Like most educated Koreans from the Three Kingdom period until the fall of the Joseon Dynasty in 1910, Gim Jeong-hui composed most of his works in hanmun or literary Chinese.

Literacy on the Korean Peninsula began with the adoption of literary Chinese (; ; hanmun) written in Chinese characters (; ; hanja). The earliest evidence of Korean hanmun is an engraving on a sword dated to 222 BC and unearthed from what is now Pyeongyang, with the next earliest example being a stone inscription from 85 AD in Pyeong-annam Province. By the start of the early Three Kingdom period (?; ?; Samguk Shidae) (57 BC--668 AD), each of the kingdoms of Baekje (; ), Silla (; ) and Goguryeo (; ), later shortened to Goryeo (; ), the use of hanmun was entrenched as the official written language of the respective royal courts and nobility.

Several factors at the start of the Three Kingdom period facilitated the spread of Sinitic culture and hanmun literacy amongst the nobility. The Korean peoples were originally several tribes that had been at the periphery of Chinese civilisation, and naturally were inclined to adopt the more advanced culture and technology of their larger neighbor. From 108 BC to 313 AD, the Chinese Han Dynasty established the Four Commanderies of Han in northern Korea.[2] The spread of Buddhism in Korea also occurred around the 4th century.[2]

Another major factor in the adoption of hanmun was the adoption of the gwageo (; ; gwageo), copied from the Chinese imperial examination, open to all freeborn men. Special schools were set up for the well-to-do and the nobility across Korea to train new scholar officials for civil service. Adopted by Silla and Goryeo, the gwageo system was maintained by Goryeo after the unification of Korea until the end of the nineteenth century. The scholarly élite began learning the hanja by memorising the Thousand Character Classic (; ; Cheonjamun), Three Character Classic (; ; Samja Gyeong) and Hundred Family Surnames (; ; Baekja Seong). Passage of the gwageo required the thorough ability to read, interpret and compose passages of works such as the Analects ((; ; Non-eo), Great Learning (; ; Daehak), Doctrine of the Mean (; ; Jung-yong), Mencius (; ; Maengja), Classic of Poetry (; ; Sigyeong), Book of Documents (; ; Seogyeong), Classic of Changes (; ; Yeon-gyeong), Spring and Autumn Annals (; ; Chuncho) and Book of Rites (; ; Yegi). Other important works include S?nz?'s Art of War (?; ?; Sonja Byeongbeop) and Selections of Refined Literature (; ; Munseon).

The Korean scholars were very proficient in literary Chinese. The craftsmen and scholars of Baekje were renowned in Japan, and were eagerly sought as teachers due to their proficiency in hanmun. Korean scholars also composed all diplomatic records, government records, scientific writings, religious literature and much poetry in hanmun, demonstrating that the Korean scholars were not just reading Chinese works but were actively composing their own. Well-known examples of Chinese-language literature in Korea include Three Kingdoms History (?; ?; Samguk Sagi), Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms (?; ?; Samguk Yusa), New Stories of the Golden Turtle (?; ?; Geumo Sinhwa), The Cloud Dream of the Nine (; ; Gu Unmong), Musical Cannon (?; ?; Akhak Gwebeom), The Story of Hong Gildong (?; ?; Hong Gildong Jeon) and Licking One's Lips at the Butcher's Door (?; ?; Domun Daejak).

Adaptation of hanja to Korean

The Chinese language, however, was quite different from the Korean language, consisting of terse, often monosyllabic words with a strictly analytic, SVO structure in stark contrast to the generally polysyllabic, very synthetic, SOV structure, with various grammatical endings that encoded person, levels of politeness and case. Despite the adoption of literary Chinese as the written language, Chinese never replaced Korean as the spoken language, even amongst the scholars that had immersed themselves into its study.

