King of Portugal
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King of Portugal

King of Portugal and the Algarves
Brasão de armas do reino de Portugal.svg
SMF Manoel II.jpg
Style His Most Faithful Majesty
First monarchAfonso I
Last monarchManuel II
Formation25 July 1139
Abolition5 October 1910
ResidenceRoyal residences in Portugal
Pretender(s)Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza

The monarchs of Portugal ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution.

Through the nearly 800 years in which Portugal was a monarchy, the kings held various other titles and pretensions. Two kings of Portugal, Ferdinand I and Afonso V, also claimed the crown of Castile. When the house of Habsburg came into power, the kings of Spain, Naples, and Sicily also became kings of Portugal. The house of Braganza brought numerous titles to the Portuguese Crown, including King of Brazil and then de jure Emperor of Brazil.

After the demise of the Portuguese monarchy, in 1910, Portugal almost restored its monarchy in a revolution known as the Monarchy of the North, though the attempted restoration only lasted a month before destruction. With Manuel II's death, the Miguelist branch of the house of Braganza became the pretenders to the throne of Portugal. They have all been acclaimed king of Portugal by their monarchist groups.

The monarchs of Portugal all came from a single ancestor, Afonso I of Portugal, but direct lines have sometimes ended. This has led to a variety of royal houses coming to rule Portugal, though all having Portuguese royal lineage. These houses are:

House of Burgundy (1139-1383)

The Portuguese House of Burgundy, known as the Afonsine Dynasty, was the founding house of the Kingdom of Portugal. Prior to the independence of Portugal, the house ruled the feudal County of Portugal, of the Kingdom of Galicia. When Alphonso I Henriques declared the independence of Portugal, he turned the family from a comital house to a royal house which would rule Portugal for over two centuries. When Ferdinand I died, a succession crisis occurred and Ferdinand's daughter Beatrice of Portugal was proclaimed queen and her husband John I of Castile proclaimed king by the right of his wife. Her legitimacy as a monarch is disputed.[1][2]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Alphonso I
  • The Conqueror; The Great; The Founder
  • Afonso I Henriques
1106/09/11 - 6 December 1185 (aged 73-79)25 July 11396 December 1185previously Count of Portugal, founder of the Kingdom of Portugal
Son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, Countess of Portugal
Sancho I
  • The Populator
  • Sancho I
11 November 1154 - 26 March 1211 (aged 56)6 December 118526 March 1211Son of Alphonso IBurgundy
Alphonso II
  • The Fat
  • Afonso II
23 April 1185 - 25 March 1223 (aged 37)27 March 121125 March 1223Son of Sancho IBurgundy
Sancho II
  • The Pious
  • Sancho II
8 September 1209 - 4 January 1248 (aged 38)26 March 12234 December 1247Son of Alphonso IIBurgundy
Alphonso III
  • The Count of Boulogne
  • Afonso III
5 May 1210 - 16 February 1279 (aged 68)4 January 124816 February 1279Son of Alphonso II
Brother of Sancho II
Denis I
9 October 1261 - 7 January 1325 (aged 63)6 February 12797 January 1325Son of Alphonso IIIBurgundy
Alphonso IV
  • The Brave
  • Afonso IV
8 February 1291 - 28 May 1357 (aged 66)7 January 132528 May 1357Son of Denis IBurgundy
Peter I
8 April 1320 - 18 January 1367 (aged 46)28 May 135718 January 1367Son of Alphonso IVBurgundy
Ferdinand I
31 October 1345 - 22 October 1383 (aged 37)18 January 136722 October 1383Son of Peter IBurgundy

House of Aviz (1385-1580)

