Kazakh Language
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Kazakh Language

? or ?
?‎ or
qazaq?a or qazaq t?l?
[q?'z?q t?'l?]
Native toKazakhstan, China, Mongolia, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan
RegionCentral Asia
Native speakers
13.2 million (2009)[1]
Kazakh alphabets (Latin script, Cyrillic script, Arabic script, Kazakh Braille)
Official status
Official language in


Regulated byMinistry of Culture and Sports
Language codes
Idioma kazajo.png
The Kazakh-speaking world:
  regions where Kazakh is the language of the majority
  regions where Kazakh is the language of a significant minority
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
A Kazakh speaker, recorded in Taiwan
A Kazakh speaker, recorded in Kazakhstan

Kazakh or Qazaq (Latin: qazaq?a or qazaq t?l?, Cyrillic: ? or ?, Arabic: ?‎ or ‎, pronounced [q?z?q'], [q?'z?q t?'l?]), is a Turkic language of the Kipchak branch spoken in Central Asia. It is closely related to Nogai, Kyrgyz and Karakalpak. Kazakh is the official language of Kazakhstan and a significant minority language in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang, China and in the Bayan-Ölgii Province of Mongolia. Kazakh is also spoken by many ethnic Kazakhs throughout the former Soviet Union (some 472,000 in Russia according to the 2010 Russian Census), Germany, and Turkey.

Like other Turkic languages, Kazakh is an agglutinative language and employs vowel harmony.

In October 2017, Kazakh president Nursultan Nazarbayev decreed that the writing system would change from using Cyrillic to Latin script by 2025. The proposed Latin alphabet has been revised several times and as of January 2021 is close to the inventory of the Turkish alphabet, though lacking the letters C and Ç and having four additional letters: Ä, Ñ, Q and ? (though other letters such as Y have different values in the two languages). It is scheduled to be phased in from 2023 to 2031.

Geographic distribution

Speakers of Kazakh (mainly Kazakhs) are spread over a vast territory from the Tian Shan to the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Kazakh is the official state language of Kazakhstan, with nearly 10 million speakers (based on information from the CIA World Factbook[3] on population and proportion of Kazakh speakers).[4]

In China, nearly two million ethnic Kazakhs and Kazakh speakers reside in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang.[5]

Writing system

Kazakh Arabic and Latin script in 1924

The oldest known written records of languages closely related to Kazakh were written in the Old Turkic alphabet, though it is not believed that any of these varieties were direct predecessors of Kazakh.[6] Modern Kazakh, going back approximately one thousand years, was written in the Arabic script until 1929, when Soviet authorities introduced a Latin-based alphabet, and then a Cyrillic alphabet in 1940.[7]

Nazarbayev first brought up the topic of using the Latin alphabet instead of the Cyrillic alphabet as the official script for Kazakh in Kazakhstan in October 2006.[8][9] A Kazakh government study released in September 2007 said that a switch to a Latin script over a 10- to 12-year period was feasible, at a cost of $300 million.[10] The transition was halted temporarily on 13 December 2007, with President Nazarbayev declaring: "For 70 years the Kazakhstanis read and wrote in Cyrillic. More than 100 nationalities live in our state. Thus we need stability and peace. We should be in no hurry in the issue of alphabet transformation."[11] However, on 30 January 2015, the Minister of Culture and Sports Arystanbek Muhamediuly announced that a transition plan was underway, with specialists working on the orthography to accommodate the phonological aspects of the language.[12] In presenting this strategic plan in April 2017, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev described the twentieth century as a period in which the "Kazakh language and culture have been devastated".[7]

Nazarbayev ordered Kazakh authorities to create a Latin Kazakh alphabet by the end of 2017, so written Kazakh could return to a Latin script starting in 2018.[13][14] As of 2018, Kazakh is written in Cyrillic in Kazakhstan and Mongolia, Kazakh is written in Latin in Kazakhstan, while more than one million Kazakh speakers in China use an Arabic-derived alphabet similar to the one that is used to write Uyghur.[6]

