|Duke of Bohemia|
Bust of Jaromír in Jarom
1004 - 1012
1033 - 1034
|Died||4 November 1038|
Lysá nad Labem
|Noble family||P?emyslid dynasty|
|Father||Boleslaus II, Duke of Bohemia|
|Mother||Emma of M?lník|
In 1002, Jaromír rebelled against the rule of his elder brother Boleslaus III, who had him castrated and expelled with his mother and his brother Old?ich to the Bavarian court at Regensburg. Nevertheless, Boleslaus was unable to secure the Prague throne, as he was deposed by the Bohemian nobility and the rule was subsequently taken by his P?emyslid cousin Vladivoj, backed by the Polish duke Boles?aw I the Brave. Vladivoj also secured the support of the German king Henry II, when he received the Duchy of Bohemia as a royal fief.
When Vladivoj died the next year, Jaromír and Old?ich returned to Bohemia and Jaromír was proclaimed duke by the Bohemian nobles. In turn the lands were occupied by the Polish forces of Boles?aw who reinstated Boleslaus III as duke. After he ordered a massacre of the rivalling Vr?ovci clan, however, he lost the support from the Polish ruler and was finally deprived of power. Meanwhile, Jaromír had sought military backing from King Henry II. At Merseburg, he promised to hold Bohemia as a vassal of the king. This action definitively placed Bohemia within the jurisdiction of the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1004, Jaromír occupied Prague with a German army and proclaimed himself Bohemian duke. Nevertheless, the state he regained was a small one, as Polish forces still held Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia. Jaromír's reign—like so many of the other early Czech rulers—was a struggle to regain lost lands. He remained a loyal supporter of King Henry in the smouldering German-Polish War. Nonetheless, the German king took no action, when in 1012 Jaromír was dethroned by Old?ich (who had him blinded) and forced once again into exile. In a surprise campaign, Jaromír once again managed to depose Old?ich with the support of Emperor Conrad II in 1033, but his second reign was short-lived. A year later, Old?ich was restored by his son Bretislaus I.