The first attempts to make literary Chinese texts more accessible to Korean readers were hanmun passages written in Korean word order. This would later develop into the gugyeol (; ) or 'separated phrases,' system. Chinese texts were broken into meaningful blocks, and in the spaces were inserted hanja used to represent the sound of native Korean grammatical endings. As literary Chinese was very terse, leaving much to be understood from context, insertion of occasional verbs and grammatical markers helped to clarify the meaning. For instance, the hanja '?' was used for its native Korean gloss whereas '?' was used for its Sino-Korean pronunciation, and combined into '' and read hani (), 'to do (and so).'[3] Special symbols were sometimes used to aid in the reordering of words in approximation of Korean grammar. It was similar to the kanbun () system developed in Japan to render Chinese texts. The system was not a translation of Chinese into Korean, but an attempt to make Korean speakers knowledgeable in hanja overcome the difficulties in interpreting Chinese texts. Although it was developed by scholars of the early Goryeo Kingdom (918 - 1392), gugyeol was of particular importance during the Joseon period, extending into the first decade of the twentieth century, since all civil servants were required to be able to read, translate and interpret Confucian texts and commentaries.[4]

The Korean Baegun Hwasang Chorok Buljo Jikji Simche Yojeol (; ) or roughly 'Anthology of Great Buddhist Priests' Zen Teachings' is the oldest example of a book printed with moveable type and was printed in Korea in 1377, but is written in literary Chinese.

The first attempt at transcribing Korean in hanja was the idu (; ), or 'official reading,' system that began to appear after 500 AD. In this system, the hanja were chosen for their equivalent native Korean gloss. For example, the hanja '' signifies 'no winter' or 'not winter' and has the formal Sino-Korean pronunciation of () budong, similar to Mandarin bù d?ng. Instead, it was read as andeul () which is the Middle Korean pronunciation of the characters' native gloss and is ancestor to modern anneunda (), 'do not' or 'does not.' The various idu conventions were developed in the Goryeo period but was particularly associated with the jung-in (; ), the upper middle class of the early Joseon period.[5]

A subset of idu was known as hyangchal (; ), 'village notes,' and was a form of idu particularly associated with the hyangga (; ) the old poetry compilations and some new creations preserved in the first half of the Goryeo period when its popularity began to wane.[2] In the hyangchal or 'village letters' system, there was free choice in how a particular hanja was used. For example, to indicate the topic of Princess Shenhua, the half-sister of Emperor Jiajing of the Ming Dynasty was recorded as '' in hyangchal and was read as (), seonhwa gongju-nim-eun where '?' is read in Sino-Korean, as it is a Chinese name and the Sino-Korean term for 'princess' was already adopted as a loan word. The hanja ',' however, were read according to their native pronunciation but was not used for its literal meaning signifying 'the prince steals' but the native postpositions (?) nim, the honorific marker used after professions and titles, and eun, the topic marker. In mixed script, this would be rendered as '.' The idu and its hyangchal variant were similar to the Japanese man'yogana (?) system that would develop much later in Japan. Idu and its hyangchal variant were mostly replaced by mixed-script writing with hangul although idu was not officially discontinued until 1894 when reforms abolished its usage in administrative records of civil servants. Even with idu, most literature and official records were still recorded in literary Chinese until 1910.[5][4]

Promulgation of Hunminjeong-eum

Introduction

Example of hangul written in the traditional vertical manner. On the left are the hunminjeong-eum and on the right are modern hangul.

Despite the advent of vernacular writing in Korean utilizing hanja, these publications remained the dominion of the literate class, comprising royalty and nobility, Buddhist monks, Confucian scholars, civil servants and members of the upper classes as the ability to read these texts required proficient ability to understand the meaning of the Chinese characters, with both their adopted Sino-Korean pronunciation and their native gloss. To rectify this, King Sejong the Great ( ?; ?) summoned a team of scholars to devise a new script for the Korean language, leading to the 1446 promulgation of the hunminjeong-eum (?; ?), 'correct pronunciation for teaching the people.' The problems surrounding literacy in literary Chinese to the common populace was summarized in the opening of Sejong's proclamation, written in literary Chinese:

?,?,?,?,?,,,
Because the speech of this country is different from that of China, it [the spoken language] does not match the [Chinese] letters. Therefore, even if the ignorant want to communicate, many of them in the end cannot state their concerns. Saddened by this, I have [had] 28 letters newly made. It is my wish that all the people may easily learn these letters and that [they] be convenient for daily use.