On 26 October 2017, Nazarbayev issued Presidential Decree 569 for the change to a finalized Latin variant of the Kazakh alphabet and ordered that the government's transition to this alphabet be completed by 2025,[15][16] a decision taken to emphasise Kazakh culture after the era of Soviet rule[17] and to facilitate the use of digital devices.[18] However, the initial decision to use a novel orthography employing apostrophes, which make the use of many popular tools for searching and writing text difficult, generated controversy.[19]

Therefore, on 19 February 2018, the Presidential Decree 637 was issued in which the use of apostrophes was discontinued and replaced with the use of diacritics and digraphs.[20][21] However, many citizens state that the officially introduced alphabet needs further improvements. Moreover, Kazakh became the second Turkic language to use the "ch" and "sh" digraphs after the Uzbek government adapted them in their version of the Latin alphabet.

In 2020, the President of Kazakhstan Kassym-Jomart Tokayev called for another revision of the Latin alphabet with a focus on preserving the original sounds and pronunciation of the Kazakh language.[22][23] This revision, presented to the public in November 2019 by academics from the Baitursynov Institute of Linguistics, and specialists belonging to the official working group on script transition, uses umlauts, breves and cedillas instead of digraphs and acute accents, and introduces spelling changes in order to reflect more accurately the phonology of Kazakh.[24] This revision is a slightly modified version of the Turkish alphabet, dropping the letters C Ç and having four additional letters that do not exist in Turkish: Ä, Q, Ñ and ?.

Comparison using article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Cyrillic Arabic 2021 Latin English translation
? ? ? -? ? . ? ? ? -? ? . - Barlyq adamdar tumysynan azat jäne qad?r-qasiet? men q?qyqtary teñ bolyp düniege keled?. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
?-?, - , ? - ? Adamdar?a aqyl-parasat, ar-ojdan ber?lgen, They are endowed with reason and conscience
? -? ?, -? ?. ? ?-? -? . sondyqtan olar b?r-b?r?men tuystyq, bauyrmaldyq qarym-qatynas jasaulary ti?s. and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.


Kazakh exhibits tongue-root vowel harmony, with some words of recent foreign origin (usually of Russian or Arabic origin) as exceptions. There is also a system of rounding harmony which resembles that of Kyrgyz, but which does not apply as strongly and is not reflected in the orthography. This system only applies to the open vowels /e/, /?/, /?/ and not /?/, and happens in the next syllables.[25] Thus, (in Latin script) j?ldyz 'star', büg?n 'today', and ülken 'big' are actually pronounced as j?ld?z, bügün, ülkön.


The following chart depicts the consonant inventory of standard Kazakh;[26] many of the sounds, however, are allophones of other sounds or appear only in recent loan-words. The 18 consonant phonemes listed by Vajda are without parentheses--since these are phonemes, their listed place and manner of articulation are very general, and will vary from what is shown. The phonemes /f, v, x, t, t?s/ only occur in recent borrowings, mostly from Russian (/t?s/ rarely appears in normal speech). Kazakh has 17 native consonant phonemes; these are the stops /p, b, t, d, k, g/, fricatives /s, z, ?, ?/, nasals /m, n, ?/, liquids /r, l/, and two glides /w, j/.[27]

In the table, the elements top of a divide are voiceless, while those to the bottom are voiced.

Kazakh consonant phonemes[28]
Labials Alveolar (Alveolo-)
Velar Uvular
Nasal m ⟨?/m⟩ n ⟨?/n⟩ ? ⟨?/ñ⟩
voiceless p ⟨?/p⟩ t ⟨?/t⟩ t ⟨?/ç⟩ k ⟨?/k⟩ q ⟨?/q⟩
voiced b ⟨?/b⟩ d ⟨?/d⟩ ? ⟨?/g⟩
Fricative voiceless f ⟨?/f⟩ s ⟨?/s⟩ ? ⟨?/?⟩ ? ⟨?/h⟩
voiced v ⟨?/v⟩ z ⟨?/z⟩ ? ⟨?/j⟩ ? ⟨?/?⟩
Approximant l ⟨?/l⟩ j ⟨?/i⟩ w ⟨?/u⟩
Rhotic ? ⟨?/r⟩

The following can be argued not to be distinct phonemes, due to their distribution in front versus back vowel contexts (however, [q] and [?] are used to be phonemic in its orthography as and ):[29]

Front Back
/k/ [q]
/?/ [?]
/l/ [?]
/?/ [?]

