Kayastha
Get Kayastha essential facts below. View Videos or join the Kayastha discussion. Add Kayastha to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Kayastha

Kayastha (also referred to as Kayasth or Kayeth) denotes a cluster of different castes (or sub-groups) of different origin[3][4][5] consisting mainly of three regional communities--the Chitraguptavanshi Kayasthas of North India, the CKPs of Maharashtra and the Bengali Kayasthas of Bengal[6] who specialized as scribes, keepers of public records & accounts and administrators of the state.[7] An Indian script known as Kaithi is named after the Kayasthas, also referred to as "Kayathi" or "Kayasthi". This historical script was used for writing legal, administrative and private records.[8]

Since as early as the dawn of Medieval India, Kayasthas have occupied the highest government offices, serving as ministers and advisors of the middle kingdoms of India and the Mughal Empire, and holding important administrative positions during the British Raj.[9] In modern times, Kayasthas have attained success in politics, as well as in the arts and various professional fields.[9] D.L. Sheth, the former director of the Center for the Study of Developing Societies in India (CSDS), lists Indian communities that constituted the middle class and were traditionally "urban and professional" (following professions like doctors, lawyers, teachers, engineers, etc.) immediately after Independence in 1947. This list included the Kashmiri Pandits, the Nagar Brahmins from Gujarat; the South Indian Brahmins; the Punjabi Khatris, Kayasthas from northern India; Chitpawans and CKPs(Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus) from Maharashtra; the Probasi and the Bhadralok Bengalis; the Parsis and the upper crusts of Muslim and Christian communities. [10][11]

Origins

The first historical reference to kayastha comes from a Mathura inscription of the Kushan Emperor Vasudeva I, dated to around 171-172 CE, which records the gift of an image of the Buddha by a Kayastha ?rama?a. [12][13] The term Kayastha also finds mention in an inscription of the Gupta Emperor Kumaragupta I, dated to 442 CE, in which 'prathama-k?yastha' (Chief Officer) is used as an administrative designation.[14][15][16] The Brahmanical religious texts refer to them as a caste responsible for writing secular documents and maintaining records from the 7th century onward.[1] The Y?jñavalkya Sm?ti (composed in the Gupta Era) and the Viusm?ti describe Kayasthas as record keepers and accountants.[17]

There are many theories about the origin of the Kayastha sub-groups. Some texts refer to them as a caste of scribes, recruited in the beginning from the Brahmin[18]Kshatriya[19][20] and Vaishya castes but eventually forming distinct sub-castes in northern and western India. They have therefore also been called a umbrella caste with mixture of varnas in the sense that it is formed of various sub-groups of different varna status[1], competing with Brahmins for the highest administrative officers in medieval India.[21][22]

Chitraguptavanshi Kayasthas

The god of scribes
The Chitraguptavanshi Kayastha trace their lineage from the Hindu god Chitragupta who has been tasked to record the karma of human beings.

The larger group of Northern India trace their lineage from the sons of Chitragupta and are thus referred as Chitraguptavanshi Kayasthas.

The suffix "vanshi" is derived from the Sanskrit word vansh () which translates to belonging to a particular family dynasty, as "Chitragupta" pertains to the Hindu god.[23] The word K?yastha is formed from the Sanskrit k?ya (body), and the suffix -stha (standing, being in).[24]

The Hindu religious texts Puras state that Chitraguptavanshi Kayasthas are descended from the Hindu god Chitragupta, who is responsible for recording the deeds of humanity, upholding the rule of law, and judging whether human beings go to heaven or hell upon death.[25][26] The twelve sub-castes of Chitraguptavanshi Kayasthas--Srivastava, Gaur or Gauda, Saxena, Mathur, Karan, Nigam, Bhatnagar, Ambashtha, Asthana, Kulshreshtha, Valmiki Kayastha and Surajdhwaj Kayastha--are progeny of Chitragupta from his two wives, Irawati and Nadini. [1]

Having distinct status from the Bengal Kayastha and the CKP, Chitraguptavanshi Kayasthas are commonly recognized as a forward caste. As per the letter of council of Pandits of Benaras to the Brahmin Peshwa Darbar regarding varna status of various Kayastha subgroups, the Chitraguptavanshi Kayastha are clearly said to be Brahmin (Kayastha Brahmin/ Brahma-Kayastha) while the CKP are called Kshatriya.[27]

Historically, various subcastes had consolidated by the 11th- 12th centuries CE[28] i.e from the time of Gurjara-Pratihara Empire to the subsequent rise of independent Rajput kingdoms of Northern India, and traditionally wrote eulogies for the Hindu Kings prior to Turkic invasions of North India.[29] They had come to acquire prominent places in the court and officialdom and some were financially well-off to commission the construction of temples, while others were well-versed in the requisite fields of Vedic lore to earn the title of Pandits for themselves.[30]

Under the Chahamana and Parmara dynasties--Naigama Kayastha[31] (Nigam), Vallabhya Kayastha and M?thuranvaya Kayastha (Mathur i.e original settlers from Mathura)--wrote royal charters[32] and held prominent administrative positions.[33][34] Some Mathur Kayasthas in the Rajaputana had even earned the title of thakkura[35] and built several temples.[36][37]

While some scholars identify Gauda Kayasthas with Bengali Kayasthas, J.N. Bhattacharya notes that Bengali Kayasthas were different from "North-Indian Gaudas" who were found in almost all districts lying between Delhi and Patna, and identifies Bhatnagar Kayasthas as a section of the Gauda Kayasthas.[38] The Gauda Kayasthas rendered their services in writing eulogies for several ruling kings and their feudatories--including the Chahamana, Chaulukya[39]Chandela of Jejakabhukti, Kalachuri and Gahadavala rulers.[40] The Bhatnagars take their name possibly from the old town of 'Bhatner', near Bikaner in Rajasthan.[41]

The members of ?r?-V?stavya[42] (Srivastava) community rose to very high positions--many of whom enjoyed the fuedatory status of thakkura and were involved in military services--under the Chandelas of Jejakabhukti [43][44][45] as well as the Gahadavala kings, Govindachandra and Jayachandra.[46][47][48][49] Another Vastavya family served as hereditary scribes and poets under the Kalachuris of Ratanpur.[50] The inscriptions of these Vastavya family suggest that they might have originally hailed from Takkarika or Kausamyapur (Prayagraj).[47]

The Ambashtha Kayasthas (found chiefly in Southern Bihar), Crooke suggests "may be connected with the old Ambastha caste" as some Kayasthas are also associated with the practice of medicine and surgery.[41]

Bengali Kayasthas

Calcutta Kayastha
"Calcutta Kayastha", a late 18th-century depiction by Frans Balthazar Solvyns

The Bengali Kayasthas are considered an offshoot of the former group of Chitraguptavanshi Kayasthas, claiming lineage from migrants to Bengal from the ancient city of Kannauj who came at the request of Sena Dynasty kings in the 10th century.

