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Kaman-Kalehöyük is a multi-period archaeological site in K?r?ehir Province, Turkey, around 100 km south east of Ankara 6 km east of the town center of Kaman.[1] It is a tell or mound site that was occupied during the Bronze Age, Iron Age and Ottoman periods. Since 1986 it has been investigated by archaeologists from the Middle Eastern Culture Center in Japan.

In 2005, metallurgical analysis by Hideo Akanuma of iron fragments found at Kaman-Kalehöyük in 1994 and dating to c. 1800 BCE revealed that some of these fragments were composed of carbon steel; these currently form the world's earliest known evidence for steel manufacture.[2][3]


  1. ^ Steadman, Sharon R.; McMahon, Gregory (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000 - 323 BCE). Oxford University Press. p. 1095. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2. Retrieved 2015.
  2. ^ Akanuma, H. (2005). "The significance of the composition of excavated iron fragments taken from Stratum III at the site of Kaman-Kalehöyük, Turkey". Anatolian Archaeological Studies. 14: 147-158.
  3. ^ "Ironware piece unearthed from Turkey found to be oldest steel". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 2009-03-26. Retrieved .

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Coordinates: 39°21?46?N 33°47?12?E / 39.36278°N 33.78667°E / 39.36278; 33.78667

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