In addition, /q/, /?/, and /b/ are lenited intervocalically (between vowels) to [?], [?], and [?].[] In loanwords, voiced stops syllable-finally become devoiced.[25]

  • These consonants, given in IPA above, demonstrate certain changes from their Turkic counterparts, changes that are in general principled. Four such patterns are immediately recognizable: (i) Turkic /t/ corresponds to Kazakh /?/, e.g. /qat/ to /qa?/ 'run away'; (ii) Turkic /?/ in turn corresponds to Kazakh /s/ in final position, e.g. /ty?/ to /tys/ 'fall down'; (iii) Turkic /j/ corresponds to /?/ in initial position, e.g. /jaz/ to /?az/ 'write' (a change that first led to /j/ to /d/ before resulting in /d/ to /?/, but stayed as /d/ in some dialects, such as in the south and east, e.g. /daz/, Jankowski 2010); and, (iv) Turkic /?/ corresponds to Kazakh /w/ in final position /a?/ to /aw/ 'net' (see also Krueger 1980, Johanson 2009).[27]


Kazakh has a system of 12 phonemic vowels, 3 of which are diphthongs. The rounding contrast and /æ/ generally only occur as phonemes in the first syllable of a word, but do occur later allophonically; see the section on harmony below for more information. Moreover, the /æ/ sound has been included artificially due to the influence of Arabic, Persian and, later, Tatar languages during the Islamic period.[30] The mid vowels "e, ?, ?" are diphthongised with onsets [j, w, w].[28]

According to Vajda, the front/back quality of vowels is actually one of neutral versus retracted tongue root.[28]

Phonetic values are paired with the corresponding character in Kazakh's Cyrillic and current Latin alphabets.

Kazakh vowel phonemes
(Advanced tongue root)
(Relaxed tongue root)
(Retracted tongue root)
Close ⟨?/?⟩ ? ⟨?/ü⟩ o? ⟨?/?⟩
Diphthong je? ⟨?/e⟩ ?j ⟨?/i⟩ ?w ⟨?/u⟩
Mid e ⟨?/e⟩ ? ⟨?/y⟩ o? ⟨?/o⟩
Open æ? ⟨?/ä⟩ ? ⟨?/ö⟩ ⟨?/a⟩
Kazakh vowels by their pronunciation
Front and central Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close ⟨?/i⟩ ⟨?/ü⟩ ? ⟨?/y⟩ ⟨?/?⟩
Open e ⟨?/e⟩ / æ ⟨?/ä⟩ ? ⟨?/ö⟩ ⟨?/a⟩ o? ⟨?/o⟩

Morphology and syntax

Kazakh is generally verb-final, though various permutations on SOV (subject-object-verb) word order can be used, for example, due to topicalization.[31] Inflectional and derivational morphology, both verbal and nominal, in Kazakh, exists almost exclusively in the form of agglutinative suffixes. Kazakh is a nominative-accusative, head-final, left-branching, dependent-marking language.[6]

Declension of nouns[6]
Case Morpheme Possible forms keme "ship" aua "air" ?elek "bucket" säb?z "carrot" bas "head" t?z "salt"
Nom -- -- keme aua ?elek säb?z bas t?z
Acc -ny -n?, -ny, -d?, -dy, -t?, -ty kemen? auany ?elekt? säb?zd? basty t?zdy
Gen -nyñ -n?ñ, -nyñ, -d?ñ, -dyñ, -t?ñ, -tyñ kemen?ñ auanyñ ?elekt?ñ säb?zd?ñ bastyñ t?zdyñ
Dat -ga -ge, -?a, -ke, -qa, -ne, -na kemege aua?a ?elekke säb?zge basqa t?z?a
Loc -da -de, -da, -te, -ta kemede auada ?elekte säb?zde basta t?zda
Abl -dan -den, -dan, -ten, -tan, -nen, -nan kemeden auadan ?elekten säb?zden bastan t?zdan
Inst -men -men(en), -ben(en), -pen(en) kememen auamen ?elekpen säb?zben baspen t?zben