In eastern India, Bengali Kayasthas are believed to have evolved from a class of officials into a caste between the 5th/6th centuries and 11th/12th centuries, its component elements being putative Kshatriyas and mostly Brahmins, and likely obtained the aspect of a caste under the Sena dynasty.[51] According to Tej Ram Sharma, an Indian historian, the Kayasthas of Bengal had not yet developed into a distinct caste during the reign of the Gupta Empire, although the office of the Kayastha (scribe) had been instituted before the beginning of the period, as evidenced from the contemporary Smritis. Sharma further states:

"Noticing brahmanic names with a large number of modern Bengali Kayastha cognomens in several early epigraphs discovered in Bengal, some scholars have suggested that there is a considerable brahmana element in the present day Kayastha community of Bengal. Originally the professions of Kayastha (scribe) and Vaidya (physician) were not restricted and could be followed by people of different varnas including the brahmanas. So there is every probability that a number of brahmana families were mixed up with members of other varnas in forming the present Kayastha and Vaidya communities of Bengal."[52]

Prabhu Kayasthas or CKPs

In Maharashtra, Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu (or CKP) claim descent from the warrior Chandrasen. As per Brahminical opinions and texts, they arose solely from the Kshatriya varna.[53][a] Historically, they produced prominent warriors and also held positions such as Deshpandes and Gadkaris (fort holder, an office similar to that of a castellan).[54] However, they also studied the Vedas and performed Vedic rituals i.e. 'vedokta'(in marathi).[55] Brahmanical texts i.e. shastras refer to them as "Chandraseniya Kshatriyas". This as well as their 'vedokta' has been formally ratified by the verdicts of the Brahmin councils of Pune and Varanasi, by Bajirao II and finally the Shankaracharya himself.[53][b][c] They are considered socially proximate to the Marathi Brahmin community.[56][57][58]

History

Ancient India

Although there's no evidence that a caste or community of scribes existed in ancient India, there are multiple instances where those performing secretarial functions were classed together such as in the Arthashastra the phrase 'samkhayayka-lekhaka-adi-vargas ca...'. It is stated in the Arthashastra that superintendents should carry out their tasks, accompanied by accountants (samkhyayaka), scribes (lekhaka), examiners of coins (rupadarsaka), receivers of balances (nivi-grahaka) and supervisors (uttaradhyaksah).[59] It follows that lekhakas worked at a range of levels, extending from the king to the subordinate officials of the court. [60]

Classical India

The first historical reference to kayastha comes from a Mathura inscription of the Kushan Emperor Vasudeva I, dated to around 171-172 CE, which records the gift of an image of the Buddha by a Kayastha ?rama?a. [61][13]The kayastha also appears as a figure in the Act XI of the Sanskrit drama M?cchakatika, where a srestin and kayastha are shown accompanying a judge. [62]

Medieval India

Raja Todar Mal, The Finance Minister and one of Emperor Akbar's navratnas.The Kashi Vishwanath Temple was rebuilt in 1585 by Todar Mal.[63][64][65]

Early medieval India

Brahmanical religious texts refer to the Kayasthas as a caste responsible for writing secular documents and maintaining records from the 7th century onward.[22] In some of the Sanskrit works of Kshemendra, in the Vikramankadevacharita of Bilhana and in Kalhana's historical chronicle known as the Rajatarangini ("River of Kings"), written in the early-medieval Kashmir, the term kayastha may have been used to denote the members of bureaucracy ranging from G?hak?tyamahattama (the chief secretary in the charge of home affairs) to the Asvaghasa-kayastha (officer in charge of the fodder for horses), whose principal duty, besides carrying on the general administration of the state, consisted in the collection of revenue and taxes.[66][67] Though few sources predating it indicate that Kayasthas had already consolidated as well established sub-groups prior to the period with titles such as Thakkura and Pandits. [68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][47][84][85][86] In the Rajatarangini, a Brahmin Sivartha is described as a Kayastha.[87]

Under the Gahadavalas of Kannauj, Kayasthas had come to acquire prominent places in the court and officialdom and some were financially well-off to commission the construction of temples, while others were well-versed in the requisite fields of Vedic lore to earn the title of pandita for themselves. [88]

Late medieval India

According to Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, Emperor Akbar's prime minister, Bengali Kayasthas were rulers of the Pala Empire, one of the major early medieval Indian kingdoms that originated in Bengal.[51]

In Bengal, during the reign of the Gupta Empire beginning in the 4th century, when systematic and large-scale colonization by Indo-Aryan Kayasthas and Brahmins first took place, Kayasthas were brought over by the Guptas to help manage the affairs of state.[89]

After the Muslim conquest of India, they mastered Persian,[22] which became the official language of the Mughal courts.[90] Also, during this period the north-Indian Kayasthas were given the Persian Lala (title) meaning tutor and statesman.[91] Some converted to Islam and formed the Muslim Kayasth community in northern India.

One of the most notable north-Indian Kayasthas of the Mughal period was Raja Todar Mal, Emperor Akbar's finance minister and one of the court's nine Navaratnas, who is credited with establishing the Mughal revenue system.[92] He also translated the Bhagavata Purana from Sanskrit into Persian.[93] The Kashi Vishwanath Temple was rebuilt in 1585 by Todar Mal.[94][95][65]

Bengali Kayasthas had been the dominant landholding caste prior to the Muslim conquest, and continued this role under Muslim rule. Indeed, Muslim rulers had from a very early time confirmed the Kayasthas in their ancient role as landholders and political intermediaries.[96]

Bengali Kayasthas served as treasury officials and wazirs (government ministers) under Mughal rule. Political scientist U. A. B. Razia Akter Banu writes that, partly because of Muslim sultans' satisfaction with them as technocrats, many Bengali Kayasthas in the administration became zamindars and jagirdars. According to Abu al-Fazl, most of the Hindu zamindars in Bengal were Kayasthas.[97]

Maharaja Pratapaditya, the King of Jessore who declared independence from Mughal rule in the early 17th century, was a Bengali Kayastha.[98]

British India

Subhas Chandra Bose, President of the Indian National Congress (1938-1939) and founder of the Indian National Army

During the British Raj, Kayasthas continued to proliferate in public administration, qualifying for the highest executive and judicial offices open to Indians[99] including Satyendra Prasanna Sinha, 1st Baron Sinha,[100][101][102]KCSI, PC, KC, the first (and only) Indian ever to be elevated to the hereditary peerage.[103]

Bengali Kayasthas took on the role occupied by merchant castes in other parts of India and profited from business contacts with the British. In 1911, for example, Bengali Kayasthas and Bengali Brahmins owned 40% of all the Indian-owned mills, mines and factories in Bengal.[104]

Some of the significant figures of the Indian independence movement were Bengali Kayasthas, including the spiritual leaders Swami Vivekananda and Sri Aurobindo, and the revolutionary leader Subhas Chandra Bose.[105][106]

Modern India

They are found mostly in central, eastern, northern India, and particularly in Bengal.[107] North Indian Kayasthas that rose to prominence since independence, include the country's first president, Rajendra Prasad, and its second prime minister, Lal Bahadur Shastri .[22]

In the field of spiritualism they have attained global sucess through the Hare Krishna Movement-ISKCON (Swami Prabhupada), Transcendental Meditation(Maharshi Mahesh Yogi), Integral yoga(Sri Aurobindo), Kriya Yoga(Paramahansa Yogananda) and Vedanta(Swami Vivekananda) to the western world.[108][109][110][111][112][113]

Kayasthas are considered a Forward Caste, as they do not qualify for any of the reservation benefits allotted to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes that are administered by the Government of India.[114] Kayasthas have been mobilizing through their respective organizations as they feel isolated and feel they are losing opportunities to the backward castes. In this effort, they are aligning themselves with different political parties to gain political and economical advantages and are now demanding 33 percent reservation in Government jobs.[115]

Varna status

The exact varna of a Kayastha subgroups varies and depends on its varna origins, rituals and customs. In some subgroups, it is a subject of debate.[116] Though much before the controversy ensued with the decision of Calcutta high court, several Vyavasthas/council of pandits have shown that all the three sub-groups were twice-born. [117]

According to some accounts, they are a literate and educated class of Kshatriyas, and they have been referred to as a twice-born caste.[118][119] The last census of the British Raj in India (1931) classified them as a 'upper caste'[120] i.e. Dwija and the final British Raj law case involving their varna in 1926 placed them into the Kshatriya varna.[121][116]

