Jian'ou Dialect
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Jian'ou Dialect
Ging-é-d? /
Pronunciation[kui ti?]
Native toSouthern China
RegionJian'ou, Fujian province
Chinese character, Kienning Colloquial Romanized
Language codes
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Bible in Jian'ou Romanised (Genesis), published by the British and Foreign Bible Society.

Jian'ou dialect (Northern Min: Ging-é-d? / ; Chinese: simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Jiàn'?u huà), also known as Kienow dialect, is a local dialect of Northern Min Chinese spoken in Jian'ou in northern Fujian province. It is regarded as the standard common language in Jian'ou.

Phonetics and phonology

According to The Eight Tones of Kien-chou (?), a rime dictionary which published in 1795, Jian'ou dialect has 15 initials, 34 rimes and 7 tones in the 18th century, however there are only 6 tones in the modern dialect as the "light level" () tone disappeared.


Initials of Jian'ou dialect
  Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ?  
Plosive voiceless unaspirated p t k ?
voiceless aspirated p? t? k?  
Affricate voiceless unaspirated   ts    
voiceless aspirated   ts?    
Fricative   s x  
Approximant   l    


Rimes of Jian'ou dialect
Open syllable Nasal coda
Open mouth a ? ? oe ? ? ai au a? ai? ei? oey? [1]
Even mouth i ia i? i? iau iu i? ia? iei?[2] i
Closed mouth u ua u? [3] uai ui? [4] ua? uai? u
Round mouth y y? [3] yi? [4]


Jian'ou has four tones, which are reduced to two in checked syllables.

Tone chart of the Jian'ou dialect
Tone number Tone name Tone contour
1 level () (54) or ? (5)
2 rising () (21) or ? (1)
3 dark departing () ? (2)
4 light departing () ? (4)
5 dark entering () (24)
6 light entering () (42)

The entering tones in Jian'ou dialect do not have any entering tone coda (?) such as /-?/, /-p?/, /-t?/ and /-k?/ which makes it distinct from many other Chinese varieties.


  1. ^ /o?/ which is mentioned in Kienning Colloquial Romanized has merged into // in the modern dialect.
  2. ^ /iei?/ is not mentioned in Kienning Colloquial Romanized as it diverged from /i?/ after the romanization system was established.
  3. ^ a b /y?/ tends to merge into /u?/.
  4. ^ a b /yi?/ tends to merge into /ui?/.


  • B?ij?ng dàxué zh?ngguóy?yánwénxuéxì y?yánxué jiàoyánshì. (1989) Hàny? f?ngy?n zìhuì. B?ij?ng: Wénzìg?igé ch?b?nshè.(. 1989. . )
  • Norman, Jerry. [1988] (2002). Chinese. Cambridge, England: CUP ISBN 0-521-29653-6
  • Yuán, ji?huá (1989). Hàny? f?ngyán gàiyào (An introduction to Chinese dialects). Beijing, China: Wénzì g?igé ch?b?nshè. (. 1989. . :?.)
  • Compilation Commission of Chorography of Jian'ou County (1994). Jian ou xian zhi ? ["Chorography of Jian'ou County"]. 36. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 7-101-01283-3.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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