The script is now the primary and most commonplace method to write the Korean language, and is known as hangul ()) in South Korea, from han (?) but homophonous with Sino-Korean han ((?; ?), 'Korean,' and the native word gul (?), 'script.' In North Korea, the script is known as joseon ('Chosan') (; ) from an old name of Korea. The promulgation is of the indigenous script is celebrated as a national holiday on 9 October in the south and 15 January in the north, respectively.[6][7]

The new script rapidly spread to the segments of the population traditionally denied access to education such as farmers, fishermen, women of the lower classes, rural merchants and young children. Several attempts to ban or over-turn the use of hangul were initiated but failed to halt its spread. These attempts were initiated by several rulers, who discovered disparaging remarks about their reigns, and the upper classes, whose grip on power and influence was predicated upon their ability to read, write and interpret classical Chinese texts and commentaries thereof. The scholarly élite mocked the sole use of hangul pseudo-deferentially as jinseo ; ), 'real script.' Other insults such as 'women's script,' 'children's script' and 'farmer's hand' are known anecdotally but are not found in the literature.[7]

Spread

A South Korean road sign which indicates 'no thoroughfare' or 'do not enter' in hangul. As a Sino-Korean phrase, it would have historically been written in hanja as '?.'

Despite the fears of the upper classes and scholarly élite, the introduction of the early hangul actually increased proficiency in literary Chinese. New-style hanja dictionaries appeared, arranging words according to their alphabetic order when spelled out in hangul, and showing compound words containing the hanja as well as its Sino-Korean and its native, sometimes archaic, pronunciation -- a system still in use for many contemporary Korean-language hanja dictionaries. The syllable blocks could be written easily between meaningful units of Chinese characters, as annotations, but also began to replace the complex notation of the early gugyeol and idu, including hyangchal, although gugyeol and idu were not officially abolished until the end of the 19th century in part because literary Chinese was still the official written language of the royal court, nobility, governance and diplomacy until its usage was finally abolished in the early twentieth century and its local production mostly ceased by mid-century.[7]

The real spread of hangul to all elements of Korean society was the late eighteenth century beginning of two literary trends. The ancient sijo (; ), 'seasonal tune,' poetry. Although sijo, heavily influenced by Chinese Tang Dynasty poetry, was long written in Chinese, authors began writing poems in Korean written solely with hangul. At the same time, gasa (; ), 'song lyric,' poetry was similarly spread. Korean women of the upper classes created gasa by translating or finding inspiration in the old poems, written in literary Chinese, and translating them into Korean, but as the name suggests, were popularly sung.[8] Although Catholic and Protestant missionaries initially attempted to evangelise the Korean Peninsula starting with the nobility using Chinese translations and works. In the early nineteenth century, Bishop Siméon-François Berneux, or Jang Gyeong-il (; ) mandated that all publications be written only in hangul and all students in the missionary schools were required to use it. Protestant and other Catholic missionaries followed suit, facilitating the spread of Christianity in Korea, but also created a large corpus of Korean-language material written in hangul only.[9]

Mixed script or Hanja-honyong

The lyrics to the National anthem of the Korean Empire in Korean mixed script. The smaller hangul after each hanja group would normally be unwritten, but are presented to indicate the pronunciation of the Sino-Korean elements.