In Bengal, Bengali Kayastha, alongside Brahmins, have been described as the "highest Hindu castes".[122] After the Muslim conquest of India, Bengali Kayasthas absorbed remnants of Bengal's old Hindu ruling dynasties - including the Sena, Pala, Chandra, and Varman - and, in this way, became the region's surrogate Kshatriya or "warrior" class. During the British rule, the Bengali Kayasthas, along with the Bengali Brahmins and Baidyas, were considered as Bhadralok, a term coined in Bengal for the 'Gentry' or 'respectable people'- based on refined culture, prestige, education etc.[96][123] According to W.Rowe's account (that later scholars disagreed with), during the British Raj era, certain law cases led to courts classifying Kayasthas as shudras, based largely upon the theories of Herbert Hope Risley who had conducted extensive studies on castes and tribes of the Bengal Presidency. According to Rowe, the Kayasthas of Bengal, Bombay and the United Provinces repeatedly challenged this classification by producing a flood of books, pamphlets, family histories and journals to pressurize the government for recognizing them as Kshatriya and to reform the caste practices in the directions of sanskritisation and westernisation.[124] However, scholars from the University of Berkeley as well as the University of Cambridge have disagreed with Rowe's research by pinpointing 'factual and interpretative errors' in his study as well as criticizing his study for making 'unquestioned assumptions' about the kayastha movement of sanskritisation and westernisation.[125][126]

H.Bellenoit gives the details of the individual British Raj era law cases and concludes that since the kayasthas are a non-cohesive group and not a single caste, their varna was resolved in the cases that came up by taking into account regional differences and customs followed by that particular caste. Bellenoit also disagrees with W.Rowe by showing that Herbert Hope Risley's theories were in fact used to ultimately classify them as Kshatriyas by the British courts. The first case began in 1860 in Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh with a property dispute where the plaintiff was considered an 'illegitimate child' by the defendants, a north-Indian Kayastha family. The British court denied inheritance to the child, citing that Kayasthas are Dvija, "twice-born" or "upper-caste" and that the illegitimate children of Dwijas have no rights to inheritance. In the next case in 1875 in the Allahabad High Court, a north Indian Kayastha widow was denied adoption rights as she was an upper-caste i.e. Dwija woman. However, in an 1884 adoption case as well as a 1916 property dispute, Calcutta High Court argued that Bengali kayasthas have started using names like 'Das' and classified the Bengali Kayasthas as shudras - although the court did acknowledge their Kshatriya origin. The Allahabad High Court ruled in 1890 that Kayasthas were Kshatriyas. Finally, in a property dispute case in Patna in 1926, the Patna court characterized both the 1884 and 1916 Calcutta courts rulings as inconclusive and ultimately ruled that the kayasthas were of Kshatriya origin and hence twice born or dwija. The Patna court cited smritis and Puranas, several colonial ethnologists, such as William Crooke and Herbert Hope Risley, and used their qualified endorsements on the dwija origins of Kayasthas. The British census of 1931 also lists Kayasthas as one of the upper (twice-born) castes.[116][121] Their dwija(twice-born) status has been shown by several vyavastha/council of Pandits including vyavastha of: (a) 95 pandits of Benaras dated July 21,1873 (b) pandits of Government College, Benaras in 1847 (c) 14 pandits of Oudh (d) 22 pandits of Mathura (e) 43 pandits of Jammu (f) 332 pandits of Kashmir. [127] Several decisions of religious councils and institutions have also clarified varna status of Chitraguptvanshi Kayasthas and CKPs as Brahmin and Kshatriya respectively.[55][53][d][e][1]

