Jukunoid Language
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Jukunoid Language

Jukunoid
Geographic
distribution
Nigeria, Cameroon
Linguistic classificationNiger-Congo
Glottologjuku1257[1]
Map of the Jukunoid languages.svg
The Jukunoid languages shown within Nigeria and Cameroon

The Jukunoid languages are a branch of the Central Nigerian (or Platoid) languages spoken by the Jukun and related peoples of Nigeria and Cameroon. They are distributed mostly throughout Taraba State, Nigeria and surrounding regions.

Their asymmetrical nasal consonants are atypical for West Africa, as can be seen in Wapan.

External relationships

Gerhardt (1983) and Güldemann (2018) suggest that Jukunoid may actually be part of the Plateau languages, as it shares similarities with various Plateau groups, especially Tarokoid.[2][3] However, Blench (2005) argues that Jukunoid is clearly spearate from Plateau.[4]

Classification

The following classification is from Glottolog;[1] the Korofofa branch has been added from Ethnologue (Glottolog classifies the Korofofa languages as Jukun):[5]

Ethnologue adds the Yukubenic branch of the Plateau languages as part of a Yukubenic-Kuteb group[5] based on Shimizu (1980), and Blench also follows this classification.[6]Ethnologue also leaves the Wurbo language Shoo-Minda-Nye as unclassified within Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, and includes the unclassified Benue-Congo language Tita in its place.[5]

Lau was also recently reported by Idiatov (2017).[7]

Names and locations

Below is a list of language names, populations, and locations from Blench (2019).[8]


Language Branch Cluster Dialects Alternate spellings Own name for language Endonym(s) Other names (location-based) Other names for language Exonym(s) Speakers Location(s) Notes
Akum Anyar 3 villages in Nigeria; 600 in Cameroon (1976) Taraba State, ca. 6°50N, 9°50E
Bete Language dying out. Taraba State, Wukari LGA, Bete town no data
Nyifon Iordaa 1000 (CAPRO n.d. but probably 1990s) Buruku LGA, Benue State no data
Jan Awei Jan Awei 12 ? (1997) Gombe State, West of Muri mountains, North of the Benue (precise location unknown)
Jukun cluster Jukun Njuku Njikun 35,000 (1971 Welmers)[9]; 1700 in Cameroon (1976) Taraba State, Wukari, Takum, Bali and Sardauna LGAs; Nasarawa State, Awe and Lafia LGAs; Plateau State, Shendam and Langtang South LGAs; Benue State, Makurdi LGA; and in Furu-Awa subdivision, Cameroon
Jibu Jukun Gayam, Garbabi 25,000 (1987 SIL) Taraba State, Gashaka LGA
Takum-Donga Jukun Takum, Donga Jibu Second language speakers only 40,000 (1979 UBS) Taraba State, Takum, Sardauna and Bali LGAs
Wase Tofa Jukun Plateau State, Shendam and Langtang South LGAs
Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo group Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo
Kororofa cluster Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo Kororofa Jukun more than 62,000 (SIL)
Abinsi Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo Kororofa Wapan River Jukun Taraba State, Wukari LGA, at Sufa and Kwantan Sufa; Benue State, Makurdi LGA, at Abinsi
Wapan Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo Kororofa Wapan Wukari and Abinsi 60,000 (1973 SIL) Taraba State, Wukari LGA; Nasarawa State, Awe and Lafia LGAs; Plateau State, Shendam and Langtang South LGAs (precise areas uncertain)
Hone Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo Kororofa Kona 2,000 (1977 Voegelin & Voegelin) Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA; Plateau State, Wase LGA. Villages north and west of Jalingo
Dampar Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo Kororofa Taraba State, Wukari LGA, at Dampar
Mbembe Tigong cluster Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo Mbembe Tigong Noale Tigong, Tigun, Tugun, Tukun, Tigum Akonto, Nzare 2,900 in Nigeria (1973 SIL) Taraba State, Sardauna LGA; mainly in Cameroon
Ashuku Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo Mbembe Tigong Ashaku Áktskp, Ákúcùkpú Kitsipki
Nama Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo Mbembe Tigong Dama, Namu Kporo Nzare 'I say so'; Eneeme
Shoo-Minda-Nye cluster Wurbo Shoo-Minda-Nye May be related to Jessi spoken between Lau and Lankoviri 10,000 (SIL) Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA
Shoo Wurbo Shoo-Minda-Nye Shóó dà? Shóó Nwii Shóó Banda, Bandawa
Minda Wurbo Shoo-Minda-Nye Jinleri
Nye Wurbo Shoo-Minda-Nye Nyé Nyé Nwi Nyé Kunini
Jiru Wurbo Zhiru Atak, Wiyap, Kir Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA
Etkywan Kpan-Icen Icen, Ichen, Itchen Kentu, Kya)tõ, Kyanton, Nyidu 6,330 in Donga district (1952 W&B)[10]; more than 7,000 (1973 SIL) Taraba State, Takum and Sardauna LGAs
Kpan Kpan-Icen Western and Eastern groups: Western: 1 Kumbo-Takum Group: Kumbo (Kpanzon), Takum; 2 Donga (Akpanzh?; 3 Bissaula (extinct) Eastern: Apa (per Kilham), Kente, Eregba (per Koelle) Kpanten, Ikpan, Akpanzhi, Kpanzon, Abakan Kpwate, Hwaye, Hwaso, Nyatso, Nyonyo, Yorda, Ibukwo Taraba State, Wukari, Takum and Sardaunda LGAs
Como-Karim Wurbo Shomoh, Shomong, Chomo, Shomo Karim, Kirim Kiyu, Nuadhu Taraba State, Karim Lamido and Jalingo LGAs
Tita Wurbo Taraba State, Jalingo LGA, at Hoai Petel Blench was not able to identify the people or the location, though Meek had data showing it to be Jukunoid.