The practice of mixing hangul into hanja began as early as the introduction of hangul. Even King Sejong's promulgation proclamation was written in literary Chinese and idu passages to explain the alphabet and mixed passages that help 'ease' the reader into the use of the alphabet. The first novel written in hangul, Yongbieocheonga (; ), Songs of the Dragons Flying to Heaven, is actually mostly written in what would now be considered mixed-script writing. Another major literary work touted as a masterpiece of hangul-based literature, the 1590 translation of The Analects of Confucius (; ) by Yi Yulgok (; ) is also written entirely in hanja-honyong.

Although many Koreans today attribute hanja-honyong to the Japanese occupation of Korea, in part due to the visual similarity of Chinese characters interspersed with alphabetic text of Japanese-language texts to Korean-language texts in mixed script, and the numerous assimilation and suppression schemes of the occupational government carried out against the Korean people, language and culture. In fact, hanja-honyong was commonplace amongst the royalty, yangban (; ) and jung-in classes for personal records and informal letters shortly after the introduction of the alphabet, and replaced the routine use of idu by the jung-in. The heyday of hanja-honyong arrived with the Gap-o reforms (; ) passed in 1894 - 1896 after the Donghak Peasant Rebellion (; ). The reforms ended the client status of Korea to the Qing Dynasty emperors, elevating King Gojong to Emperor Gwangmu ( ; ), ended the supremacy of literary Chinese and idu script, ended the gwageo imperial examinations. In place of literary Chinese, the Korean language written in the 'national letters' (; )--now understood as an alternate name for hangul but at the time referred to hanja-honyong--was now the language of governance.[10]

Yu Giljun (; ), author of the hanja-honyong publication Seoyu Gyeonmun (?; ?) or Observations on Travels to the West.

Due to over a thousand years of literary Chinese supremacy, the early hanja-honyong texts were written in a stiff, prosaic style, with a preponderance of Sino-Korean terms barely removed from gugyeol, but the written language was quickly adapted into the current format with a more natural style, using hanja only where a Sino-Korean loan word was read in Sino-Korean pronunciation and hangul for native words and grammatical particles. One of the most important publications the end of the Joseon period was the weekly newspaper, Hanseong Jugang (?; ?), one of the first written in the more natural style several years before the Gap-o reforms. The popular newspaper was originally started as a hanja-only publication that lasted only a few weeks before they switched formats. During the reforms, Yu Giljun (; ) published his travel diaries, Seoyu Gyeonmun (?; ?) or Observations on Travels to the West was a best-seller at this time. The success of Hanseong Jugang and Seoyu Gyeonmun urged the literati to switch to vernacular Korean in hanja-honyong.[11]

Structure

In a typical hanja-honyong texts, traditionally all words that were of Sino-Korean origin, either composed from Chinese character compounds natively or loan words directly from Chinese, were written in hanja although particularly rare or complicated hanja were often disambiguated with the hangul pronunciation and perhaps a gloss of the meaning. Native words, including Korean grammatical postpositions, were written in hangul. Due to the reforms the close of the Joseon Dynasty, native words were not supposed to be written in hanja, as they were in the idu and hyangchal systems which were abolished at this time.

Examples

Korean in hanja-honyong and hangul[12]
Hanja-honyong Hangul Romaja English
? ? ? . ? ? ? ? . Sireopjaga gyesok neureonaseo jeongbuneun daechaegeul maryeonhago itda. As the number of unemployed continues to rise, the government is planning improvements.
? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . Daehan Minguk nong-eobi deo baljeonhal su itdorok dowajuneun yeongu gyeolgwaga gonggaedoe-itda. The research results that may improve Korean agriculture are now public.
1920 . 100 ? . ?? 1920?? . 100?? ? . Joseon Ilboneun 1920(cheongubaegisim)nyeone changgandoe-eotda 100(baeng)nyeoni da doe-eo ganda. Chosun Ilbo was first published in 1920. Almost 100 years have been passed since then.
? ? . ? ? ? ? . Hyuga jung simpye sosaengsullo sarameul sallin byeongsaga hwajega doego itda. The soldier who revived an elderly person with CPR while on vacation became a headline.
? ?. ? ?. Inteonet yemaega jeonhwa yemaeboda pyeonhadeora. Internet reservations are more convenient than telephone reservations.
5:10, 19:53. ? 5:10, ? 19:53. Eoje ilchureun 5:10(daseot-si sip-bun), ilmoreun, 19:53(ilgop-si osipsam-bun)i-eotda. Yesterday, sunrise was at 5:10 and sunset was at 19:53.