Notable people

Some notable people of the Kayastha caste of India


See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Gupte, TV (1904). "Appendix I.(page 7) Translation of the letter addressed by the Benaras Pandits to the Peshwa Darbar". Ethnographical notes on Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu. p. 8. Kayasthas are said to be of three sorts (kinds)-- (1) the Chitragupta Kayasthas (2) Dhalbhaga Gatri Kshatriya Kayasthas and (3) Kayasthas of the mixed blood. The origin of Chitraguptavanshi Kayasthas is given in the Puranas. He was born from the body of Brahma while he was contemplating how he should know the good and evil acts of living beings. He was a brilliant person with pen and ink in his hands. He was known as Chitragupta and was placed near the God of death. He was appointed to record the good and evil acts of men. He was a Brahmin possessed of supra sensible knowledge. He was a god sharing the offerings at sacrifices. All the Brahmins offer him oblations of rice before taking their meals. He is called Kayastha because of his origin from the body of Brahma. Many descendants of his bearing different Gotras still exist on this earth. From this it will be seen that Kayastha Brahmins of Karhada and Khandesha are the Brahma-Kayasthas. Now about the origin of Chandraseniya Kshatriya Kayastha.....
  2. ^ Muslim Kayasthas of India by Jahanara KK Publications ISBN 978-81-675-6606-5
  3. ^ Gupte, TV (1904). "Appendix I". Ethnographical notes on Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu. p. 8. Kayasthas are said to be of three sorts (kinds)-- (1) the Chitragupta Kayasthas (2) Dhalbhaga Gatri Kshatriya Kayasthas and (3) Kayasthas of the mixed blood...
  4. ^ Hayden J. Bellenoit (17 February 2017). The Formation of the Colonial State in India: Scribes, Paper and Taxes, 1760-1860. Taylor & Francis. p. 34,36. ISBN 978-1-134-49429-3. Kayasthas, it must be stressed, are not a uniform cohesive group. They possess marked regional variations and differences....page 34:...the north kayasthas were largely employed as scribes, paper mangers and lower administrators.The prabhus of the west and Bengali kayasthas were relatively more prominent in trade and commerce..(page 36)...a Kayastha [Bengal, Bihar and Doab]...probably best understood as a functional group rather than as a caste based upon descent and varna-defined origins.
  5. ^ R. B. Mandal (1981). Frontiers in Migration Analysis. Concept Publishing Company. p. 175. ISBN 978-03-91-02471-7.
  6. ^ Leonard, Karen Isaksen (1994). Social History of an Indian Caste: The Kayasths of Hyderabad. Orient BlackSwan. p. 12. ISBN 978-81-250-0032-7. Three regional communities in India lay claim to the name 'Kayasth' or 'Kayastha'. The Chitragupta Kayasths of North India, the Prabhu Kayasths of Maharashtra, and the Bengal Kayasths of Bengal, with mother tongues of Hindi, Marathi, and Bengali, respectively, fulfilled similar roles in their regional political systems.
  7. ^ Bellenoit, Hayden J. (2017). "The pensmen and scribal communities of Hindustan". The Formation of the Colonial State in India: Scribes, Paper and Taxes, 1760-1860. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-49436-1. And a broader correlation of evidence suggests that Kayasthas traditionally have been a looser group of writers, scribes and recorders of accounts, news an affairs of the sovereign.
  8. ^ King, Christopher R. 1995. One Language, Two Scripts: The Hindi Movement in Nineteenth Century North India. New York: Oxford University Press.
  9. ^ a b Imam, Fatima A. (2011). Kaminsky, Arnold; Long, Roger (eds.). India Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic. ABC-CLIO. p. 404. ISBN 978-0-313-37462-3.
  10. ^ "Social Action, Volume 50". Indian Social Institute. 2000: 72. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. ^ "D.L. Sheth".
  12. ^ Visvanathan, Meera (2014). "From the "lekhaka" to the K?yastha: Scribes in Early Historic Court and Society (200 Bce-200 Ce)". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 75: 37. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44158358.
  13. ^ a b Kalyani Das (1980). Early Inscriptions of Mathura. Punthi Pustak. p. 73. The term Kayastha has been recently noticed in a Mathura record103 of the time of the Kusana king Vasudeva, dated in the year 93 (171 A.D. ). The inscription records the dedication of a statue and an umbrella of Lord Pitamaha ,(Buddha) ...
  14. ^ SHAH, K.K. (1993). "SELF LEGITIMATION AND SOCIAL PRIMACY: A Case Study of Some Kayastha Inscriptions From Central India". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 54: 858. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44143088. In epigraphic sources, Kane could not locate the word Kayastha earlier than mid-eighth century AD but now it is known that we have the earliest mention of the term in Damodarpur Copper Plate Inscription of Kumara Gupta I dated in the GE 124 (AD 442) in which the name of Sambapala with his designation 'prathama-kayastha' figures.
  15. ^ Singh, Mahesh Vikram (2006). India Rediscovered: A New Vision of History and Call of the Age. Northern Book Centre. p. 137. ISBN 978-81-7211-209-7.
  16. ^ V.D, Mahajan (2016). Ancient India. S. Chand Publishing. p. 401. ISBN 978-93-5253-132-5.
  17. ^ Bellenoit, Hayden J. (17 February 2017). "The pensmen and scribal communities of Hindustan". The Formation of the Colonial State in India: Scribes, Paper and Taxes, 1760-1860. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-49436-1. For example, in the Yajnavalkasmriti (c. third to ffith centuries CE) and the Vishnusmriti Kayasthas are described as record keepers and accountants.
  18. ^ Panikkar, Kavalam Madhava (1954). A Survey of Indian History. Asia Publishing House. p. 109.
  19. ^ Mendis, Dushyantha (2007). Electoral Processes and Governance in South Asia. SAGE Publications India. p. 427. ISBN 978-8-178-29970-9.
  20. ^ Jayaswal, Prem Kumar (1990). Librarianship and Bureaucratic Organisation: A Study in the Sociology of Library Profession in India, Volume 1. Concept Publishing Company. p. 68. ISBN 978-8-170-22321-4.
  21. ^ Hayden J. Bellenoit (17 February 2017). The Formation of the Colonial State in India: Scribes, Paper and Taxes, 1760-1860. Taylor & Francis. p. 34, 37. ISBN 978-1-134-49429-3.
  22. ^ a b c d e Arnold P. Kaminsky, Roger D. Long (2011). India Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic. ABC-CLIO. pp. 403-404. ISBN 978-0-313-37462-3. Retrieved 2012. Kayasthas trace their ancestry from Chitragupta, who cas created out of Bhahma's souls...The 12 subcastes of the kayasthas - Mathurs, saxena's, Nigams, Bhatnagars, Karnas, Asthanas, Surdhaja, Gours, Srivastavas, Ambasthas, Kulsheshthas and valmikis - are a progeny of Chitagupta ...CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  23. ^ "vaMza". Spokensanskrit.org.
  24. ^ "Kayastha". Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved 2020.
  25. ^ R. B. Mandal (1981). Frontiers in Migration Analysis. Concept Publishing Company. p. 175. ISBN 978-03-91-02471-7.
  26. ^ Gupte, TV (1904). "Appendix I". Ethnographical notes on Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu. p. 8. Kayasthas are said to be of three sorts (kinds)-- (1) the Chitragupta Kayasthas (2) Dhalbhaga Gatri Kshatriya Kayasthas and (3) Kayasthas of the mixed blood. The origin of Chitraguptavanshi Kayasthas is given in the Puranas. He was born from the body of Brahma while he was contemplating how he should know the good and evil acts of living beings. He was a brilliant person with pen and ink in his hands. He was known as Chitragupta and was placed near the God of death. He was appointed to record the good and evil acts of men. He was a Brahmin possessed of supra sensible knowledge. He was a good sharing the offerings at sacrifices. All the Brahmins offer him oblations of rice before taking their meals. He is called Kayastha because of his origin from the body of Brahma. Many descendants of his bearing different Gotras still exist on this earth. From this it will be seen that Kayastha Brahmins of Karhada and Khandesha are the Brahma-Kayasthas....
  27. ^ Gupte, TV (1904). "Appendix I". Ethnographical notes on Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu. p. 8. Kayasthas are said to be of three sorts (kinds)-- (1) the Chitragupta Kayasthas (2) Dhalbhaga Gatri Kshatriya Kayasthas and (3) Kayasthas of the mixed blood. The origin of Chitraguptavanshi Kayasthas is given in the Puranas. He was born from the body of Brahma while he was contemplating how he should know the good and evil acts of living beings. He was a brilliant person with pen and ink in his hands. He was known as Chitragupta and was placed near the God of death. He was appointed to record the good and evil acts of men. He was a Brahmin possessed of supra sensible knowledge. He was a good sharing the offerings at sacrifices. All the Brahmins offer him oblations of rice before taking their meals. He is called Kayastha because of his origin from the body of Brahma. Many descendants of his bearing different Gotras still exist on this earth. From this it will be seen that Kayastha Brahmins of Karhada and Khandesha are the Brahma-Kayasthas....
