John McGraw
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John McGraw

John McGraw
John McGraw 1924.jpg
McGraw in 1924
Third baseman / Manager
Born: (1873-04-07)April 7, 1873
Truxton, New York
Died: February 25, 1934(1934-02-25) (aged 60)
New Rochelle, New York
Batted: Left Threw: Right
MLB debut
August 26, 1891, for the Baltimore Orioles
Last MLB appearance
September 12, 1906, for the New York Giants
MLB statistics
Batting average.334
Home runs13
Runs batted in462
Stolen bases436
Managerial record2,763-1,948
Winning %.586
As player

As manager

Career highlights and awards
Member of the National
Empty Star.svgEmpty Star.svgEmpty Star.svgBaseball Hall of Fame Empty Star.svgEmpty Star.svgEmpty Star.svg
Election MethodVeterans Committee

John Joseph McGraw (April 7, 1873 - February 25, 1934), nicknamed "Little Napoleon" and "Mugsy", was a Major League Baseball (MLB) player and manager of the New York Giants. He stood 5 feet 7 inches (1.70 m) tall and weighed 155 pounds (70 kg). He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937. While primarily a third baseman throughout his career, he also played shortstop and the outfield in the major leagues.

Much lauded as a player, McGraw was one of the standard-bearers of dead-ball era baseball. He was known for his quick temper and for bending the rules, but he also stood out as a great baseball mind. McGraw was a key player on the pennant-winning 1890s Baltimore Orioles, and later applied his talents and temper while a captain (playing)-manager, transitioning in 1902 to the New York Giants, for whom he became a bench manager in 1907 until his retirement in 1932.

Even with his success and fame as a player, he is best known for his managing, especially since it was with a team as popular as the New York Giants. His total of 2,763 victories in that capacity ranks second overall behind only Connie Mack; he still holds the National League record with 2,669 wins in the senior circuit.[1] McGraw is widely held to be "the best player to become a great manager" in the history of baseball.[2] McGraw also held the MLB record for most ejections by a manager (132) until Bobby Cox broke the record in 2007.

Early years

McGraw's father (whose name was also John) and his older brother Michael emigrated from Ireland in 1856. Their last name was spelled "McGrath" but is pronounced "McGraw" in Ireland. He and his brother had arrived in time for the Civil War, and were drawn into the conflict as part of the Union army. Shortly after the war, he married; and McGraw's older half-sister was born. John McGraw, Sr.'s first wife died, and he began moving around looking for work -- a search that ultimately led him to Truxton, New York, in 1871. It was there that the elder John McGraw married young Ellen Comerfort. They had the younger John McGraw on April 7, 1873.

The younger John McGraw was named "John" after his father, and "Joseph" after his grandfather back in Ireland. Even as a baby, young Johnny (as he was called) had raven hair, and eyes so dark that many people thought they were black. The boy's birth was the first of many to the family, as seven more children were born over the course of the next 12 years. The sheer number of children, combined with the paucity of well-compensated work, led to hard times for the large family. It was often a struggle simply to have ample food for everyone and clothing enough to protect them all from the harsh winters of upstate New York.

Tragedy struck the family in the summer of 1883, when a debilitating fever swept through the family. Johnny's half-sister Annie, 13, was the first to succumb; and his mother died shortly thereafter. By the time September 1883 had passed, three more McGraw children had died. The devastated family moved from their house in the country into a hotel in town. Johnny's father, understandably bitter, heaped even more responsibility on the young boy's shoulders, and had very little patience for his son's passion for baseball. He became abusive toward the boy; and later on in 1885 (still only 12 years old), Johnny ran away. From that day onward, young John was raised by a kindly neighbor, Mary Goddard, under whose care he did quite well.

During his years as part of Goddard's household, John took on several jobs that allowed him to save money to buy baseballs and the Spalding magazines that chronicled the rules changes in the rival major leagues of baseball, the National League and the American Association. He quickly became the best player on his school team. Shortly after his 16th birthday, he began playing for his town's team, the Truxton Grays, making a favorable impression on their manager, Albert "Bert" Kenney. While he could play any position, his ability to throw a big curveball made him the star pitcher. McGraw's relationship with Kenney precipitated his professional playing career.[3]

A young McGraw (standing, to the right), 22 years old, with outfielder Joe Kelley (seated left), shortstop Hugh Jennings (seated right), and Willie Keeler (standing left)

Playing career

Minor leagues

In 1890, Kenney bought a portion of the new professional baseball franchise in Olean, New York. The team was to play in the newly formed New York-Pennsylvania League. In return for this investment, he was named player/manager of the team (this was called "captain" at the time).