There are eight personal pronouns in Kazakh:

Personal pronouns[6]
Singular Plural
1st person Men B?z
2nd person informal Sen Sender
formal S?z S?zder
3rd person Ol Olar

The declension of the pronouns is outlined in the following chart. Singular pronouns exhibit irregularities, while plural pronouns don't. Irregular forms are highlighted in bold.[6]

Number Singular Plural
Person 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Familiar Polite Familiar Polite
Nominative men sen s?z ol b?z sender s?zder olar
Genitive men?ñ sen?ñ s?zd?ñ onyñ b?zd?ñ senderd?ñ s?zderd?ñ olardyñ
Dative ma?an sa?an s?zge o?an b?zge senderge s?zderge olar?a
Accusative men? sen? s?zd? ony b?zd? senderd? s?zderd? olardy
Locative mende sende s?zde onda b?zde senderde s?zderde olarda
Ablative menen senen s?zden odan b?zden senderden s?zderden olardan
Instrumental men?men sen?men s?zben onymen b?zben sendermen s?zdermen olarmen

In addition to the pronouns, there are several more sets of morphemes dealing with person.[6]

Morphemes indicating person[6]
Pronouns Copulas Possessive endings Past/Conditional
1st sg men -m?n -(?)m -(?)m
2nd sg sen -s? -(?)ñ -(?)ñ
3rd sg ol -/-d?r - --
1st pl b?z -b?z -(?)m?z -(?)k/-(y)q
2nd sng formal & pl s?z -s?z -(?)?ñ?z -(?)ñ?z/-(y)ñyz
3rd pl olar -/-d?r -- --

Tense, aspect and mood

Kazakh may express different combinations of tense, aspect and mood through the use of various verbal morphology or through a system of auxiliary verbs, many of which might better be considered light verbs. The present tense is a prime example of this; progressive tense in Kazakh is formed with one of four possible auxiliaries. These auxiliaries "otyr" (sit), "t?r" (stand), "jür" (go) and "jat" (lie), encode various shades of meaning of how the action is carried out and also interact with the lexical semantics of the root verb: telic and non-telic actions, semelfactives, durative and non-durative, punctual, etc. There are selectional restrictions on auxiliaries: motion verbs, such as ? (go) and ? (come) may not combine with "otyr". Any verb, however, can combine with "jat" (lie) to get a progressive tense meaning.[6]

Progressive aspect in the present tense[6]
Kazakh Aspect English translation
Men jeim?n non-progressive "I (will) eat [every day]."
Men jeudem?n progressive "I am eating [right now]."
Men jep otyrmyn progressive/durative "I am [sitting and] eating." / "I have been eating."
Men jep t?rmyn progressive/punctual "I am [in the middle of] eating [this very minute]."
Men jep jürm?n habitual "I eat [lunch, everyday]"

While it is possible to think that different categories of aspect govern the choice of auxiliary, it is not so straightforward in Kazakh. Auxiliaries are internally sensitive to the lexical semantics of predicates, for example, verbs describing motion:[6]

Selectional restrictions on Kazakh auxiliaries[6]
Sentance Auxiliary Used







Suda balyq jüzed?

water-LOC fish swim-PRES-3

"Fish swim in water" (general statement)

? (present/future tense used)









Suda balyq jüz?p jatyr

water-LOC fish swim-CVB AUX.3

"The/A fish is swimming in the water"

jat- to lie, general marker for progressive aspect.