Visual processing

In Korean mixed-script writing, especially in formal and academic contexts, the majority of semantic or 'content' words are generally written in hanja whereas most syntax or 'function' is conveyed with grammatical endings, particles and honorifics written in hangul. Japanese, which continues to use a heavily Chinese character-laden orthography, is read in the same way. The Chinese characters, have different angled strokes and oftentimes more strokes than a typical syllable block of hangul letters, and definitely more so than Japanese kana, enabling readers of both respective languages to process content information very quickly.[13]

Korean readers, however, have a few more handicaps than Japanese readers. For instance, although academic, legal, scientific, history and literature have a higher proportion of Sino-Korean vocabulary, Korean has more indigenous vocabulary used for semantic information, so older Korean readers often scan the hanja first and then piece together by reading the hangul content words to piece the meaning.[13] Japanese avoids this problem by writing most content words with their Sino-Japanese equivalent of kanji, whereas reading Sino-Korean vocabulary according to their native Korean pronunciation or translation was banned in previous reforms, so only a Sino-Korean word can be written in hanja. The handicaps are avoided by the adoption of spaces inserted between phrases in modern Korean, limiting phrases, generally, to a content word and a grammatical particles, allowing readers to spot the native Korean content words faster.

In reading texts, Koreans are faster at reading out passages written in hangul than in mixed script. However, although 'reading' is faster, understanding the texts is facilitated with the use of hanja in higher order language to the large number of homophones in the language, such as the continued role of 'hanja disambiguation' even in hangul-only texts. For instance, daehan (), usually understood in the context of the 'Great Han' (, ) or 'Great Korean people,' can also indicate (,) 'big winter,' the coldest part at the end of January and beginning of February, (, ) 'severe drought,' (, ) 'Great Chinese people,' (, ) 'deep resentment,' (, ) 'anti-Korean,' (, ), 'anti-Chinese,' or native Korean () 'about or 'toward.'[14] Readers of technical and academic texts often have to clarify terms for the listener to avoid ambiguity, and most hanja are only used when necessary to clear confusion. As can be seen in the example below, the hanja in an otherwise mostly native vocabulary song stand out from the hangul text, thus appearing almost like bolded and enlarged text. This was further amplified in older texts, when hangul blocks were sometimes written smaller than the surrounding hanja.[13]

First and Third Refrain from Seoul version of the Korean epic song Arirang ()
First Refrain Mixed script ? ??
Hangul only ?
English 'I-[object]' 'to abandon-[serial sentence connector]' 'to go'-[topic] 'you-[topic]' 'ten li (distance)-[additive]' 'to be able to go-[primary conjunctive]' 'to have sore feet-[conjunctive/gerund]'
Translation My love, you are leaving me. Your feet will be SORE before you go TEN LI.
'You are going to abandon me and will not be able to go ten li [before] having sore feet.'
Third Refrain Mixed script ? ?? ?
Hangul only ? ?
English 'that-[nominal clause]' 'that' 'mountain-[nominative]' 'Baekdu Mountain-[plain declarative]-[nominative]-[casual declarative]' 'winter solstice' 'twelfth month-despite-[additive]' 'to bloom' 'to blossom'
Translation There, over there, that MOUNTAIN is BAEKDU MOUNTAIN, where, even in the middle of WINTER DAYS, flowers bloom.
'That one, that is Baekdu Mountain, surely. Despite the [middle of] winter [around the time of the] winter solstice, flowers bloom.'