Numerals

Comparison of numerals in individual languages:[11]

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun Hõne (Pindiga/Gwana) zù? pyè:nè sá:ré ny sn sùnjé sùnpyè:nè h?nnè s?nyáu dùb
Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun Jibu zyun pyànà sàra yina swana sùnjin sùmpyànn awùyin ajunndúbi dwib
Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun Wapa (Wãpha) zù? py s? / s?r? nyìn? swã?n? sémpyè ssá sínyáu ádùb
Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa Jiba (Jibe / Kona) z: pyè:nà sà:r nyè són sùn?é sùmpyè:nà húhúnyè z?rh?nnì dùb
Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa Wapan Jukun dzun pyìnà tsara nyena tswana cìnjen / ?ì?en (5+ 1) tsùpyìn (5+ 2) tsùntsa (5+ 3) tsùnyò (5+ 4) dzwe
Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Mbembe Tigon Mbembe nzo pya sra ny? t?w t?wmbazo (5+ 1) t?wmbapya (5+ 2) ny?ny? (2 x 4) t?wmny? (5+ 4) d?é
Yukuben-Kuteb Akum ájì afã? ata a acó? acó? jì (5+ 1) acó? afã? (5+ 2) acó? ata (5+ 3) acó? ?ì (5+ 4) ?kùr(ù)
Yukuben-Kuteb Kapya ?mé ?f ?tà ìtú tú ì (5+ 1) tú óf?õ (5+ 2) tú àtà (5+ 3) tú (5+ 4) èb?í / èbzí
Yukuben-Kuteb Kuteb (Kutev) (1) kínz? ífa? ít? índ ítsó? ítsó?-nd (5+ 1) ítsó?-ífa? (5+ 2) ítsó?-ít? (5+ 3) ítsó?-nd (5+ 4) rid?w?r
Yukuben-Kuteb Kuteb (Kutev) (2) kínz? ifaen it? inje itsó? itsó?-nz? (5+ 1) itsó?-faen (5+ 2) itsó?-t? (5+ 3) itsó?-nje (5+ 4) rijw?r
Yukuben-Kuteb Yukuben kít ?pá(?) ?tà, ?rà ?nzì otò? (?)?tò? kíhín (5+ 1) (?)?tò? ?pá (5+ 2) (?)?tò? ?tà / ?rà (5+ 3) (?)?tò? ?nzì (5+ 4) kùr

See also

Further reading

  • Shimizu, Kiyoshi. 1980. Comparative Jukunoid, 3 vols. (Veröffentlichungen der Institute für Afrikanistik und Ägyptologie der Universität Wien 7-9. Beiträge zur Afrikanistik 5-7). Vienna: Afro-Pub.

References

  1. ^ a b Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Jukunoid". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Gerhardt, L. 1983. The classification of Eggon: Plateau or Benue group? Journal of West African Languages, 13(1):37-50.
  3. ^ Güldemann, Tom (2018). "Historical linguistics and genealogical language classification in Africa". In Güldemann, Tom (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of Africa. The World of Linguistics series. 11. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 58-444. doi:10.1515/9783110421668-002. ISBN 978-3-11-042606-9.
  4. ^ Blench, Roger. 2005. Is there a boundary between Plateau and Jukunoid? Paper for the Vienna Jukunoid workshop, Vienna, 19-20th, November, 2005.
  5. ^ a b c "Jukunoid". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017.
  6. ^ Blench, Roger (15 November 2005). "Is there a boundary between Plateau and Jukunoid? (PDF Download Available)". ResearchGate. pp. 3, 5. Retrieved 2017.
  7. ^ Idiatov, Dmitry, Mark Van de Velde, Tope Olagunju and Bitrus Andrew. 2017. Results of the first AdaGram survey in Adamawa and Taraba States, Nigeria. 47th Colloquium on African Languages and Linguistics (CALL) (Leiden, Netherlands).
  8. ^ Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  9. ^ Welmers, William Everrett 1971. Checklist of African Language and Dialect Names. In: Current Trends in Linguistics, Vol. 7, T.A. Sebeok 759-900, The Hague, Mouton.
  10. ^ Westermann, Diedrich & M.A. Bryan, 1952. Languages of West Africa. London: International African Institute.
  11. ^ Chan, Eugene (2019). "The Niger-Congo Language Phylum". Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.

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