Suda balyq jüz?p jür

water-LOC fish swim-CVB AUX.3

"The fish is swimming [as it always does] in the water"

jür - "go", dynamic/habitual/iterative









Suda balyq jüz?p t?r

water-LOC fish swim-CVB AUX.3

"The fish is swimming in the water"

t?r - "stand", progressive marker to show the swimming is punctual











* Suda balyq jüz?p otyr

{} water-LOC fish swim-CVB AUX.3

*The fish has been swimming

Not a possible sentence of Kazakh

otyr - "sit", ungrammatical in this sentence, otyr can only be used for verbs that are stative in nature

In addition to the complexities of the progressive tense, there are many auxiliary-converb pairs that encode a range of aspectual, modal, volitional, evidential and action- modificational meanings. For example, the pattern -yp köru, with the auxiliary verb köru (see), indicates that the subject of the verb attempted or tried to do something (compare the Japanese temiru construction).[6]

Annotated text with gloss

From the first stanza of "Men?ñ Qazaqstanym" ("My Kazakhstan"), the national anthem of Kazakhstan:

Men- Qazaqstan-ym My Kazakhstan
Altyn kün aspan-y Golden sun of the sky
[?'tk?n? s?p'n] gold sun sky-3.POSS
Altyn dän dala-sy Golden grain of the steppe
[?'tn? d?æn? d?'s] gold grain steppe-3.POSS
? Erl?k-t?ñ dastan-y The legend of courage
[je?r?lk?'t ds?t?'n] courage legend-GEN epic-3.POSS-NOM
! El-?m-e qara-?y Look at my country!
[je?l?'m?e? qr'] country-1SG.ACC look-IMP
? Ejel-den er de-gen Called heroes since ancient times
[jee?l'd?n? je?r? de?'?n?] antiquity-ABL hero say-PTCP.PST
Da?q-ymyz ?yq-ty ?oi Our glory emerged!
[dq'm?z? q't ?o?j] glory-1PL.POSS.NOM emerge-PST.3 EMPH
? Namys-yn ber-me-gen They did not give up their honor
[n?m?'sm b?e?r?m?e?'?n?] honor-3.POSS-ACC give-NEG-PTCP.PST
? Qaza?-ym myqty ?oi My Kazakhs are mighty!
[qz'm m?q't? ?o?j] Kazakh-1SG.POSS strong EMPH
?, ? Men-?ñ el-?m, men el-?m My country, my country
[m'n je?'l?m ? m'n je?'l?m] 1SG.GEN country-1SG.NOM (x2)
, Gül-üñ bol-up, eg-?l-e-m?n As your flower, I am rooted in you
['l?m bo?'p ? je?l?'mn?] flower-2SG.NOM be-CNVB, root-PASS-PRES-1SG
, ? Jyr-yñ bol-up, tög-ül-e-m?n, el-?m As your song, I shall be sung abound
['rm bo?'p? t'l?'mn? ? je?'l?m] song-2SG.NOM be-CNVB, sing-PASS-PRES-1SG, country-1SG.POSS.NOM
- Tu-?an jer-?m men - Qazaqstan-ym My native land - My Kazakhstan
[tu'?n? de?'r?m m'n ? qzqs?t?'nm] birth-PTCP-PST place-1SG.POSS.NOM 1SG.GEN - Kazakhstan-1SG.POSS.NOM

Comparison with Kyrgyz

Kazakh and Kyrgyz may be better seen as mutually intelligible dialects or varieties of a single tongue which are regarded as separate languages for sociopolitical reasons. They differ mainly phonetically while the lexicon and grammar are much the same, although both have standardized written forms that may differ in some ways. Until the 20th century, both languages used a common written form of Chaghatai Turkic.[32]