When McGraw heard the news, he immediately went to visit his former coach, begging him for a chance to play on the new team. Kenney had seen a lot of baseball by this time, and doubted that his former pitcher's one great pitch (the "outcurve", as it was called) would work as effectively against professional competition. Yet the man liked the teenaged McGraw very much, and when the boy insisted that he could play any position available, Kenney decided to give him a chance. McGraw signed his first contract to play professional baseball on April 1, 1890.

Olean was located 200 miles from Truxton, and this was the farthest the youngster had ever traveled from his hometown. His debut with his new team was inauspicious and short-lived. He began the season on the bench. After two days, Kenney inserted him into the starting lineup at third base. McGraw would describe the moment of his first fielding chance decades later:

[F]or the life of me, I could not run to get it. It seemed like an age before I could get the ball in my hands and then, as I looked over to first, it seemed like the longest throw I ever had to make. The first baseman was the tallest in the league, but I threw the ball far over his head.[3]

McGraw (2nd from left, front row) with the 1896 Baltimore Orioles

Seven more errors in nine more chances followed that day, a debacle that McGraw would not soon forget. After the team opened with no wins in six contests, Kenney and the other members of the ownership of the team--in the face of attendance that had dwindled to nearly nothing--were forced to overhaul the team. McGraw was given his release from the team, but Kenney also loaned him $70 and wished him luck if he wanted to try to catch on with another squad. McGraw could not bear the thought of going home a failure, as both his father and Mary Goddard had urged him to stay home and take a regular job, instead of chasing his dream of being a ballplayer. McGraw was resolute in his determination to make a name for himself as a professional baseball player, even if that meant struggling along in poverty for a time.

Thus it was that he began his journey again, this time in Wellsville, New York, a team that played in the Western New York League. The level of baseball played there was the lowest of the minor leagues, and McGraw still struggled with his fielding. But during his 24-game stint with the club, he managed to hit .365, flashing a glimpse of what would later become his hitting prowess. On October 1, 1890, he finished his first season as a professional baseball player, still only 17 years old.

After that first season, McGraw caught on with the traveling team of flamboyant promoter and fellow player, Al Lawson. Then only 21 himself, Lawson had gathered a ragtag group of players. These he took to Gainesville, Florida, in February 1891, hoping to play against major league teams who were training in the area. After defeating a team from Ocala a couple of times, Lawson began calling his team "the champions of Florida", and was able to convince the National League team from Cleveland to play against his team. It was during this game that McGraw gained his first renown as a player. The Cleveland squad was led by Denton True "Cy" Young, who had already become famous for his "cyclone"-like fastball.

While the young Gainesville club lost the game 9-6, McGraw managed three doubles in five at-bats. He also scored half his team's six runs, crossing the plate three times. He played error-free defense at shortstop as well. Reports of the game -- and of his masterful play in it -- made it to the Cleveland papers. McGraw's name began to become widely known after other daily papers as well as some national baseball weeklies, such as The Sporting News. Shortly (around a week later), McGraw heard from many professional clubs requesting his services for the upcoming season.

Lawson acted as the boy's agent, and advised him to request $125 monthly and a $75 advance. The manager of the Cedar Rapids club in the Illinois-Iowa League was the first to wire the money, and McGraw decided to make that his next stop. It was later claimed by several other clubs that McGraw had signed with them and had accepted their $75 advances. Though they threatened to sue, the clubs were never able to substantiate these claims; and McGraw was allowed to play in the league.