  28. ^ SHAH, K.K. (1993). "SELF LEGITIMATION AND SOCIAL PRIMACY: A Case Study of Some Kayastha Inscriptions From Central India". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 54: 859. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44143088. By the 11th-12th centuries AD it appears various subcastes of the Kayasthas had consolidated because from contemporary inscriptions we learn of epithets such as Mathura, Saksena, Naigama Katariya qualifying their Kayastha identity in various parts of northern India.
  29. ^ Bellenoit, Hayden J. (2017). The Formation of the Colonial State in India: Scribes, Paper and Taxes, 1760-1860. Taylor & Francis. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-134-49429-3. For example, North Indian Kayasthas wrote the eulogies of kings (prasastis) for Hindu Rajas before Turkic invasion
  30. ^ Kumar, Saurabh (2015). "Rural Society and Rural Economy in the Ganga Valley during the Gahadavalas". Social Scientist. 43 (5/6): 29-45. ISSN 0970-0293. JSTOR 24642345. One thing is clear that by this time, Kayasthas had come to acquire prominent places in the court and officialdom and some were financially well-off to commission the construction of temples, while others were well-versed in the requisite fields of Vedic lore to earn the title of pandita for themselves. In our study, the epigraphic sources do not indicate the oppressive nature of Kayastha officials.
  31. ^ Mazumdar, Bhakat Prasad (1960). "Castes and Professions". Socio-economic history of northern India, 1030-1194 A. D. Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay. p. 103. The Naigama Kayasthas, so far as the inscriptional information is concerned, are referred to as scribes. They wrote the Nadol plates of Chahamana Kirttipala and Alhanadeva in VS 1218/c 1160-61 A.D. and Bijholi inscription dated VS 1226/1170 A.D.
  32. ^ Asopa, Jai Narayan (1990). A Socio-political and Economic Study, Northern India. Prateeksha Publications. p. 318. Similarly, the Mathuranvaya and Vallabyha wrote the charters of the Chahamana and Paramara Kings.
  33. ^ SHARMA, KRISHNA GOPAL (1991). "Light on Social Set-Up and Social Life from the Early Jaina Inscriptions from Rajasthan (Upto 1200 A.d.): Summary". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 52: 199-200. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44142598. Our inscriptions mention Kayasthas as a separate caste, though they are seen associated with their hereditary profession. Two families of the Kayasthas emerge prominently, the family of the Naigamas and the Valabha family. One Kayastha is shown as holding the coveted position of a Sandhivigrahi.
  34. ^ Bajpai, K. D. (2006). History of Gop?chala. Bharatiya Jnanpith. p. 61. ISBN 978-81-263-1155-2. In several inscriptions and prasastis...Mathur-anvaya, Balatkara-gana and Sarasvati Gachchha.
  35. ^ Mazumdar, Bhakat Prasad (1960). "Castes and Professions". Socio-economic History of Northern India: (1030 - 1194 A.D.). Mukhopadhyay. pp. 103-104. Another sub-caste of the Kayasthas was the Mathur-anvaya Kayasthas, who probably...As a feudal vassal, with the title of Thakkura, the name of one Udayasiha is mentioned in the... Rajputana. Manoratha rose to the coveted post of secretary to Bhuvanapala-Mahupala, the Kachchhapa ghata ruler of Gwalior.
  36. ^ Gupta, Chitrarekha (1996). The K?yasthas: a study in the formation and early history of a caste. K.P. Bagchi & Co. pp. 107-109. ..Four temples were built by this wealthy family in the fort of Ranothambhar...
  37. ^ Meena, Ravina (2014). "Temple, Trade and Religious Communities: Saivism in Early Medieval Rajasthan". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 75: 248. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44158386. The Dabok inscriptions dated A.D 664 attests to the patronage to the cults of Maheshvara (Shiva) and Ghattavasini (goddess residing in the pot) by a local Kayastha family through land and cash grants in Dhavagarta locality near Chittaudgarh.
  38. ^ Gupta, Chitrarekha (1996). The K?yasthas: a study in the formation and early history of a caste. K.P. Bagchi & Co. p. 67. ...Bengali Kayasthas are different from North Indian Gaudas. J.N Bhattacharya appears to be more scientific in his observations that the Gauda Kayasthas are found in almost all districts lying between Delhi and Patna. J.N Bhattacharya has taken the Bhatnagar Kayasthas as a section of the Gaudas.
  39. ^ Mazumdar, Bhakat Prasad (1960). "Castes and Professions". Socio-economic History of Northern India: (1030 - 1194 A.D.). Mukhopadhyay. p. 99. ...The Gauda Kayastha aso rendered their service to Chahamanas of Shakambari and Naddula by writing the Kinsariya (999 A.D), Delhi-Siwalik (1163) and Nadol inscriptions for Kings Durlabharaja, Visaladeva and Rayalpala resp....and his master, the Chaulukya King Kumarapala in VS 1213 and 1212/1156 A.D.
  40. ^ Mazumdar, Bhakat Prasad (1960). "Castes and Profession". Socio-economic History of Northern India: (1030 - 1194 A.D.). Mukhopadhyay. p. 100. The Gauda Kayastha also traveled to the courts of Chandellas and Kalachuri Kings...An inscription of Govindachandra Gahadavala dated 1129-30 A.D. refers to...
  41. ^ a b Russell, Robert Vane. The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India, Volume III of IV. Library of Alexandria. ISBN 978-1-4655-8303-1.
  42. ^ Gupta, Chitrarekha (1996). The K?yasthas: a study in the formation and early history of a caste. K.P. Bagchi & Co. p. 117. This love and respect for knowledge were nothing special with the line of Jajuka. Rather, these were general features of the characters of the Sri-Vastavyas
  43. ^ SHAH, K.K. (1993). "SELF LEGITIMATION AND SOCIAL PRIMACY: A Case Study of Some Kayastha Inscriptions From Central India". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 54: 860-861. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44143088. Vastavya, therefore, will have to be taken as a sub-caste a few members of which rose to very high positions in the administrative hierarchy of the Chandella kingdom. Two families from this branch of the Kayasthas have left three inscriptions for us containing an account of the mythical origin as also genealogical tree in order to establish their high Brahminic credentials...It is also noteworthy that both Jajuka and Maheshvara have remarkable military achievements to their credit which could put them on par with the Kshatriyas.
  44. ^ Dikshit, R. K. (1976). The Candellas of Jej?kabhukti. Abhinav Publications. pp. 71, 173-175, 190. ISBN 978-81-7017-046-4.
  45. ^ Mitra, Sisir Kumar (1977). The Early Rulers of Khajuraho (Second Revised ed.). Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 180. ISBN 978-81-208-1997-9.
  46. ^ Mazumdar, Bhakat Prasad (1960). "Castes and Professions". Socio-economic History of Northern India: (1030 - 1194 A.D.). Mukhopadhyay. pp. 101-103. Members of Vastavya community rose to very high positions. They enjoyed the feudatory status of Thakkura under the Gahadavala Kings under Govindachandra and Jayachandra, and the Chandela King Bhojavarman...It is possible that because of their services, the king raised them to a higher status...His brothers, Jaundhara and Maladhara were valiant warriors...The history of these two families show that the Vastavyas could become valiant soldiers.
  47. ^ a b c Mazumdar, Bhakat Prasad (1960). Socio-economic History of Northern India: (1030 - 1194 A.D.). Mukhopadhyay. p. 100. Three inscriptions written by these Vastavya Kayasthas for the Gahadavala kings Govindachandra and Jayachandra and also the Sahet Mahet inscription dated 1276 VS/1219-29 A.D....Nana's ancestors were inhabitants of Kausamyapura or Kosam in the Allahabad district originally.
  48. ^ Sinha, Bindeshwari Prasad (2003). Kayasthas in making of modern Bihar. Impression Publication. p. 13. Banaras plate of Govinchandra refers to Vastavya Kayastha.
  49. ^ Niyogi, Roma (1959). The History of the G?ha?av?la Dynasty. Oriental Book Agency. p. 212. It also contains a statue of Vastavya-Kayastha Thakkura Sri-Ranapala (in a soldier's outfit) who appears to have built...
  50. ^ Mazumdar, Bhakat Prasad (1960). "Castes and Professions". Socio-economic History of Northern India: (1030 - 1194 A.D.). Mukhopadhyay. p. 102. ..The members of the family of Dharamraja, the hereditary scribes of the Kalachuri kings of Ratanpur, were good poets.