The House of Aviz, known as the Joanine Dynasty, succeeded the House of Burgundy as the reigning house of the Kingdom of Portugal. The house was founded by John I of Portugal, who was the Grand Master of the Order of Aviz. When King John II of Portugal died without an heir, the throne of Portugal passed to his cousin, Manuel, Duke of Beja. When King Sebastian of Portugal died, the throne passed to his uncle, Henry of Portugal (he might be called Henry II because Henry, Count of Portugal, father of Alphonso I of Portugal, was the first of that name to rule Portugal). When Henry died, a succession crisis occurred and António, Prior of Crato, was proclaimed António of Portugal.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
John I
  • Of Good Memory; The Good; The Great; The Bastard
  • Portuguese: João I
11 April 1358 - 14 August 1433 (aged 75)6 April 138514 August 1433Illegitimate son of Peter IAviz
  • The Philosopher-King; The Eloquent
  • Portuguese: Duarte I
31 October 1391 - 9 September 1438 (aged 46)14 August 14339 September 1438Son of John IAviz
Alphonso V
  • The African
  • Afonso V
15 January 1432 - 28 August 1481 (aged 49)13 September 1438
15 November 1477
11 November 1477
28 August 1481
Son of Edward IAviz
John II
3 March 1455 - 25 October 1495 (aged 40)11 November 1477
28 August 1481
15 November 1477
25 October 1495
Son of Alphonso VAviz
Emmanuel I
  • The Fortunate
  • Manuel I
31 May 1469 - 13 December 1521 (aged 52)25 October 149513 December 1521Cousin of John II
Grandson of Edward I
John III
7 June 1502 - 11 June 1557 (aged 55)13 December 152111 June 1557Son of Emmanuel IAviz
  • The Desired; The Asleep; The Hidden
  • Portuguese: Sebastião
20 January 1554 - 4 August 1578 (aged 24)11 June 15574 August 1578Grandson of John IIIAviz
Henry (II)
  • The Cardinal-King; The Chaste
  • Portuguese: Henrique (II)
31 January 1512 - 31 January 1580 (aged 68)4 August 157831 January 1580Son of Emmanuel I
Great-uncle of Sebastian
1531 - 28 August 1595 (aged 64)(Disputed) 24 July 1580(Disputed) 1583Grandson of Emmanuel IAviz

House of Habsburg (1581-1640)

The House of Habsburg, known as the Philippine Dynasty, is the house that ruled Portugal from 1581 to 1640. The dynasty began with the acclamation of Philip II of Spain as Philip I of Portugal in 1580, officially recognized in 1581 by the Portuguese Cortes of Tomar. Philip I swore to rule Portugal as a kingdom separate from his Spanish domains, under the personal union known as the Iberian Union.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Philip I
21 May 1527 - 13 September 1598 (aged 71)17 April 158113 September 1598Grandson of Emmanuel IHabsburgKing Philip I
Philip II
14 April 1578 - 31 March 1621 (aged 42)13 September 159831 March 1621Son of Philip IHabsburgKing Philip II
Philip III
8 April 1605 - 17 September 1665 (aged 60)31 March 16211 December 1640Son of Philip IIHabsburgKing Philip II

House of Braganza (1640-1910)

The House of Braganza, also known as the Brigantine Dynasty, came to power in 1640, when John II, Duke of Braganza, claimed to be the rightful heir of the defunct House of Aviz, as he was the great great grandson of King Manuel I. John was proclaimed King John IV, and he deposed the House of Habsburg in the Portuguese Restoration War.