Hanja disambiguation

Very few hanja are used in modern Korean writing, but are occasionally seen in academic and technical texts and formal publications, such as newspapers, where the rare hanja is used as a shorthand in newspaper headlines, especially if the native Korean equivalent is a longer word, or more importantly, to disambiguate the meaning of a word. Sino-Korean words make up over 70% of the Korean language, although only a third of them are in common usage, but that proportion increases in formal and highbrow publications. A native Korean syllable may have up to 1,300 possible combinations compared to the Sino-Korean inventory of 400. Although Middle Korean developed tones that may have facilitated differentiation of words, this development was lost in the transition to modern Korean, making many words homophones of each other. In Cantonese, whose pronunciation of the characters is similar to the Sino-Korean pronunciation due to its conservative phonology and the ancient age in which these words entered Korean, has several words pronounced /san/: ? 'new', ? 'body', ? 'deity', ? 'difficult' or 'spicy', ? 'large clam', ? 'kidney' and ? 'to lament.' Although even in Cantonese ?, ? and ? are true homophones with the pronunciation of /sân/ with the high tone, each of the other examples are pronounced with a unique tone that distiniguish them from the first three and each other: ? /sa?n/, ? /sàn/ and ? /s?n/. In Korean, the hanja-eo reading of all these characters is /sin/ and in hangul spelling all share ? and no tone to distinguish them.[15]

By the mid-1990s, when even the most conservative newspapers stopped publishing in hanja-honyong, with most ceasing in the 1980s, and switched to a generally all-hangul format, the use of characters to clarify the meaning of a word, 'hanja disambiguation', is still common, in part due to complaints from older subscribers that were educated in the mixed script and were used to using hanja glosses. [16][17] From this 2018 article from the conservative newspaper The Chosun Ilbo, two phrases are disambiguated with hanja[18]:

  • 2003~04 () ?
    ()
    (hangul with hanja disambiguation)
  • 2003~04 () ?
    ()
    (hanja with hangul disambiguation)
  • "The pinnacle years of the 2003-2004 season was a championship victory for the undefeated league. The undefeated championship of that period is still 'roast meat' (praised)."

Although in many instances, context can help discern the meaning, and many of the possible variants are obscure or rare characters that would only be encountered in either classical literature or literary Chinese thus limiting choices. In more relaxed publications, where hanja disambiguation is less common, Sino-Korean terms are avoided as much as possible, although this may appear as "dumbed down" material to some readers.[17] Context can often facilitate the meaning of many terms. Many Sino-Korean terms that are rare and only encountered in ancient texts in literary Chinese are almost unknown and would not even be part of the hanja taught in education, limiting the number of likely choices.[16]

Sino-Korean (, , hanja-eo) homophones

sinji

jonggo

seon-gong

gagi
?
guk

patrol zone

types of ghost

first strike

good season
nuptial consummation
?
bureau
administration

minister

noble ancestry

fan operator

expectation
to pledge
?
country
kingdom

truthfulness

ancient times

shipmate

noble aura
?
chrysanthemum

caution
fearfulness

paternal cousin

throat disease

housemaid
?
to bow

official
court minister

previous times

virtuous success

death anniversary
?
cuckoo

reclaimed land

bell and drum

Ge ware
?
cypress

spring growth
new branches

farm implements
?
hackey-sack

new knowledge
?
malt

tutelary deity
?
grasp

Example

The text below is the preamble to the constitution of the Republic of Korea. The first text is written in Hangul; the second is its mixed script version; and the third is its unofficial English translation.

3·1 ? ? 4·19 ?, ? · , ?, ? ··· , ? ? , ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? 1948? 7? 12 ? 8 ?.

1987? 10? 29?

3·1 ? 4·19 ?, ? · , ?, ? ? ··· , ? ? , ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? 1948? 7? 12 ? 8 ?.

1987? 10? 29?