  51. ^ a b Andre Wink (1991). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Volume 1. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 269. ISBN 978-90-04-09509-0. Retrieved 2011.
  52. ^ Sharma, Tej Ram (1978). Personal and Geographical Names in the Gupta Empire. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. p. 115.
  53. ^ a b c Milton Israel and N.K.Wagle, ed. (1987). Religion and Society in Maharashtra. Center for South Asian Studies, University of Toronto, Canada.
  54. ^ B. R. Sunthankar (1988). Nineteenth Century History of Maharashtra: 1818-1857. p. 121. The [Chandraseniya] Kayastha Prabhus, though small in number, were another caste of importance in Maharashtra. They formed one of the elite castes of Maharashtra. They also held the position of Deshpandes and Gadkaris and produced some of the best warriors in the Maratha history
  55. ^ a b K.P.Bahadur, Sukhdev Singh Chib (1981). The Castes, Tribes and Culture of India. ESS Publications. p. 161. pg 161: The [Chandraseniya] Kayastha Prabhus...They performed three of the vedic duties or karmas, studying the Vedas adhyayan, sacrificing yajna and giving alms or dana...The creed mostly accepted by them is that of the advaita school of Shankaracharya, though they also worship Vishnu, Ganapati and other gods.
  56. ^ André Béteille (1991). Society and Politics in India: Essays in a Comparative Perspective. Athlone Press. p. 48. Although the Chandraseniya Kayasth Prabhu are non-Brahmins, they rank very high and might be regarded as being socially proximate to the Koknasth Brahman.
  57. ^ Kurtz Dr, Donald V (1997). Book Contradictions and Conflict: A Dialectical Political Anthropology of a University in Western India (Studies in Human Society, Vol 9). p. 68. ISBN 9004098283. ... CKPs. They represent a small but literate and ritually high caste.
  58. ^ "Special Studies Series, State University of New York". Buffalo, N.Y. Council on International Studies, State University of New York at Buffalo. 1973: 7. Within the circle of "available" non-Brahman elite groups one might also count the tiny community of CKP's Chandrasenya Kayastha Prabhu numbering...A community which claimed status equal to Brahmans-a claim which the Brahmans always stridently rejected... Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  59. ^ Visvanathan, Meera (2014). "From the "lekhaka" to the K?yastha: Scribes in Early Historic Court and Society (200 Bce-200 Ce)". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 75: 34-40. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44158358.
  60. ^ Visvanathan, Meera (2014). "From the "lekhaka" to the K?yastha: Scribes in Early Historic Court and Society (200 Bce-200 Ce)". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 75: 35. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44158358.
  61. ^ Visvanathan, Meera (2014). "From the "lekhaka" to the K?yastha: Scribes in Early Historic Court and Society (200 Bce-200 Ce)". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 75: 37. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44158358.
  62. ^ Visvanathan, Meera (2014). "From the "lekhaka" to the K?yastha: Scribes in Early Historic Court and Society (200 Bce-200 Ce)". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 75: 38. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44158358.
  63. ^ "New Page 1".
  64. ^ "Tirupati temple - Medieval history". A.P Tourism. Retrieved 2013.
  65. ^ a b S. P. Udayakumar (1 January 2005). Presenting the Past: Anxious History and Ancient Future in Hindutva India. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-275-97209-7.
  66. ^ Ray, Sunil Chandra (1950). "A Note on the K?yasthas of Early-Mediaeval Km?ra". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 13: 124-126. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44140901.
  67. ^ Kalhana (1989). Stein, Sir Marc Aurel (ed.). Kalhana's Rajatarangini: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kashmir. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. pp. 8, 39, 45. ISBN 978-81-20-80370-1. Retrieved 2013.
  68. ^ SHAH, K.K. (1993). "SELF LEGITIMATION AND SOCIAL PRIMACY: A Case Study of Some Kayastha Inscriptions From Central India". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 54: 859. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44143088. By the 11th-12th centuries AD it appears various subcastes of the Kayasthas had consolidated because from contemporary inscriptions we learn of epithets such as Mathura, Saksena, Naigama Katariya qualifying their Kayastha identity in various parts of northern India.
  69. ^ Kumar, Saurabh (2015). "Rural Society and Rural Economy in the Ganga Valley during the Gahadavalas". Social Scientist. 43 (5/6): 29-45. ISSN 0970-0293. JSTOR 24642345. One thing is clear that by this time, Kayasthas had come to acquire prominent places in the court and officialdom and some were financially well-off to commission the construction of temples, while others were well-versed in the requisite fields of Vedic lore to earn the title of pandita for themselves. In our study, the epigraphic sources do not indicate the oppressive nature of Kayastha officials.
  70. ^ Mazumdar, Bhakat Prasad (1960). "Castes and Professions". Socio-economic history of northern India, 1030-1194 A. D. Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay. p. 103. The Naigama Kayasthas, so far as the inscriptional information is concerned, are referred to as scribes. They wrote the Nadol plates of Chahamana Kirttipala and Alhanadeva in VS 1218/c 1160-61 A.D. and Bijholi inscription dated VS 1226/1170 A.D.
  71. ^ SHARMA, KRISHNA GOPAL (1991). "Light on Social Set-Up and Social Life from the Early Jaina Inscriptions from Rajasthan (Upto 1200 A.d.): Summary". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 52: 199-200. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44142598. Our inscriptions mention Kayasthas as a separate caste, though they are seen associated with their hereditary profession. Two families of the Kayasthas emerge prominently, the family of the Naigamas and the Valabha family. One Kayastha is shown as holding the coveted position of a Sandhivigrahi.
  72. ^ Bajpai, K. D. (2006). History of Gop?chala. Bharatiya Jnanpith. p. 61. ISBN 978-81-263-1155-2. In several inscriptions and prasastis...Mathur-anvaya, Balatkara-gana and Sarasvati Gachchha.
  73. ^ Mazumdar, Bhakat Prasad (1960). "Castes and Professions". Socio-economic History of Northern India: (1030 - 1194 A.D.). Mukhopadhyay. pp. 103-104. Another sub-caste of the Kayasthas was the Mathur-anvaya Kayasthas, who probably...As a feudal vassal, with the title of Thakkura, the name of one Udayasiha is mentioned in the... Rajputana. Manoratha rose to the coveted post of secretary to Bhuvanapala-Mahupala, the Kachchhapa ghata ruler of Gwalior.
  74. ^ Gupta, Chitrarekha (1996). The K?yasthas: a study in the formation and early history of a caste. K.P. Bagchi & Co. pp. 107-109. ..Four temples were built by this wealthy family in the fort of Ranothambhar...
  75. ^ Meena, Ravina (2014). "Temple, Trade and Religious Communities: Saivism in Early Medieval Rajasthan". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 75: 248. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44158386. The Dabok inscriptions dated A.D 664 attests to the patronage to the cults of Maheshvara (Shiva) and Ghattavasini (goddess residing in the pot) by a local Kayastha family through land and cash grants in Dhavagarta locality near Chittaudgarh.
  76. ^ Gupta, Chitrarekha (1996). The K?yasthas: a study in the formation and early history of a caste. K.P. Bagchi & Co. p. 67. ...Bengali Kayasthas are different from North Indian Gaudas. J.N Bhattacharya appears to be more scientific in his observations that the Gauda Kayasthas are found in almost all districts lying between Delhi and Patna. J.N Bhattacharya has taken the Bhatnagar Kayasthas as a section of the Gaudas.
  77. ^ Mazumdar, Bhakat Prasad (1960). "Castes and Professions". Socio-economic History of Northern India: (1030 - 1194 A.D.). Mukhopadhyay. p. 99. ...The Gauda Kayastha aso rendered their service to Chahamanas of Shakambari and Naddula by writing the Kinsariya (999 A.D), Delhi-Siwalik (1163) and Nadol inscriptions for Kings Durlabharaja, Visaladeva and Rayalpala resp....and his master, the Chaulukya King Kumarapala in VS 1213 and 1212/1156 A.D.
  78. ^ Mazumdar, Bhakat Prasad (1960). "Castes and Profession". Socio-economic History of Northern India: (1030 - 1194 A.D.). Mukhopadhyay. p. 100. The Gauda Kayastha also traveled to the courts of Chandellas and Kalachuri Kings...An inscription of Govindachandra Gahadavala dated 1129-30 A.D. refers to...
