Japanese Particles
Get Japanese Particles essential facts below. View Videos or join the Japanese Particles discussion. Add Japanese Particles to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Japanese Particles

Japanese particles, joshi () or tenioha (?), are suffixes or short words in Japanese grammar that immediately follow the modified noun, verb, adjective, or sentence. Their grammatical range can indicate various meanings and functions, such as speaker affect and assertiveness.

Orthography and diction

Japanese particles are written in hiragana in modern Japanese, though some of them also have kanji forms (? or ? for te ?; ? for ni ?; ? or ? for o ?; and ? for wa ?). Particles follow the same rules of phonetic transcription as all Japanese words, with the exception of ? (written ha, pronounced wa as a particle), ? (written he, pronounced e) and ? (written using a hiragana character with no other use in modern Japanese, originally assigned as wo, now usually pronounced o, though some speakers render it as wo). These exceptions are a relic of historical kana usage.

Types of particles

There are eight types of particles, depending on what function they serve.

Case markers (, kaku-joshi)

?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ,
ga, no, wo,[a] ni, he,[b] to, de, kara, yori

Parallel markers (?, heiritsu-joshi)

?, ?, ?, ?, ?, , ,
ka, no, ya, ni, to, yara, nari, dano

Sentence ending particles (, sh?-joshi)

?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ,
ka, no, ya, na, wa, tomo, kashira

Interjectory particles (?, kant?-joshi)

?, ?, ?
sa, yo, ne

Adverbial particles (, fuku-joshi)

, , , , , , ,
bakari, made, dake, hodo, kurai, nado, nari, yara

Binding particles (, kakari-joshi)

?, ?, , , , ,
wa,[c] mo, koso, demo, shika, sae, dani

Conjunctive particles (?, setsuzoku-joshi)

?, ?, ?, ?, , , , ?, ?
ba, ya, ga, te, noni, node, kara, tokoroga, keredomo

Phrasal particles (?, juntai-joshi)

?,
no, kara

Note that some particles appear in two types. For example, kara is a "case marker" where it describes where something is from or what happens after something; when it describes a cause it is a "conjunctive particle".

  1. ^ ? wo is usually pronounced o ([o]). See #Orthography and diction.
  2. ^ ? he is pronounced e ([e]) when used as a particle. See #Orthography and diction.
  3. ^ ? ha is pronounced wa ([?a]) when used as a particle. See #Orthography and diction.

List of particles

Index

Meaning and usage

Preceding syntactic element Example sentence Translation
bakari
()
Translates to: "just, only, full of"
Colloquially bakkari, bakka
Noun T?ky? wa hito bakari da.
?
Tokyo is just full of people.
Verbs (ta form) Tabeta bakari da.
I just ate.
Verb (te form) Kare wa tabete bakari iru
He's always eating.
bakari ka
? ()
Translates to: "not only".
Accompanied by sae ("but also") indicates something unusual or unexpected.
Etymology: bakari + ka
Nouns Sofu bakari ka, s?sofu sae ikite iru.
Not only is my grandfather living, but so is my great-grandfather.
bakashi
()
bakashi is another form of bakari.
dake
(?)
Translates to: "only"; limit.
Dake functions as a noun.
Kanji form ? is less commonly used.
Nouns r?maji dake no jisho
a r?maji-only dictionary
Verbs (volitional) Netai dake nereba ii.
You can sleep as much as you want [to sleep].
da no
Translates to: "and, things like".
Etymology: da (copula) + no.
This particle is used far less frequently than to ka.
Often has negative connotations.
Nouns, adjectives, verbs Natt? da no, sh?f?do da no, wasabi da no--nihonshoku ga nigate da.
????--
Natto, seafood, wasabi--Japanese food isn't my thing.
de
?
Etymology: Originally an alteration of ni te, later treated as a conjugation of the copula da. de can be used as "at" or "by means of". When serving as the continuative TE form of a subordinate clause, de substitutes for da/desu, carries the meaning "is, and so...", and takes on the tense of the final verb of the sentence.
Nouns: instrument Jitensha de ikimash?.
??
Let's go by bicycle.
Nouns: location Koko de yasumitai.
I want to rest here.
Nouns: language Nihongo de tegami o kaita.
??
I wrote the letter in Japanese.
TE form of copula: "is, and so..." kimi ga suki de yokatta
? ? ?
You are loved (and so) I am glad. / I am glad that I love you.
de mo
Translates to: "even; or; but, however; also in"
Etymology: de + mo
Nouns, particles: "even" Uch? kara de mo Banri-no-Ch?j? ga mieru.
?
Even from space you can see the Great Wall of China.
Noun: "or something" Ocha de mo, ikaga?
?
Would you like tea or something?
Noun: "also in" Nihon de mo eigo o benky? suru
?
In Japan also, we study English.
Beginning of phrase: "but, however, even so" De mo, watashi wa s? omowanai
?
But I don't think so.
dokoro ka
? ()
Translates to: "anything but, far from"
Etymology: dokoro (tokoro: place) + ka
Nouns Kare wa keisatsukan dokoro ka, hanzaisha da.
?
He's anything but a policeman; he's a criminal.
e
?
Translates to: "to, in"; direction
E is written with ? rather than ?, reflecting old kana usage.
Nouns: direction Nihon e y?koso!
?!
Welcome to Japan!
ga
?
Functions as: identifier (identifies something unspecified), conjunction ("but"). Not to be confused with the particle ?.