The descendants of Queen Maria II and her consort, King Ferdinand II (a German prince of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha), came to rule in 1853. Portuguese law and custom treated them as members of the House of Braganza, though they were still Saxe-Coburg and Gotha dynasts. This has led some to classify these last four monarchs of Portugal as members of a new royal family, called the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, though this view is not widely held.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
John IV
18 March 1603 - 6 November 1656 (aged 53)1 December 16406 November 1656Great-great-grandson of Emmanuel IBraganza
Alphonso VI
  • The Victorious
  • Afonso VI
21 August 1643 - 12 September 1683 (aged 40)6 November 165612 September 1683Son of John IVBraganza
Peter II
26 April 1648 - 9 December 1706 (aged 58)6 November 16839 December 1706Son of John IV
Brother of Afonso VI
John V
22 October 1689 - 31 July 1750 (aged 60)9 December 170631 July 1750Son of Peter IIBraganza
Joseph I
6 June 1714 - 24 February 1777 (age 62)31 July 175024 February 1777Son of John VBraganza
Mary I
(1734-12-17)17 December 1734 - 20 March 1816(1816-03-20) (aged 81)24 February 177720 March 1816Daughter of Joseph IBraganza
Peter III
  • The Builder; The Sacristan; The Enabler
  • Portuguese: Pedro III
(1717-07-05)5 July 1717 - 25 May 1786(1786-05-25) (aged 68)24 February 177725 May 1786Husband of Mary I
Son of John V
jure uxoris king
John VI
13 May 1767 - 10 March 1826 (aged 58)20 March 181610 March 1826Son of Mary I and Peter IIIBraganza
Peter IV
12 October 1798 - 24 September 1834 (aged 35)10 March 18262 May 1826Son of John VIBraganza
Mary II
  • The Educator; The Good Mother
  • Portuguese: Maria II
4 April 1819 - 15 November 1853 (aged 34)2 May 1826
26 May 1834
23 June 1828
15 November 1853
Daughter of Peter IVBraganza
Michael I
26 October 1802 - 14 November 1866 (aged 64)26 February 18286 May 1834Son of John VIBraganza
Ferdinand II
29 October 1816 - 15 December 1885 (aged 69)16 September 183715 November 1853Husband of Mary II
jure uxoris king
Peter V
16 September 1837 - 11 November 1861 (aged 24)15 November 185311 November 1861Son of Mary II and Ferdinand IIBraganza[3]
Louis I
31 October 1838 - 19 October 1889 (aged 50)11 November 186119 October 1889Son of Mary II and Ferdinand IIBraganza[3]
Charles I
28 September 1863 - 1 February 1908 (aged 44)19 October 18891 February 1908Son of Louis IBraganza[3]
Emmanuel II
  • The Sorrowful; The Unfortunate; The Patriot
  • Portuguese: Manuel II
15 November 1889 - 2 July 1932 (aged 42)1 February 19085 October 1910Son of Charles I
Last King of Portugal.

Line of succession

See also


  1. ^ David Williamson, «Debrett's Kings and Queens of Europe»,1988,Webb & Bower, Exeter, ISBN 0-86350-194-X; César Olivera Serrano, «Beatriz de Portugal»
  2. ^ García de Cortázar, Fernando (1999), Breve historia de España, Alianza Editorial, page 712; Armindo de Sousa, in História de Portugal coordinated by José Mattoso, Editorial Estampa, vol. II, ISBN 972-33-0919-X, pages 494/95
  3. ^ a b c d Also referred as the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. "While remaining patrilineal dynasts of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha according to pp. 88, 116 of the 1944 Almanach de Gotha, Title 1, Chapter 1, Article 5 of the 1838 Portuguese constitution declared, with respect to Ferdinand II of Portugal's issue by his first wife, that 'the Most Serene House of Braganza is the reigning house of Portugal and continues through the Person of the Lady Queen Maria II'. Thus their mutual descendants constitute the Coburg line of the House of Braganza"
  4. ^ Some historians consider that Manuel II was preceded by his elder brother Luís Filipe, not by his father Carlos. In fact, while king Carlos died instantly under the bullets of the anarchists on 1 February 1908, his son Luís Filipe, the crown prince, survived for a few hours, enough to allow governmental officials to name him king. This act is, however, usually considered as historically irrelevant, given that the crown prince never recovered from his coma. His younger brother Manuel (who was also injured, though not seriously) is therefore considered to have been the direct successor of the murdered king Carlos I.


  • Sousa, D. António Caetano de (1946) [1735-49]. História Genealógica da Casa Real Portuguesa (in Portuguese). Coimbra: Atlântida-Livraria Eds. OCLC 20210378.
  • Ji?í Louda & Michael Maclagan (1981), "Portugal", in Lines of Succession. Heraldry of the Royal families of Europe, London, Orbis Publishing, pp. 228-237. ISBN 0-85613-672-7. (revised and updated edition by Prentice Hall College Div - November 1991. ISBN 0-02-897255-4.)
  • Luís Amaral & Marcos Soromenho Santos (2002), Costados do Duque de Bragança, Lisboa, Guarda-Mor Edições.
  • Afonso Eduardo Martins Zuquete (dir.)(1989), Nobreza de Portugal e Brasil, vol. I, Lisboa, Editorial Enciclopédia.
  • Imhof, Jacob Wilhelm (1708). Stemma Regum lusitanicum sive Historia genealogica Familiae Regiae Portugallicae. Amsterdam. (reprint)

External links

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