We, the people of Korea, proud of a resplendent history and traditions dating from time immemorial, upholding the cause of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea born of the March First Independence Movement of 1919 and the democratic ideals of the April Revolution of 1960, having assumed the mission of democratic reform and peaceful unification of our homeland and having determined to consolidate national unity with justice, humanitarianism and brotherly love, and to destroy all social vices and injustice, and to afford equal opportunities to every person and provide for the fullest development of individual capabilities in all fields, including political, economic, social and cultural life by further strengthening the free and democratic basic order conducive to private initiative and public harmony, and to help each person discharge those duties and responsibilities concomitant to freedoms and rights, and to elevate the quality of life for all citizens and contribute to lasting world peace and the common prosperity of mankind and thereby to ensure security, liberty and happiness for ourselves and our posterity forever, do hereby amend, through national referendum following a resolution by the National Assembly, the Constitution, ordained and established on July 12, 1948, and amended eight times subsequently.

October 29, 1987

See also

References

  1. ^ Song, J. (2015). 'Language Policies in North and South Korea' in The Handbook of Korean Linguistics. Brown, L. & Yuen, J. (eds.) (pp. 477-492). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
  2. ^ a b c Taylor, I. & Taylor, M. M. (2014). Writing and Literacy in Chinese, Korean and Japanese: Revised Edition. (pp. 172-174.) Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins North America. https://books.google.com/books?id=qaK2BQAAQBAJ&pg=PA172
  3. ^ Li, Y. (2014). The Chinese Writing System in Asia: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Chapter 10. New York, NY: Routledge Press.
  4. ^ a b Nam, P. (1994). 'On the Relations between Hyangchal and Kwukyel' in The Theoretical Issues in Korean Linguistics. Kim-Renaud, Y. (ed.) (pp. 419-424.) Stanford, CA: Leland Stanford University Press.
  5. ^ a b Hannas, W. C. (1997). Asia's Orthographic Dilemma. O`ahu, HI: University of Hawai`i Press. pp. 55-64.
  6. ^ Lee, I. & Ramsey, S. R. (2003). The Korean Language. (pp. 39-34.) Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  7. ^ a b c Taylor, I. & Taylor, M. M. (1994). pp. 180-182.
  8. ^ Kim, K. (1996). pp. 76-81.
  9. ^ Cho, K. (1984). 'The Meaning of Catholicism in Korean History' in Korean Journal (24, 8) pp. 20-21.
  10. ^ Kim, K. (1996). An Introduction to Classical Korean Literature: From Hyangga to P'ansori. (pp. 211-217). New York, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
  11. ^ Taylor, I. & Taylor, M. M. (1994). pp. 268-270.
  12. ^ Hanja. Wisinet Korean. Retrieved 17 Nov 2019.
  13. ^ a b c Insup, T. (1980). 'The Korean writing system: An alphabet? A syllabary? A logography?' (p. 74-75). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  14. ^ . Naver Hanja Dictionary (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-02-19.L.
  15. ^ Patrick Chun Kau Chu. (2008). Onset, Rhyme and Coda Corresponding Rules of the Sino-Korean Characters between Cantonese and Korean. Paper presented at the 5th Postgraduate Research Forum on Linguistics (PRFL), Hong Kong, China, March 15-16.
  16. ^ a b Taylor, I. (1997). 'Psycholinguistic Reasons for Keeping Chinese Characters in Japanese and Korean' in Cognitive Processing of Chinese and Related Asian Languages. Chen, H. (ed.) (pp. 299-323). Hong Kong, China: University of Hong Kong Press.
  17. ^ a b Taylor, I. & Taylor, M. M. (2014). p. 177.
  18. ^ Choe, U. S. (2018 June [for July]). ' ? 2003~04 ? . ?. (in Korean)

Further reading

  • Lukoff, Fred (1982). "Introduction." A First Reader in Korean Writing in Mixed Script. Seoul: Yonsei University Press.

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