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Fitzmyer contributed to several biblical commentaries, including the Jerome Biblical Commentary, the New Jerome Biblical Commentary, and the Anchor Bible Commentary. His contribution to the Anchor Bible Commentary included work on The Gospel of Luke (in two volumes), Acts of the Apostles, 1 Corinthians, Romans, and Philemon. In the New Jerome Biblical Commentary, he has articles introducing the New Testament Epistles, Galatians, Romans, Philemon and on the history of Israel as well as Paul and Pauline theology. In the last one, after a historical review of 40 themes, he concludes:
As Christ was "the image of the God" (2 Cor 4:4) so human beings are destined to be "the image of the heavenly man" (1 Cor 15:49; cf. Rom 8:29). [Through] growth in Christ ... the Christian lives his or her life "for God" (Gal 2:19). Thus, for all his emphasis on Christ, Paul once again refers Christian existence ultimately to the Father - through Christ.
Fitzmyer published three commentaries on Romans: The Jerome Biblical Commentary (1968), The New Jerome Biblical Commentary (1989), and the Anchor Bible Commentary (1993). The last work runs over 800 pages, and from it came a very practical and spiritually accessible work, Spiritual Exercises Based on Paul's Epistle to the Romans. The creative endeavor links biblical commentary and exegeses with modern spirituality. In it, Fitzmyer lays out his interpretation of Romans in a more condensed form. Using historical and rhetorical criticism, Paul's Jewish background and Graeco-Roman setting fail to prevent Fitzmyer from seeing coherency in Paul's message.
While some scholars argue that Paul's theology is largely dependent on its context, such as the crisis in the Corinthian community, Fitzmyer argues for a vital application of Romans to our modern context.
In his The Impact of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Fitzmyer summarizes in the book his 50 years of research as a pioneer in the field.
———; Kaufman, Stephen A. (1992). An Aramaic Bibliography: Part I: Old, Official, and Biblical Aramaic (Publications of The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN978-0-8018-4312-9.
——— (1993). According to Paul: Studies in the Theology of the Apostle. Glen Rock, NJ: Paulist Press. ISBN978-0-8091-3390-1.
———; Harrington, Daniel J. (1994). A Manual of Palestinian Aramaic texts: (second century B.C.-second century A.D.) (2nd ed.). Rome: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico. ISBN978-8876533341.
——— (1995). The Biblical Commission's Document "The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church: Text and Commentary. Subsidia biblica. 18. Rome: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico. ISBN978-8-8765-3605-2.
——— (1995). Spiritual Exercises Based on Paul's Epistle to the Romans. Glen Rock, NJ: Paulist Press. ISBN978-0-8091-3580-6.
——— (1997). The Semitic Background of the New Testament Volume I: Essays on the Semitic Background of the New Testament. Biblical Resource Series (Reprint ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. ISBN978-0-8028-4845-1.
——— (1997). The Semitic Background of the New Testament: Combined Edition of "Essays on the Semitic Background of the New Testament" and "A Wandering Aramean". Biblical Resource Series (Combined ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. ISBN978-0-8028-4344-9.