Kemerovo Oblast
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Kemerovo Oblast
Kemerovo Oblast
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Coat of arms of Kemerovo Oblast
Coat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of Kemerovo Oblast[3]
Kemerovo in Russia.svg
Coordinates: 54°56?N 87°14?E / 54.933°N 87.233°E / 54.933; 87.233Coordinates: 54°56?N 87°14?E / 54.933°N 87.233°E / 54.933; 87.233
CountryRussia
Federal districtSiberian[1]
Economic regionWest Siberian[2]
EstablishedJanuary 26, 1943[4]
Administrative centerKemerovo
Government
 o BodyCouncil of People's Deputies[5]
 o Governor[5]Sergey Tsivilyov (acting)[6]
Area
 o Total95,500 km2 (36,900 sq mi)
Area rank34th
Population
(2010 Census)[8]
 o Total2,763,135
 o Estimate 
(2018)[9]
2,694,877 (-2.5%)
 o Rank15th
 o Density29/km2 (75/sq mi)
 o Urban
85.4%
 o Rural
14.6%
Time zoneUTC+7 (MSK+4 Edit this on Wikidata[10])
ISO 3166 codeRU-KEM
License plates42
OKTMO ID32000000
Official languagesRussian[11]
Websitehttp://www.ako.ru

Kemerovo Oblast (Russian: , Kemerovskaya oblast, pronounced ['k?emr?fsk?j? 'obl?s?t?]), also known as Kuzbass () after the Kuznetsk Basin, is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in southwestern Siberia, where the West Siberian Plain meets the South Siberian Mountains. The oblast, which covers an area of 95,500 square kilometers (36,900 sq mi),[7] shares a border with Tomsk Oblast in the north, Krasnoyarsk Krai and the Republic of Khakassia in the east, the Altai Republic in the south, and with Novosibirsk Oblast and Altai Krai in the west. Kemerovo is the administrative center of the oblast, though Novokuznetsk is the largest city in the oblast, in terms of size. Kemerovo Oblast is one of Russia's most urbanized regions, with over 70% of the population living in its nine principal cities. Its ethnic composition is predominantly Russian, but Ukrainians, Tatars, and Chuvash also live in the oblast. The population recorded during the 2010 Census was 2,763,135.[8]

History

The oblast was established on January 26, 1943,[4] but it has considerably older antecedents. Shors, Teleuts and Siberian Tatars are native peoples of the region. The oldest city in Kemerovo Oblast is Novokuznetsk, founded in 1618, soon after Cossack ataman Yermak's push into Siberia.

The territory of modern Kemerovo Oblast has been inhabited for several thousand years. In 1618, Kuznetsk fort was established in the south of the future oblast to protect the land from Russian and Mongolian Dzhungarian invaders. During the 19th century, the territory of the modern oblast was a part of Tomsk Governorate.

Soviet period

After the October Revolution of 1917, Kuzbass experienced significant strife as part of the Russian Civil War. A major peasant rebellion took place in the region in early 1921, but was suppressed by the Red Army.[12] In 1930, Kuzbass became part of the West Siberian Krai, and then the Novosibirsk Oblast. Post revolutionary period was characterized by the transition to a planned economy, the creation of the Ural-Kuzbass industrial complex development of the coal, metallurgical and chemical industries Kuzbass Kemerovo Coke built, Kuznetsk Metallurgical Combine, a lot of new mines. Industrial enterprises are being built near the workers' settlements, which quickly became a city: Kiselevsk Osinniki Krasnobrodsky, Tashtagol Kaltan Mezhdurechensk and others.

During the Great Patriotic War, Kemerovo region became a major supplier of coal and metal. From Novokuznetsk steel produced over 50,000 tanks and 45,000 aircraft. In Kuzbass from the occupied areas were evacuated equipment 71 enterprises, most of which have remained in the Kuzbass.

In January 26, 1943, the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet issued a decree, decided to allocate from the Novosibirsk Oblast of Kuzbass and the establishment on its territory of Kemerovo region with administrative center in the city of Kemerovo. In the new Oblast included 17.5% of the Novosibirsk region, 9 of the 12 cities of regional subordination, 17 of the 20 workers' settlements, 23 of the 75 districts. The population of the Kemerovo Oblast was 42% of the total population of the Novosibirsk Oblast.

Administrative divisions

Climate

The climate of the oblast is continental: winters are cold and long, summers are warm, but short. The average January temperature ranges from -17 to -20 °C (1 to -4 °F), the average in July is 17 to 18 °C (63 to 64 °F). Average annual precipitation ranges from 300 millimeters (12 in) on the plains and the foothills of up to 1,000 millimeters (39 in) or more in mountainous areas. The duration of the frost-free period is 100 days in the north area, and up to 120 days in the south of the Kuznetsk Basin.

