Jinmeiy%C5%8D Kanji
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Jinmeiy%C5%8D Kanji

The jinmeiy? kanji (, Japanese pronunciation: [d?imme:jo:kad?i], lit. Chinese characters for use in personal names) are a set of 863 Chinese characters known as "name kanji" in English. They are a supplementary list of characters that can legally be used in registered personal names in Japan, despite not being in the official list of "commonly used characters" (j?y? kanji). "Jinmeiy? kanji" is sometimes used to refer to the characters in both the jinmeiy? and j?y? lists.[]

A ministerial decree of 1946 limited the number of officially sanctioned kanji for public use to the 1850 t?y? kanji. Only kanji on this list were acceptable as registered names, despite the fact that the list excluded many kanji frequently used in names up to that point. However, on May 25, 1951, the cabinet extended the set of characters usable in names by specifying the first 90 jinmeiy? kanji.

Over the years, the Minister of Justice has increased the number of name kanji, and has a plan for further addition in response to requests from parents. As of April 30, 2009, there were 985 jinmeiy? kanji, but this number was reduced to 861 in late 2010 when 129 jinmeiy? characters were transferred to the j?y? kanji list, and 5 characters were transferred from the j?y? kanji list to jinmeiy? characters. In 2015 and 2017, 2 kanji in total were added to the jinmeiy? list, making the total number 863.

In Japan, name kanji are taught at the junior-high level, and mastery of the name kanji is required to achieve Level 2 of the Kanji Kentei, a Chinese-character proficiency test.

History

Below is a list of changes made to the jinmeiy? kanji list since its creation in 1951.

May 25, 1951

First 92 characters of jinmeiy? kanji were published:

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Seven of them were later transferred to the j?y? kanji: ? ? ? ? ? ? ?, the last one ? being simplified to ? (dragon).

July 30, 1976

28 kanji were added, for a total of 120 characters.

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

One was later transferred to the j?y? kanji: ?.

October 1, 1981

Introduction of the j?y? kanji list, which includes the 8 characters mentioned above; those 8 are thus deleted from the jinmey? kanji list. 54 other characters are added for a total of 166 name characters.

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

March 1, 1990

118 kanji were added for a total of 284 characters.

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

December 3, 1997

1 kanji was added, for a total of 285 characters.

?

February 23, 2004

1 kanji was added, for a total of 286 characters.

?

June 7, 2004

1 kanji was added, for a total of 287 characters.

?

June 11, 2004

No addition to the jinmeiy? kanji was made on this date. However, a plan for 578 additions was put forward to the council on jinmeiy? kanji of the legislative council of the Ministry of Justice. The list included certain characters in strong demand by parents for use in their children's names, such as:

  • ? (ichigo, "strawberry")
  • ? (haruka, "distant", traditional variant)
  • ? (akira, "scintillating")
  • ? (kiba, "fang")

Many others were included not for their potential uses in names (as is noted), but rather because of their frequent use and being easy to read and write. Examples include:

  • ? (kuso, "excrement")
  • ? (noroi, "curse")
  • ? (shikabane, "corpse")
  • ? (gan, "cancer")

At this same council, the decision was made to call for suggestions on characters to be included or excluded via the Ministry of Justice website, until July 9, 2004.

July 12, 2004

3 kanji were added, for a total of 290 characters.

? ? ?

July 23, 2004

No additions were made. After sharp protests, the council decided to withdraw nine characters from the 489 whose inclusion had been discussed. These nine characters were:

  • ? (kuso, "excrement")
  • ? (noroi, "curse")
  • ? (shikabane, "corpse")
  • ? (gan, "cancer")
  • ? (kashimashii, "rape, seduction")
  • ? (midara, "obscene")
  • ? (urami, "resentment")
  • ? (ji, "hemorrhoids")
  • ? (mekake, "concubine")

The 480 other characters still remained under consideration for inclusion, with one additional character added to them, namely ? (kiku, "to draw up water with one's hands").

September 27, 2004

484 characters and variant forms of 209 j?y? kanji were added, bringing the total number of the jinmeiy? kanji to 983.

April 30, 2009

2 more characters for a total number of 985 characters.

? ?

November 30, 2010

In late 2010, the Japanese government added 196 characters to the j?y? kanji list. The list now includes 129 characters previously classified as jinmeiy? kanji, 11 of which are currently used in Japanese prefectures or nearby countries:[1][2]

At the same time, 5 characters deleted from the j?y? kanji list were added to the jinmeiy? kanji list, making the total number of jinmeiy? kanji 861:

  • ? (shaku, an old unit of measure approx. 18ml in volume, or 0.033m² in area)
  • ? (sui or tsumu, a spindle or weight)
  • ? (sen, pig iron)
  • ? (ch? or fuku[reru], to swell or bulge; mostly used in the compound , normally rewritten with ? instead)
  • ? (momme, a unit of weight approx 3.75g)

January 7, 2015

1 kanji was added, for a total of 862 characters.

  • ? (medium, oracle)

September 25, 2017

1 kanji was added, for a total of 863 characters.[3]

  • ?

List of jinmeiy? kanji

The list is split into two parts:

  • 633 characters which do not appear in the list of j?y? kanji (regular-use kanji). 18 of these have a variant, bringing the number of character forms to 651.
  • 212 characters which are traditional forms (ky?jitai) of characters present in the list of j?y? kanji.

Jinmeiy? kanji not part of the j?y? kanji

Variants are given in brackets.

(?)(?)?(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)(?)(?)?(?)

The 18 characters which have a variant included in the list are:

?(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)?(?)

Traditional variants of j?y? kanji

The modern form (shinjitai), which appears in the J?y? Kanji List, is given in brackets.

?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?)

Actual usage in names

Usage of the Jinmeiy? Kanji in Japanese names varies widely. For example, ?, is used in over 6000 names, and the 53 kanji used most commonly in names are all in over 500 names each.[4]

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ Akihiko Shiraishi, 9? ("New draft table adds 196 everyday-use kanji") in Asahi Shimbun, 23 October 2009, retrieved 25 October 2009. (Dead link as of 3 April 2016).
  2. ^ Japan Times, Get set for next year's overhaul of official kanji, 21 October 2009, retrieved 27 February 2010.
  3. ^ " ?". . 25 September 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  4. ^ Kanshudo, The Jinmeiy? Kanji ()

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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