  79. ^ Gupta, Chitrarekha (1996). The K?yasthas: a study in the formation and early history of a caste. K.P. Bagchi & Co. p. 117. This love and respect for knowledge were nothing special with the line of Jajuka. Rather, these were general features of the characters of the Sri-Vastavyas
  80. ^ SHAH, K.K. (1993). "SELF LEGITIMATION AND SOCIAL PRIMACY: A Case Study of Some Kayastha Inscriptions From Central India". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 54: 860-861. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44143088. Vastavya, therefore, will have to be taken as a sub-caste a few members of which rose to very high positions in the administrative hierarchy of the Chandella kingdom. Two families from this branch of the Kayasthas have left three inscriptions for us containing an account of the mythical origin as also genealogical tree in order to establish their high Brahminic credentials...It is also noteworthy that both Jajuka and Maheshvara have remarkable military achievements to their credit which could put them on par with the Kshatriyas.
  81. ^ Dikshit, R. K. (1976). The Candellas of Jej?kabhukti. Abhinav Publications. pp. 71, 173-175, 190. ISBN 978-81-7017-046-4.
  82. ^ Mitra, Sisir Kumar (1977). The Early Rulers of Khajuraho (Second Revised ed.). Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 180. ISBN 978-81-208-1997-9.
  83. ^ Mazumdar, Bhakat Prasad (1960). "Castes and Professions". Socio-economic History of Northern India: (1030 - 1194 A.D.). Mukhopadhyay. pp. 101-103. Members of Vastavya community rose to very high positions. They enjoyed the feudatory status of Thakkura under the Gahadavala Kings under Govindachandra and Jayachandra, and the Chandela King Bhojavarman...It is possible that because of their services, the king raised them to a higher status...His brothers, Jaundhara and Maladhara were valiant warriors...The history of these two families show that the Vastavyas could become valiant soldiers.
  84. ^ Sinha, Bindeshwari Prasad (2003). Kayasthas in making of modern Bihar. Impression Publication. p. 13. Banaras plate of Govinchandra refers to Vastavya Kayastha.
  85. ^ Niyogi, Roma (1959). The History of the G?ha?av?la Dynasty. Oriental Book Agency. p. 212. It also contains a statue of Vastavya-Kayastha Thakkura Sri-Ranapala (in a soldier's outfit) who appears to have built...
  86. ^ Mazumdar, Bhakat Prasad (1960). "Castes and Professions". Socio-economic History of Northern India: (1030 - 1194 A.D.). Mukhopadhyay. p. 102. ..The members of the family of Dharamraja, the hereditary scribes of the Kalachuri kings of Ratanpur, were good poets.
  87. ^ Panikkar, Kavalam Madhava (1954). A Survey of Indian History. Asia Publishing House. p. 109.
  88. ^ Kumar, Saurabh (2015). "Rural Society and Rural Economy in the Ganga Valley during the Gahadavalas". Social Scientist. 43 (5/6): 29-45. ISSN 0970-0293. JSTOR 24642345. As far as the Gahadavala land-grant charters are concerned, kayasthas appear to be the third next important social section after the Brahmanas and Kshatriyas. We are not sure, what was the exact nature and position of the kayasthas in the social hierarchy in the Ganga valley during the rule of the Gahadavala. At least, the copper plate charters do not reveal much. One thing is clear that by this time, Kayasthas had come to acquire prominent places in the court and officialdom and some were financially well-off to commission the construction of temples, while others were well-versed in the requisite fields of Vedic lore to earn the title of pandita for themselves. In our study, the epigraphic sources do not indicate the oppressive nature of Kayastha officials.
  89. ^ U. A. B. Razia Akter Banu (1992). Islam in Bangladesh. Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 5-6. ISBN 978-90-04-09497-0. Retrieved 2011.
  90. ^ Lisa Ballbanlilar (2012). Imperial Identity in Mughal Empire: Memory and Dynastic Politics in Early Modern Central Asia. I.B. Taurus & Co., Ltd. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-84885-726-1. Retrieved 2012.
  91. ^ Biography of Abbas I 2012 ISBN 9789643517267
  92. ^ Hugh Tinker (1990). South Asia: A Short History. University of Hawaii Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-8248-1287-4. Retrieved 2011.
  93. ^ Rahman, M.M. (2006). Encyclopaedia of Historiography. Anmol Publications. p. 168. ISBN 978-81-261-2305-6. Retrieved 2010.
  94. ^ "New Page 1".
  95. ^ "Tirupati temple - Medieval history". A.P Tourism. Retrieved 2013.
  96. ^ a b Eaton, Richard Maxwell (1996). The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760. University of California Press. pp. 102-103. ISBN 978-0-52020-507-9.
  97. ^ U. A. B. Razia Akter Banu (1992). Islam in Bangladesh. Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 24-25. ISBN 978-90-04-09497-0. Retrieved 2011.
  98. ^ Dipesh Chakrabarty (2015). The Calling of History: Sir Jadunath Sarkar and His Empire of Truth. University of Chicago Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-226-10045-6. Retrieved 2018.
  99. ^ Srivastava, KamalShankar (1998). Irigin and development of class and caste in India.
  100. ^ "Governor of Bihar". governor.bih.nic.in. Retrieved 2018.
  101. ^ "The London Gazette".
  102. ^ "The language of difference". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2018.
  103. ^ "No. 31196". The London Gazette. 21 February 1919. p. 2612.
  104. ^ Raymond Lee Owens, Ashis Nandy (1978). The New Vaisyas. Carolina Academic Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-89089-057-8. Retrieved 2011.
  105. ^ Samaren Roy (1999). The Bengalees: Glimpses of History and Culture. Allied Publishers. p. 81. ISBN 978-8170239819. Retrieved 2012.
  106. ^ Sugata Bose (2011). His Majesty's Opponent: Subhas Chandra Bose and India's Struggle Against Empire. Harvard University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0674047549. Retrieved 2012.
  107. ^ Surinder Mohan Bhardwaj (1983). Hindu Places of Pilgrimage in India: A Study in Cultural Geography. University of California Press. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-520-04951-2. Retrieved 2011.
  108. ^ Bachchan, Harivansh Rai (1998). In the Afternoon of Time: An Autobiography. India: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780670881581.
  109. ^ Banhatti, G.S. (1995). Life and Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 1. ISBN 978-81-7156-291-6. Retrieved 2012.
  110. ^ Verma, Rajeev (2009). Faith & Philosophy of Hinduism. Gyan Publishing House. p. 85. ISBN 978-81-7835-718-8.
  111. ^ a b Sananda Lal Ghosh,(1980), Mejda, Self-Realization Fellowship, p.3
  112. ^ "Interview with Srila Prabhupada's Grand-Nephew - Sankarsan Prabhu". bvml.org. Archived from the original on 27 July 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  113. ^ Aall, Ingrid (1971). Robert Paul Beech; Mary Jane Beech (eds.). Bengal: change and continuity, Issues 16-20. East Lansing: Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University. p. 32. OCLC 258335. Aurobindo's father, Dr Krishnadhan Ghose, came from a Kayastha family associated with the village of Konnagar in Hooghly District near Calcutta, Dr. Ghose had his medical training in Edinburgh...
  114. ^ Srinivasan, K.; Kumar, Sanjay (16-23 October 1999). "Economic and Caste Criteria in Definition of Backwardness". Economic and Political Weekly. 34 (42/43): 3052. JSTOR 4408536.
  115. ^ Arnold P. Kaminsky, Roger D. Long (2011). India Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic : L-Z, Volume 2. ABC-CLIO. p. 405. ISBN 9780313374623. Retrieved 2016.
  116. ^ a b c Hayden J. Bellenoit (17 February 2017). The Formation of the Colonial State in India: Scribes, Paper and Taxes, 1760-1860. Taylor & Francis. p. 34, 37, 172,173,174,175. ISBN 978-1-134-49429-3. Retrieved 2018.
  117. ^ Prasad, Kali (1877). "PartIV. Decision of Pandits on the nationality of Kayasthas". The Kayastha ethnology. American Methodist Mission Press. p. 19. the ancestors of Chitraguptvansi and Chandraseni Kayasthas were dwija(twice-born)...
  118. ^ Mendis, Dushyantha (2007). Electoral Processes and Governance in South Asia. SAGE Publications India. p. 427. ISBN 978-8-178-29970-9.
  119. ^ Jayaswal, Prem Kumar (1990). Librarianship and Bureaucratic Organisation: A Study in the Sociology of Library Profession in India, Volume 1. Concept Publishing Company. p. 68. ISBN 978-8-170-22321-4.
  120. ^ Kumar, Ashwini (2008). Community warriors. Anthem Press. p. 33. ISBN 9781843317098.
  121. ^ a b Kumar, Ashwani (2008). Community Warriors: State, Peasants and Caste Armies in Bihar. Anthem Press. p. 195.
