In 1833 he became a journalist in Leipzig, later securing a position as tutor and lecturer (privat-docent) in the university there (lecturing on Chaldaic, Syriac, Hebrew grammar and literature, Biblical exegesis, etc.), from which position he was promoted in 1864 to professor of oriental languages and literature. He filled this post until his death, and during his tenure there he was also elected to several scientific societies.
As one of the exponents of the University of Leipzig's academic scholarly milieu throughout his adult life he was also a contemporary, a friend, and a sometimes collaborator of Leipzig's own native Lutheran scholar and professor Franz Delitsch. Fürst was 8 years Delitsch's senior.
Fürst was chief editor of Der Orient (Leipzig 1840-1851), a periodical dedicated to scientific study of the language, literature and history of the Jews.
Lehrgebäude der aramaischen Idiome ("A system for Aramic dialects," 1835)
Concordantiae librorum Sacrorum veteris Testamenti Hebraicae et Chaldaicae (1837-40)
Kultur and Literaturgeschichte der Juden in Asien ("Cultural and literary history of Jews in Asia," 1849)
Hebräisches und Chaldäisches Handwörterbuch ("Portable dictionary for Hebrew and Chaldaic," 1851-61)