Economy

Kemerovo Oblast is one of Russia's most important industrial regions, with some of the world's largest deposits of coal. The south of the region is dominated by metallurgy and the mining industry, as well as mechanical engineering and chemical production. The Evraz Group and an ore subsidiary Evrazruda operate iron ore mining and processing facilities along with the Raspadskaya, Yuzhkuzbassugol, the Siberian holding company SIBPLAZ, coal and coking coal mines there. The northern area of the region is more agricultural. The region has a dense railway network, including the Trans-Siberian Railway, which passes through the oblast. Prokopevsk, Kiselevsk, and Andzhero-Sudzhensk are coal-producing centers, and Novokuznetsk is the center of the engineering industry.

Politics

Building of the Oblast Government

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Kemerovo CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Kemerovo Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Kemerovo Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

Honors

A minor planet 2140 Kemerovo discovered in 1970 by Soviet astronomer Tamara Mikhailovna Smirnova is named after Kemerovo Oblast.[13]

Demographics

Population: ;[8];[14].[15]

Settlements

Vital statistics for 2012
  • Births: 37 624 (13.7 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 41 417 (15.1 per 1000) [16]
  • Total fertility rate:[17]

2009 - 1.67 | 2010 - 1.62 | 2011 - 1.59 | 2012 - 1.76 | 2013 - 1.79 | 2014 - 1.78 | 2015 - 1.71(e)

Ethnic composition (2010):[8]

  • Russians - 93.7%
  • Tatars - 1.5%
  • Ukrainians - 0.8%
  • Germans - 0.9%
  • others - 1.5%
  • 55,899 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[18]

Religion

Religion in Kemerovo Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[19][20]
Russian Orthodoxy
34.1%
Other Orthodox
1%
Other Christians
7.7%
Islam
1%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
2.6%
Spiritual but not religious
30.5%
Atheism and irreligion
16.9%
Other and undeclared
6.2%

As of a 2012 survey[19] 34.1% of the population of Kemerovo Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 7% declares to be nondenominational Christian (excluding the Protestant churches), 3% are members of Rodnovery, the Slavic folk religion, 1% are either believers of Orthodox Christianity not belonging to any church or members of other (non-Russian) Orthodox churches, 1% are Muslims, 5.9% are followers of other religion or people who did not give an answer to the survey. In addition, 31% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 17% to be atheist.[19]

References

Notes

  1. ^ ? . ? No849  13 2000 ?. «? ? ? ? ? ». ? ? ? 13 2000 ?. : " ? ", No. 20, . 2112, 15 2000 ?. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ ? . No 024-95 27 ? 1995 ?. « ? ? . 2. ? », ? . No5/2001 ?. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Official website of the Council of People's Deputies of Kemerovo Oblast. Anthem of Kemerovo Oblast (in Russian)
  4. ^ a b Charter of Kemerovo Oblast, Article 2
  5. ^ a b Charter of Kemerovo Oblast, Article 9
  6. ^ RBC ? (in Russian)
  7. ^ a b ? (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "?, ?, ? ? ? ? ? (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". ? 2002 ? (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011.
  8. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "? 2010 ?.  1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. ? 2010 ? [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  9. ^ "26. ? ? 1 2018 ?". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2019.
  10. ^ " ? ?". - ? (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved 2019.
  11. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  12. ^ "Common Grave of Red Army Soldiers". Kemerovo Oblast. Retrieved 2019.
  13. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 173. ISBN 3-540-00238-3.
  14. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). " , ? ? ? ?, ?, , ? ? - ? ? ? ? ? ? 3  ? ?" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities--Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). ? 2002 ? [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  15. ^ "? 1989 ?. ? ? ? , ? ? ?, , , ?, ? -?" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. ? 1989 ? [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). ? ? : [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  16. ^ ? ? ? . Gks.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  17. ^ ? ?:: ?. Gks.ru (2010-05-08). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  18. ^ -2010 ? . Perepis-2010.ru (2011-12-19). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  19. ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  20. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", No 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.

Sources

  • ?. No10- 5 ? 1997 ?. « ?», ? . No65-  8 ? 2015 ?. «? ? ?». ? ? ?  10 ? ?. : "?", No102, 11 ? 1997 ?. (Legislative Assembly of Kemerovo Oblast. #10-OZ June 5, 1997 Charter of Kemerovo Oblast, as amended by the Law #65-OZ of July 8, 2015 On Amending the Charter of Kemerovo Oblast. Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication.).

See also


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Kemerovo_Oblast
 



 



 
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