Khorasani Turkish
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Khorasani Turkish
Khorasani Turkic
?
Pronunciation[xor?s?n tyrkt?esi]
Native toIran
RegionGreater Khorasan
Native speakers
400,000[1]
886,000 (2014)[2]
over 1,000,000[3]
Turkic
Persian alphabet
Language codes
kmz
Glottologkhor1269
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Khorasani Turkic (Khorasani Turkic: ?, pronounced [xor?s?n tyrkt?esi]; Persian: ? ? ?‎, romanizedZabân-e Tork?-ye Xorâsân?) is an Oghuz Turkic language spoken in the North Khorasan Province and the Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran. Nearly all Khorasani Turkic speakers are also bilingual in Persian.[4]

Geographic distribution

Turkic peoples of the North Khorasan region (North Khorasan and Razavi Khorasan provinces of Iran); excluding Turkic peoples inhabiting Western and Southern counties of Khorasan region (Nishapur County, Sabzevar County, etc.)

Khorasani Turkic is spoken in the Iranian provinces of North Khorasan near Bojnord and Razavi Khorasan near Sabzevar, Quchan. The Oghuz dialect spoken in Western Uzbekistan is sometimes considered a dialect of Khorasani Turkic.

Dialects

Khorasani Turkic is split into North, South and West dialects. The northern dialect is spoken in North Khorasan near Quchan; the southern in Soltanabad, near Sabzevar; the western, around Bojnord.

Classification and related languages

Khorasani Turkic belongs to the Oghuz group of Turkic languages, which also includes Turkish, Azerbaijani, Gagauz, Balkan Gagauz Turkish, Turkmen and Salar, as well as the Oghuz dialect spoken in Uzbekistan. Khorasani Turkic is most closely related to Oghuz Uzbek and Turkmen and is close to the Azerbaijani dialects spoken in Iran.[clarification needed]

Khorasani Turkic was first classified as a separate dialect by Iranian Azerbaijani linguist Javad Heyat in the book Tarikh-e zab?n o lahcay?-ye Türki (History of the Turkic dialects).[5] According to some linguists, it should be considered intermediate linguistically between Azerbaijani and Turkmen, although it is sufficiently distinct not to be considered a dialect of either.[6]

Consonants

Consonant phonemes
  Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive p b t d     k ? q      
Affricate         t d            
Fricative f v s z ? ? x ?     h  
Nasal m n ? ?        
Flap     r                
Lateral     l                
Approximant         j            

Vowels

Vowels
Front Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
Close i y ? u
Mid e ø o
Open æ ? ?

The open back vowel is rounded when followed by /u/ or /i/: muxabbat love /mux?bb?t/, insan human /ins?n/, but yolda?l?k friendship /joldl?k/. It can also be rounded by a following long /o/. This may not happen for all speakers, and plurals never have any rounding.

Morphology

Nouns

Pluralization

Pluralization is marked on nouns with the suffix /-lar/, which has the two forms /-lar/ and /-lær/, depending on vowel harmony. Plural /?/ is never rounded, even when it follows /u/ or /i/.

Case

Nouns in Khorasani Turkic take a number of case endings that change based on vowel harmony and whether they follow a vowel or a consonant:

Case After Vowels After Consonants
Nominative No Ending
Genitive ni?/nin i?/in
Dative ja/jæ a/æ
Accusative ni/n? i/?
Locative da/dæ
Ablative dan/dæn
Instrumental nan/næn

Possession

Possession is marked with a suffix on the possessed noun.

Singular Plural
First Person (I)m (I)mIz
Second Person (I)? (I)?Iz
Third Person (s)I lArI

Pronouns

Khorasani Turkic has six personal pronouns. Occasionally, personal pronouns take different case endings from regular nouns.

Singular Plural
First Person mæn b?z
Second Person sæn siz
Third Person o olar

Verbs

Verbs are declined for tense, aspect, mood, person, and number. The infinitive form of the verb ends in -max.

Examples

Excerpt from Tulu (1989) p. 90
Translation IPA In Latin Alphabet Arabic script (Iran)
Thus, there was a padishah named Ziyad. ?l ssa bir ziyæ:d pæ:di?æ:hi: bæ:d? Al ?ässa bir ziüäd pädi?ähi bär?d? . ? ?
Almighty God had given him no son. xod?:?ændi æ:læm ona hit ul ata: elæm?mi?di Xodavändi äläm ona hiç o?ul ata elämami?di. . ?
There he spoke to his vizier: "O Vizier, I have no son. What shall I do about it?" bæ:dæn vazi:?æ d?di, ej vazi:?, mændæ ki ul joxd?, mæn næ ta:?æ eylem Bädän vazirä dädi: "Ey vazir, mändä ki o?ul yoxd?. Män nä çarä eylem?" ?: « , ? . ? »?
The vizier said: "Ruler of the whole world, what will you do with this possession?" vazi:? d?di, p?:di?a:-i blæ-ji ?:læm, sæn bu m?:l?-æmw?:l? næjlijæsæn Vazir dädi: "Padi?ai q?bläyi aläm, sän bu mal?ämval? näyliyäsän?" ?: «? , »?

References

  1. ^ The Turkic Languages, By Lars Johanson, Éva Ágnes Csató Johanson, page 13, Routledge, 2015
  2. ^ Ethnologue - Khorasani Turkish - (2014 J. Leclerc)
  3. ^ "TURKIC LANGUAGES OF PERSIA: AN OVERVIEW". 1993. ?or?s?ni (Khorasani Turkish). Khorasani Turkish is spoken by more than one million people in the northeast of Persia (in the province of Khorasan) and in the neighboring regions of Turkmenistan up to beyond the Amu Darya River
  4. ^ "Ethnologue report for Khorasani Turkic"
  5. ^ [1] Horasan Türkçesi ne ?lgili Folklor Çalmalar?
  6. ^ "Sultan Tulu, "Horasan Türkçesi ile ?lgili Folklor Çalmalar?", Atatürk Üniversitesi Türkiyat Ara?t?rmalar? Enstitüsü Dergisi, Say? 1, 1994, s. 48-51". Archived from the original on 2013-03-16. Retrieved .

Tulu, Sultan (1989). Chorasantürkische Materialien aus Kal?t bei Esfar?yen. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag. ISBN 3-922968-88-0.

Doerfer, Gerhard; Hesche, Wolfram (1993). Chorasantürkisch: Wörterlisten, Kurzgrammatiken, Indices. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-03320-7.

External links


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