See also


  1. ^ "Kazakh".
  2. ^ " 4. | ".
  3. ^ "Central Asia: Kazakhstan". The 2017 World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 26 October 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  4. ^ Map showing the geographical diffusion of the Kazakh and other Turkish languages
  5. ^ Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2017). "Kazakh". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (20th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Mukhamedova, Raikhangul (2015). Kazakh: A Comprehensive Grammar. Routledge. ISBN 9781317573081.
  7. ^ a b , (26 April 2017). : ? [Orientation for the future: spiritual revival]. Egemen Qazaqstan (in Kazakh). Archived from the original on 28 June 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  8. ^ "Kazakhstan switching to Latin alphabet". Interfax. 30 October 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  9. ^ "Kazakh President Revives Idea of Switching to Latin Script". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 24 October 2006. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  10. ^ Bartlett, Paul (3 September 2007). "Kazakhstan: Moving Forward With Plan to Replace Cyrillic With Latin Alphabet". EurasiaNet. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 2017.
  11. ^ "Kazakhstan should be in no hurry in Kazakh alphabet transformation to Latin: Nazarbayev". Kazinform. 13 December 2007, cited in "Kazakhstan backtracks on move from Cyrillic to Roman alphabet?". Pinyin News. 14 December 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2014. Retrieved 2017.
  12. ^ "Kazakh language to be converted to Latin alphabet - MCS RK". Kazinform. 30 January 2015. Archived from the original on 19 February 2017. Retrieved 2015.
  13. ^ "Kazakh President Orders Shift Away From Cyrillic Alphabet". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 12 April 2017. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  14. ^ "From ? to R: How To Change A Country's Alphabet - And How Not To". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 16 May 2017. Archived from the original on 23 May 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  15. ^ ? ? ? ? [On the change of the alphabet of the Kazakh language from the Cyrillic to the Latin script] (in Russian). President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 26 October 2017. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  16. ^ Illmer, Andreas; Daniyarov, Elbek; Rakhimov, Azim (31 October 2017). "Kazakhstan to Qazaqstan: Why would a country switch its alphabet?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  17. ^ "Nazarbayev Signs Decree On Kazakh Language Switch To Latin-Based Alphabet". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 27 October 2017. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  18. ^ "Alphabet soup as Kazakh leader orders switch from Cyrillic to Latin letters". The Guardian. 26 October 2017. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 2017 – via Reuters.
  19. ^ Higgins, Andrew (2018). "Kazakhstan Cheers New Alphabet, Except for All Those Apostrophes". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018.
  20. ^ "Kazakhstan adopts new version of Latin-based Kazakh alphabet". The Astana Times. 26 February 2018.
  21. ^ Decree No. 637 of February 19, 2018
  22. ^ "Kazakh President Tokaev introduces reforms". Modern Diplomacy Europe. 7 January 2020.
  23. ^ "Kazakhstanis Awaiting For New Latin-Based Alphabet". Caspian News. 14 January 2020.
  24. ^ Yergaliyeva, Aidana (18 November 2019). "Fourth version of Kazakh Latin script will preserve language purity, linguists say". The Astana Times. Retrieved 2020.
  25. ^ a b ?
  26. ^ Some variations occur in the different regions where Kazakh is spoken, including outside Kazakhstan; e. g. ? / ? (where a Perso-Arabic script similar to the current Uyghur alphabet is used) is read [?] in standard Kazakh, but [d] in some places.
  27. ^ a b Öner, Özçelik. Kazakh phonology (PDF) (Thesis). Cambridge University.
  28. ^ a b c Vajda, Edward (1994), "Kazakh phonology", in Kaplan, E.; Whisenhunt, D. (eds.), Essays presented in honor of Henry Schwarz, Washington: Western Washington, pp. 603-650
  29. ^ The allophone [?] tends to be used instead of [q], following the vowel /?/ (e.g. jaqsy [s?], 'good').
  30. ^ Wagner, John Doyle; Dotton, Zura. A Grammar of Kazakh (PDF).
  31. ^ Beltranslations.com
  32. ^ Robert Lindsay. "Mutual Intelligibility Among the Turkic Languages". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

Further reading

  • Kara, Dävid Somfai (2002), Kazak, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783895864704
  • Mark Kirchner: "Kazakh and Karakalpak". In: The Turkic languages. Ed. by Lars Johanson and É. Á. Csató. London [u.a.] : Routledge, 1998. (Routledge language family descriptions). S.318-332.

External links

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