Kalenjin Languages
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Kalenjin Languages

The Kalenjin languages are a family of a dozen Southern Nilotic languages spoken in Kenya, eastern Uganda and northern Tanzania. The term Kalenjin comes from an expression meaning 'I say (to you)' or 'I have told you' (present participle tense). Kalenjin in this broad linguistic sense should not be confused with Kalenjin as a term for the common identity the Nandi-speaking peoples of Kenya assumed halfway through the twentieth century; see Kalenjin people and Kalenjin language.

Branches

The Kalenjin languages are generally distinguished into four branches. There is less certainty regarding internal relationships within these.

Comparative vocabulary

Sample basic vocabulary of Kalenjin languages from van Otterloo (1979),[2] and Proto-Southern Nilotic from Rottland (1982):[3]

Language eye ear nose tooth tongue mouth blood bone tree water to eat name
Proto-Southern Nilotic *k?:?, *k *i:t *ser *ke:L-?t *Ly?p *k?:t *ka:w *k?:t *peR *k?:R?n
Nandi ko?:nda? i:tit seru:t ke?:lde?t ?e?lye?pta? ku?:ti?t koroti:k ka:we:t ke:tit be:k keam ka?:yne?:t
Kipsigis ko?:nda? i:tit seru:t ke?:lde?t ?e?lye?pta? ku?:ti?t koroti:k ka:we:t ke:tit be:k keam ka?:yne?:t
Terik ko?:?da? i:tit seru:t ke?:nde?t ?e?nye?pta? ku?:ti?t koroti:k ka:we:t ke:tit be:k keam ka?:yne?:t
Keiyo ko?:nda? i:tit seru:t ke?:lde?t ?e?lye?pta? ku?:ti?t koroti:k ka:we:t ke:tit be:k keam ka?:yne?:t
South Tugen ko?:?da? i:tit seru:(t) ke?:lde?(t) ?e?lye?pta? ku?:ti? koroti:k ka:we: ke:t(it) be:k keam ka?:yne?:t
North Tugen ko?:? i:t ser? ke?:la?t ?e?lye?p ku?:t koroti ka:we ke:t be:y keam ka?:yne?
Kony-Sabaot ko?:?da? i:tit serwut ke?:lde?t ?e?lye?pta? ku?:ti?t koroti:k ka:we:t ke:tit pe:go keam ka?:yne?:t
Cherang'any ko?:nda?/ko?:? i:tit seru:t ke?:la?t ?e?lye?p ku?:t(i?t) koroti:k ka:we ke:t be:y keam ka?:yne?
Talai ko?:? i:t ser? ke?:la?t ?a?lya?p ku?:t koroti ka:wa ke:t p?e:y keam ka?:yne?
Endo ko?:? i:t ser? ke?:la?t ?a?lya?p ku?:t koroti/kisun ka:wa ke:t bu?r? keam ka?r?e?n
East Pokot ko:? yi:t sa?r? ke?:la?t ?a?lya?p ku?:t kis?n ka:wa? ke:t p?:? keam ka?:yne?:t

Footnotes

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kalenjin". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ van Otterloo, Roger. 1979. A Kalenjin dialect study. (Language Data Africa Series, 18.) Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  3. ^ Rottland, Franz. 1982. Die Südnilotischen Sprachen: Beschreibung, Vergleichung und Rekonstruktion (Kölner Beiträge zur Afrikanistik vol. 7). Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.

References

  • Distefano, John Albert. 1985. The precolonial history of the Kalenjin of Kenya: a methodological comparison of linguistic and oral traditional evidence. Doctoral dissertation, University of California at Los Angeles.
  • Rottland, Franz (1982) Die Südnilotischen Sprachen: Beschreibung, Vergleichung und Rekonstruktion (Kölner Beiträge zur Afrikanistik vol. 7). Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. (See esp. map 1 on p. 31, and the 'Sprachbeschreibung' of the Kalenjin languages on pp. 69–143.)
  • van Otterloo, Roger. 1979. A Kalenjin dialect study. (Language Data Africa Series, 18.) Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

External links


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