It was with the Canaries -- as his Cedar Rapids club was called -- that his greatest opportunity would arise. The Chicago White Stockings arrived in town for an exhibition game against McGraw's team. The White Stockings were led by Adrian "Cap" Anson, the major leagues' first true superstar. Unfazed by his famous opponents, the brash young McGraw led his teammates in giving their foes a hard time. During the game, on a field covered in mud, McGraw made a dazzling play at shortstop, leaping high to steal a hit from Cap Anson. After the game, Anson -- impressed with the 18-year-old's solid play -- asked him whether he would like to play for Chicago's team some day, which greatly increased the young man's confidence.

McGraw discusses an issue with an umpire and two members of the Philadelphia Athletics.

When the call came for McGraw to report to the major leagues -- the National League's Baltimore club specifically -- his teammates accompanied him to the rail station. McGraw arrived at Camden Station in Baltimore on August 24, 1891, still only 18 years old, but now a major league baseball player. McGraw described his new home upon his arrival as "a dirty, dreary, ramshackle sort of place."[4]

John McGraw in the Chicago Eagle, 1919[5]

Major leagues

McGraw made his major league debut in 1891 in the American Association with the Baltimore Orioles. After the Orioles moved to the National League a year later, he remained with the team until 1899.[6] During this time, McGraw established himself as an adept batsman with a keen eye, and an excellent third baseman. He walked over 100 times in a season three times, scored over 100 runs in a season five times, batted .320 or higher in every year from 1893 on, and also boasted an on-base percentage of .400 or higher in every year from 1893 on, including a career high mark of .547 in 1899. McGraw also took on managerial duties for the 1899 Oriole team and posted an 86-62 record.

McGraw's playing time diminished over the following years as he played for the St. Louis Cardinals (1900), the American League Baltimore Orioles (1901-1902), and the New York Giants (1902-1906). 1902 was his last season as a full-time player; he never played in more than 12 games or tallied more than 12 at bats in any season thereafter. He retired having accumulated 1,024 runs, 13 home runs, 462 RBI, a .334 batting average and a .466 on-base percentage. His .466 career on-base percentage remains third all-time behind only baseball legends Ted Williams (.482) and Babe Ruth (.474).

Style of play

When, as a young player, McGraw tried to block Cleveland's Buck Ewing from third base, Ewing "went into him with such force that he knocked McGraw off his feet", John B. Foster of The Cleveland Leader wrote. "McGraw is rather a light youngster to be so anxious to block men off the bases. Another year in the league is likely to teach him a sorry lesson."[7]

Former Baltimore teammate Sadie McMahon said in 1948, "McGraw wouldn't give the bag to the base runner like they do today" and also that he would "stand on the inside corner and make the runner go around."[8]

In his 1998 The League That Failed, David Voigt said McGraw believed that "only by mastering the rules could he circumvent them." So "he became a master at finding loopholes."[9] Voigt added, "Among tactics used by McGraw was the opportunistic base runner's trick of slapping a ball from an infielder's grasp, the psychological ploy of wearing wickedly sharpened spikes, and vocally abusing opposing players and umpires."[10]

Voigt also wrote that McGraw had a reputation as a "dirty player" as of 1895 that was "the talk of the league." By 1895, some were singling out McGraw for his mouth."[11]

In 1899, the Pittsburg Leader said the following after he was "as quiet as a lamb" one day at Pittsburgh: "McGraw, although having the reputation of being a rowdy ball player, has never shown any rowdy tactics in this city."[12]

McGraw figures prominently in an Orioles-spiked-umpires recollection in Fred Lieb's 1950 The Baseball Story, which quotes 1890s umpire John Heydler, later a National League president, as saying: "We hear much of the glories and durability of the old Orioles, but the truth about this team seldom has been told. They were mean, vicious, ready at any time to maim a rival player or an umpire, if it helped their cause. The things they would say to an umpire were unbelievably vile, and they broke the spirits of some fine men. I've seen umpires bathe their feet by the hour after McGraw and others spiked them through their shoes. The club never was a constructive force in the game. The worst of it was they got by with much of their browbeating and hooliganism. Other clubs patterned after them, and I feel the lot of the umpire never was worse than in the years when the Orioles were flying high."[13]