  122. ^ Inden, Ronald B. (1976). Marriage and Rank in Bengali Culture: A History of Caste and Clan in Middle Period Bengal. University of California Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-520-02569-1.
  123. ^ C.J.Fuller, Haripriya Narasimhan (11 November 2014). Tamil Brahmans: The making of a middle caste. University of Chicago Press. p. 212. ISBN 9780226152882. In Bengal, the new middle class emergent under the British rule styled itself 'bhadralok', the gentry or "respectable people", and its principal constituents were the three Bengali high castes, Brahmans, Baidyas, and Kayasthas. Moreover, for the Bhadralok, a prestigious, refined culture based on education literacy and artistic skills, and the mastery of the Bengali language, counted for more than caste status itself for their social dominance in Bengal.
  124. ^ Rowe, William L. (2007) [1968]. "Mobility in the nineteenth-century caste system". In Singer, Milton; Cohn, Bernard S. (eds.). Structure and Change in India Society (Reprinted ed.). Transaction Publishers. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-202-36138-3.
  125. ^ "Cambridge South Asian Studies, Issue 24". cambridge university press. 2007: 186. In three articles: 1975, 1977 and 1978. In these essays she also pinpoints factual and interpretative errors in William L. Rowe's presentation of the Kayastha movement. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  126. ^ Lucy Carol Stout (1976). The Hindustani Kayasthas: The Kayastha Pathshala, and the Kayastha Conference, 1873-1914. University of California, Berkeley. In "Sachchidananda Sinha and the Making of Modern Bihar,Bishop relied heavily upon William L. Rowe's essay, "Mobility in the Nineteenth Century Caste system," basing his theoretical framework squarely upon Rowe's unquestioned assumptions. Accepting Rowe's assumption that the categories of "sanskritization" and "westernization" ...
  127. ^ Prasad, Kali (1877). "Part IV (iii,iv,v,vi & vii). Decision of Pandits on the nationality of Kayasthas". The Kayastha ethnology. American Methodist Mission Press. pp. 19 to 26. the ancestors of Chitraguptvansi and Chandraseni Kayasthas were dwija(twice-born)...
  128. ^ Aall, Ingrid (1971). Robert Paul Beech; Mary Jane Beech (eds.). Bengal: change and continuity, Issues 16-20. East Lansing: Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University. p. 32. OCLC 258335. Aurobindo's father, Dr Krishnadhan Ghose, came from a Kayastha family associated with the village of Konnagar in Hooghly District near Calcutta, Dr. Ghose had his medical training in Edinburgh...
  129. ^ Chakravarty, Ishita (1 October 2019). "Owners, creditors and traders: Women in late colonial Calcutta". The Indian Economic & Social History Review. 56 (4): 427-456. doi:10.1177/0019464619873800. ISSN 0019-4646.
  130. ^ Gosling (2007). Science and the Indian Tradition: When Einstein Met Tagore.
  131. ^ A. Pelinka, R. Schell (2003). Democracy Indian Style: Subhas Chandra Bose and the Creation of India's Political Culture. Transaction Publishers. p. 32. ISBN 978-07-6580-186-9.
  132. ^ Raghubirlal Anand (2014). Is God Dead. p. 118.
  133. ^ Sandip Das (2005). Jayaprakash Narayan: A Centenary Volume. Mittal Publications. pp. 105-. ISBN 978-81-8324-001-7.
  134. ^ "Devdutt Pattanaik: Descendants of Chitragupta". mid-day. 18 February 2018. Retrieved 2020.
  135. ^ "Interview with Srila Prabhupada's Grand-Nephew - Sankarsan Prabhu". bvml.org. Archived from the original on 27 July 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  136. ^ Janak Raj Jai (1 January 2003). Presidents of India, 1950-2003. Regency Publications. pp. 1-. ISBN 978-81-87498-65-0.
  137. ^ Tara Sinha (2013). Dr. Rajendra Prasad: A Brief Biography. Ocean Books. ISBN 978-81843-0173-1. Archived from the original on 10 May 2018.
  138. ^ Vyas, Hari Shankar (7 April 2013). "Brahmins in Congress on tenterhooks". The Pioneer. Retrieved 2014.
  139. ^ Burger, Angela Sutherland (1969). Opposition in a Dominant Party System: A study of the Jan Sangh, the Praja Socialist Party and the Socialist Party in Uttar Pradesh, India. University of California Press. p. 28.
  140. ^ Vijay Sanghvi (2006). The Congress, Indira to Sonia Gandhi. Gyan Publishing House. p. 42. ISBN 978-81-7835-340-1.
  141. ^ Kumar, Ashwani (2008). Community Warriors: State, Peasants and Caste Armies in Bihar. Anthem Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-84331-709-8. Retrieved 2020.
  142. ^ An Indian In The House: The lives and times of the four trailblazers who first brought India to the British Parliament. Mereo Books. 2019. ISBN 978-1-86151-490-5. Retrieved 2020.
  143. ^ "Milestones in the life of Sena chief Bal Thackeray". hindustantimes. HT Media Limited. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 2014.
  144. ^ "Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East". South Asia Bulletin. University of California, Los Angeles. 16 (2): 116. 1996. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 2012.
  145. ^ Schomer, Karine (1998). Mahadevi Varma and the Chhayavad Age of Modern Hindi Poetry. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-564450-6.
  146. ^ a b Bachchan, Harivansh Rai (1998). In the Afternoon of Time: An Autobiography. India: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780670881581.
  147. ^ Banhatti, G.S. (1995). Life and Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 1. ISBN 978-81-7156-291-6. Retrieved 2012.
  148. ^ Verma, Rajeev (2009). Faith & Philosophy of Hinduism. Gyan Publishing House. p. 85. ISBN 978-81-7835-718-8.
  149. ^ a b Kantak, M. R. (1978). "The Political Role of Different Hindu Castes and Communities in Maharashtra in the Foundation of the Shivaji Maharaj's Swarajya". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 38 (1): 40-56. JSTOR 42931051.
  150. ^ Relia, Anil (12 August 2014). The Indian Portrait III.
  151. ^ Sen, Sailendra Nath (1961). Anglo-Maratha relations during the administration of Warren Hastings, 1772-1785. Bombay: Popular Prakashan. p. 10. ISBN 978-81-7154-578-0.
  152. ^ Cite error: The named reference MiltonWagle was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  153. ^ Surendra Nath Sen (1949). Indian Travels of Thevenot and Careri: Being the Third Part of the Travels of M. de Thevenot Into the Levant and the Third Part of a Voyage Round the World by Dr. John Francis Gemelli Careri.
  154. ^ "DnaIndia mumbai report (Dec 2013)".
  155. ^ "Nagpur Today (Nov 2014)".
  156. ^ Dhimatkar, Abhidha (16 October 2010). "The Indian Edison". Economic and Political Weekly. 45 (42): 67-74. JSTOR 20787477.
  157. ^ South Asian intellectuals and social change: a study of the role of vernacular-speaking intelligentsia by Yogendra K. Malik, page 63.
  158. ^ Aru?a ?ikekara (2006). The Cloister's Pale: A Biography of the University of Mumbai. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. p. 105. ISBN 978-81-7991-293-5.
  159. ^ Sumita Mukherjee (2010). Nationalism, Education and Migrant Identities: The England-returned. Oxon: Routledge. p. 129. ISBN 9781135271138.
  1. ^ quote on page 147: That the "pure Kshatriya"(shuddha kshatria) status of the CKP was fully backed up by the actual shastras, was the unofficial verdict of Gangadharshastri Dikshit who was appointed arbiter to resolve the dispute. The famous jurist Ramshastri Prabhune was also in favor of the CKP's vedokta
  2. ^ quote on page 173: Rajvadyanchi Gagabhatti appendix 4, pp-1-21. The Shankaracharya's letter contains three documents which he produces verbatim, two from Banares Brahmins (1779, 1801) proving the CKPs vedokta and one from Pune Brahmins award Ratified by Bajirav II in 1796.
  3. ^ quote on page 170: The Shankaracharya in his 1827 and November 1830 letter cites the sastric support for the kshatriyahood of the ckps:[names of many religious scriptures]. His trump card is the [name/section names of religious scriptures] where the CKP are explicitly referred to as 'Chandraseniya Kshatriyas'
  4. ^ quote on page 173: Rajvadyanchi Gagabhatti appendix 4, pp-1-21. The Shankaracharya's letter contains three documents which he produces verbatim, two from Banares Brahmins (1779, 1801) proving the CKPs vedokta and one from Pune Brahmins award Ratified by Bajirav II in 1796.
  5. ^ quote on page 170: The Shankaracharya in his 1827 and November 1830 letter cites the sastric support for the kshatriyahood of the ckps:[names of many religious scriptures]. He also ennumerated the [name/section names of religious scriptures] where the CKP are explicitly referred to as 'Chandraseniya Kshatriyas'
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference MW168 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

Further reading


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Kayastha
 



 



 
Music Scenes