1891 18 Baltimore Orioles AA 33 115 17 31 3 5 0 14 4 17 .270 .359 .383 .741
1892 19 Baltimore Orioles NL 79 286 41 77 13 2 1 26 15 21 .269 .355 .339 .694
1893 20 Baltimore Orioles NL 127 480 123 154 9 10 5 64 38 11 .321 .454 .413 .866
1894 21 Baltimore Orioles NL 124 512 156 174 18 14 1 92 78 12 .340 .451 .436 .887
1895 22 Baltimore Orioles NL 96 388 110 143 13 6 2 48 61 9 .369 .459 .448 .908
1896 23 Baltimore Orioles NL 23 77 20 25 2 2 0 14 13 4 .325 .422 .403 .825
1897 24 Baltimore Orioles NL 106 391 90 127 15 3 0 48 44 15 .325 .471 .379 .849
1898 25 Baltimore Orioles NL 143 515 143 176 8 10 0 53 43 13 .342 .475 .396 .871
1899 26 Baltimore Orioles NL 117 399 140 156 13 3 1 33 73 21 .391 .547 .446 .994
1900 27 St. Louis Cardinals NL 99 334 84 115 10 4 2 33 29 9 .344 .505 .416 .921
1901 28 Baltimore Orioles AL 73 232 71 81 14 9 0 28 24 6 .349 .508 .487 .995
1902 29 Baltimore Orioles/New York Giants AL/NL 55 170 27 43 3 2 1 8 12 17 .253 .420 .312 .732
1903 30 New York Giants NL 12 11 2 3 0 0 0 1 1 0 .273 .467 .273 .739
1904 31 New York Giants NL 5 12 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 .333 .467 .333 .800
1905 32 New York Giants NL 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
1906 33 New York Giants NL 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .000 .333 .000 .333

Managerial career


McGraw in 1912
John McGraw greets fellow manager Jake Stahl at the 1912 World Series.

Despite great success as a player, McGraw is most remembered for his tremendous accomplishments as a manager. In his book The Old Ball Game, National Public Radio's Frank Deford calls McGraw "the model for the classic American coach--a male version of the whore with a heart of gold--a tough, flinty so-and-so who was field-smart, a man's man his players came to love despite themselves."[14] McGraw took chances on players, signing some who had been discarded by other teams, often getting a few more good seasons out of them. Sometimes these risks paid off; other times, they did not work out quite so well. McGraw took a risk in signing famed athlete Jim Thorpe in 1913. Alas, Thorpe was a bust, not because he lacked athletic ability, but because "he couldn't hit a ball that curved."[14] McGraw was one of the first to use a relief pitcher to save games. He pitched Claude Elliott in relief eight times in his ten appearances in 1905. Though saves were not an official statistic until 1969, Elliot was retroactively credited with six saves that season, a record at that time.[15][16]

McGraw believed that he had to eliminate any potential distractions that could cause his teams to lose. For example, Casey Stengel, who played for the Giants from 1921 to 1923, recalled that McGraw would go over the meal tickets at the team hotel, and wasn't shy about telling his players that they weren't eating right. For most of his tenure, he set a curfew for 11:30 pm. According to Rogers Hornsby, who served as a player-coach for the Giants in 1927, either McGraw or one of his coaches would knock on the players' hotel room doors at 11:30 sharp--and someone was expected to answer. He was known to be extremely competitive; he would fine players for fraternizing with members of other teams and would not tolerate smiling in the dugout. According to Bill James, with McGraw "the rules were well understood."[17]

Over 33 years as a manager with the Baltimore Orioles of both leagues (1899 NL, 1901-1902 AL) and New York Giants (1902-1932), McGraw compiled 2,763 wins and 1,948 losses for a .586 winning percentage. His teams won 10 National League pennants and three World Series championships, and they had 11 second-place finishes while posting only two losing records. In 1918, he broke Fred Clarke's major league record of 1,670 career victories; he was later passed by Mack. McGraw led the Giants to first place each year from 1921 to 1924, becoming the only National League manager to win four consecutive pennants. At the time of his retirement, McGraw had been ejected from games 131 times (at least 14 of these came as a player). This record would stand until Atlanta Braves manager Bobby Cox broke it on August 14, 2007.

When McGraw learned that Giants owner Harry Hempstead and other heirs of Hempstead's predecessor, John T. Brush, wanted out of baseball before the 1919 season, McGraw set about finding a buyer. He eventually found one in stockbroker Charles Stoneham. As part of the deal, Stoneham took McGraw on as a partner, and made him the team's vice president.[18] Stoneham also gave McGraw complete authority over the baseball side of the operation. However. McGraw had enjoyed more or less a free hand in baseball matters since his arrival. McGraw wrote an autobiography of his years in baseball, published in 1923, in which he expressed grudging respect for several opposing players.[19] McGraw managed his last game on June 1, 1932, losing 4-2 to the Philadelphia Phillies at the Polo Grounds, taking the Giants to 17-23 on the season. On June 3, he announced his resignation from the ballclub, with Bill Terry (who had served as the first baseman for the team since 1923) picked as his successor.[20][21] McGraw finished with a record of 2,583 wins and 1,948 losses with the Giants.[22] The following year, he returned to manage the National League team in the inaugural 1933 All-Star Game.

Although for most of his career McGraw wore the same baseball uniform his players wore, he eventually took a page out of Mack's book toward the end of his career and began managing in a three piece suit. He continued to do so until his retirement.

Managerial record

Overall record

Team From To Regular season record Post-season record
G W L Win % G W L Win %
Baltimore Orioles (NL) 1899 1899 148 86 62 .581 --
Baltimore Orioles (AL) 1901 1902 190 94 96 .495 --
New York Giants 1902 1924 3249 1961 1288 .604 47 23 24 .489
New York Giants 1924 1925 94 55 39 .585 7 3 4 .429
New York Giants 1925 1927 379 199 180 .525 --
New York Giants 1928 1932 651 368 283 .565 --
Total 4711 2763 1948 .586 54 26 28 .481

New York Giants managerial record

McGraw became the third of three managers for the New York Giants in 1902, and held the position until 1932.[22] He briefly stood down as manager in the middle of the 1924 season due to illness, and coach and former Orioles teammate Hughie Jennings served as interim manager.[23] Jennings spelled him again in the middle of the 1925 season.[24] He took another leave of absence during the 1927 season; player-coach Hornsby served as interim manager during this time.[25]

From To Regular season record Post-season record
G W L Win % G W L Win %
1902 1924 3249 1961 1288 .604 47 23 24 .489
1924 1925 94 55 39 .585 7 3 4 .429
1925 1927 379 199 180 .525 --
1928 1932 651 368 283 .565 --
Total 4373 2583 1790 .591 54 26 28 .481

Personal life

McGraw married Minnie Doyle, the daughter of prominent Baltimore politician Michael Doyle, on February 3, 1897. This was at the height of his fame as a player for the old Baltimore Orioles of the National League. Two years later, while McGraw was on a road trip with his team, Minnie developed appendicitis. An emergency appendectomy was performed, and McGraw was called back from Louisville, Kentucky. Her condition worsened; and, surrounded by McGraw and other members of the family, Minnie died on September 1, 1899 at the age of 23.[26]

McGraw married his second wife, Blanche Sindall, on January 8, 1902. She outlived McGraw by nearly 30 years, dying on November 4, 1962. Even after her husband's death, Mrs. McGraw was a devoted fan of the team he had managed for so long.[27] In 1951, she threw out the first pitch during a World Series game in which her beloved Giants played the New York Yankees.[28] The Yankees won that day, 6-2, and went on to win the championship -- their third in a row -- in six games.

As owners of a bowling, billiards, and pool hall in Baltimore, McGraw and Wilbert Robinson introduced the sport of duckpin bowling within the city of Baltimore in 1899.

Later years

In 1923, only nine years before he retired, McGraw reflected on his life inside the game he loved in his memoir My Thirty Years in Baseball.[19] He stepped down as manager of the New York Giants in the middle of the 1932 season. He was reactivated briefly when he accepted the invitation to manage the National League team in the 1933 All-Star Game.

Less than two years after retiring, McGraw died of uremic poisoning[29] at age 60 and is interred in New Cathedral Cemetery in Baltimore, Maryland.[30]

Connie Mack would surpass McGraw's major league victory total just months later. After McGraw's death, his wife found, among his personal belongings, a list of all the black players he wanted to sign over the years.[31]

Posthumous honors

McGraw was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937; his plaque stated that he was considered the greatest assessor of baseball talent. In honor of the days he spent coaching at St. Bonaventure, St. Bonaventure University named its athletic fields after McGraw and his teammate, fellow coach and fellow Hall of Famer Hugh Jennings.

Although McGraw played before numbers were worn on jerseys, the Giants honor him along with their retired numbers at Oracle Park.

The John McGraw Monument stands in his hometown of Truxton.


  • "The Value of Team Work," Chicago Daily Socialist, vol. 5, no. 137 (April 5, 1911), p. 4.
  • My Thirty Years in Baseball. New York: Boni and Liveright, 1923.

See also


  • Alexander, Charles C. (1995). John McGraw. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-5925-5.
  • Threston, Christopher (2003). The Integration of Baseball in Philadelphia. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1423-5.
  • Markoe, Arnie. The Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives. ISBN 0-684-80665-7.


  1. ^ "Manager records index". Retrieved 2008.
  2. ^ profile of McGraw Archived May 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ a b Alexander, Charles (1995). John McGraw. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-5925-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  4. ^ Charles Alexander 1995, pp. 22.
  5. ^ Donovan, Henry. "Chicago Eagle". Illinois Digital Newspaper Collections. Retrieved 2015.
  6. ^ Graham, Frank (2007). Mcgraw of the Giants - an Informal Biography. City: Chauhau Press. ISBN 978-1-4067-3462-1.
  7. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 3., p. 82, citing, in part, the Cleveland Leader, September 15, 1893.
  8. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 3., pp. 47-48, citing, in part, the Baltimore Sun, July 11, 1948.
  9. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 3., p.233, citing David Quentin Voigt, The League That Failed (Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow, 1998), 61.
  10. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 3., p. 233, citing, in part, Voigt, The League That Failed (1998), 61.
  11. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 3., pp. 233-234, citing, in part, Voigt, The League That Failed (1998), 61.
  12. ^ Rosenberg, Howard W. Cap Anson 3., p. 234, citing, in part, Pittsburg Leader and Pittsburgh Commercial Gazette, May 23, 1899.
  13. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 3., p. 217, citing, in part, Frederick G. Lieb, The Baseball Story (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1950), 141.
  14. ^ a b Deford, Frank (2006). The Old Ball Game. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-4247-8.
  15. ^ Morris, Peter (2006). A Game of Inches: The Game on the Field. Ivan R. Dee. p. 318. ISBN 1-56663-677-9.
  16. ^ McNeil, William (2006). The Evolution of Pitching in Major League Baseball. McFarland & Company. p. 53. ISBN 9780786424689. Retrieved 2012.
  17. ^ James, Bill (1997). The Bill James Guide to Baseball Managers. Diversion Books.
  18. ^ Bill Lamb (2017). "Frank McQuade". Society for American Baseball Research.
  19. ^ a b Mcgraw, John (1995). My Thirty Years in Baseball. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-8139-0.
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^ a b c d "John McGraw". Baseball Reference. Sports Reference. Retrieved 2017.
  23. ^ "1924 New York Giants". Baseball Reference. Sports Reference. Retrieved 2019.
  24. ^ "1925 New York Giants". Baseball Reference. Sports Reference. Retrieved 2019.
  25. ^ "1927 New York Giants". Baseball Reference. Sports Reference. Retrieved 2019.
  26. ^ "Manager McGraw's Wife Dead" (PDF). The New York Times. September 1, 1899. Retrieved 2008.
  27. ^ "Mrs. John J. McGraw, 81, Dies". The New York Times. November 5, 1962. Retrieved 2008.
  28. ^ "Mrs. John McGraw, Wife Of Former Giant Manager, Tossed Out First Ball", by Whitney Martin, for The Hartford Courant, October 6, 1951.
  29. ^ "John McGraw Long Baseball Leader Dies", The Hartford Courant, February 26, 1934.
  30. ^ Markoe, pp. 87
  31. ^ Threston (2003). The Integration of Baseball in Philadelphia. p. 11.

Further reading

  • "Mister Muggsy". Profiles. The New Yorker. 1 (6): 9-10. March 28, 1925.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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