Ga (? or ?): Historical possessive used to connect nouns, most often seen in place names as ?

Nouns: Subject Marker (answers a silent or asked question) Neko ga esa o tabeta.
The cat ate the catfood. [Answers: "What ate the catfood?"]
Inu ga suki.
I like dogs. [Answers: What do you like?]
Noun: noun connector wa ga kuni
?
my/our [collective] country
Fujimi ga Oka
??
Fuji View Hill
Seki ga hara
?
Gateway Plains (site of the Battle of Sekigahara)
Phrases: conjunction (but...) Inu wa suki da ga, neko wa kirai da.
??
I like dogs but I hate cats.
hodo
(?)
Translates to: "as much as"; upper limit
Nouns Kare hodo nihongo ga umakunai.
?
My Japanese isn't as good as his.
Adjectives* Hayai hodo ii.
?
The sooner, the better.
Verb Aitsu o koroshitai hodo kirai da.
??
I hate him enough to want to kill him.
ka
?
Functions as: question denominator, alternative item conjunction, quotation expressing doubt; "whether", especially when used with d? ka ("or not").
Nouns, verbs: listing alternatives Kore ka, sore ka, dotchika erande yo.
??
This or that, choose one of them.
Noun, verbs: "whether (or not)" Iku ka [d? ka] wakaranai.
()
I don't know [whether or not / if] he'll go.
Adverbs (interrogative): uncertainty Dokoka de mita koto ga aru.
?
I think I've seen you somewhere before. (You look familiar)
Phrases: question (formal) Wakarimasu ka?
??
Do you understand? (formal)
Phrases: question, rhetorical Eigo nante wakarimasu ka!
??!
Why the heck would I understand English? (formal)
Phrases: question, invitation Sate, dekake y? ka?
??
Right then, shall we leave?
Phrase: quotation expressing doubt Iku ka to omoimasu ga...
I think he'll go (but I'm not sure)...
kai
kai is a gentler and masculine variant of the question marker ka.
ka na
Translates to: "I wonder" (Note: "Ka na" implies having mostly made up one's mind. Drawing out the "na" [ka naa] implies less certainty.)

Etymology: ka + na

Phrases Kare wa ayashii hito ka na.
?
I wonder if he's a suspicious person.
kara
Translates to: "from, after, because"
Kara may be followed by no to link two nouns.
Nouns: "from, out of" T?ky? kara kaetta.
??
He returned from Tokyo.
zutto mae kara no hanashi
a conversation from way back
Verb (te form): "after" Owatte kara, kite kudasai.
Please come by after finishing (after you've finished).
Adjectives, Verbs: "because" Niku o tabenai kara, raamen wa dame da
?
Because he doesn't eat meat, ramen is bad (a bad idea).
ka shira
Ka shira is like ka na, but is used more by women. See also Gender differences in spoken Japanese.

Etymology: ka + shira, the irrealis form (i.e. negative form minus the -nai) of shiru "to know"

Phrases Kare wa ayashii hito ka shira.
?
I wonder if he's a suspicious person.
kedo
Translates to: "although, but"
Etymology: kedo is a shortened version of formal keredomo. It also appears semi-abbreviated and semi-formally as keredo or kedomo.
Adjectives, verbs Kanojo wa hen da kedo kirei da.
?
She is strange but pretty
kiri
()
Translates to: "just, only"
Kiri is more rarely used than dake, functions as a noun and may be followed by no.
Nouns futari kiri no o-mise
?
a shop with just two people [who work there]
kke
Translates to: "Similar to ka but in an attempt to recall forgotten information."
Etymology: kke originates from the auxiliary verb of Old Japanese "keri".
Nouns Nani wo iou to shitetan da kke
?
What were you trying to say, again?
koro/goro
(?)
Translates to: "around, about, approximately"
Koro functions as a noun and may be followed by no.
Nouns San-ji goro ni aimash?.
?
Let's meet around 3 o'clock.
koso
Functions as: Emphasis marker.

There is no direct translation, but roughly analogous to "precisely" or "exactly", as in examples below.

Phrases Ky? koso, yaru zo!
??!
Today, I'm going to do it!
Kimi ga suki da kara koso kore dake ganbatte iru n da yo.
It's precisely because I like you that I'm working this hard.
Kochira koso, yoroshiku onegai shimasu.
Nice to meet you, too. (Emphasizes this side or me too)
kurai/gurai
? (?)
Translates to: "about, approximately"
Kurai functions as a noun and may be followed by no.
Nouns Juppun kurai kakaru
?
It takes about 10 minutes.
made
(?)
Translates to: "up to, until, as far as"
Indicates a time or place as a limit.
Nouns (specifically places or times) Kono densha wa, Shimonoseki made ikimasu.
?
This train goes as far as Shimonoseki.
Verb Kaeru made matte ru.
?
I'll wait until you come home.
made ni
()
Translates to: "by (a certain time)"

Etymology: made + ni

Nouns, verbs Ku-ji made ni kaeru.
I'll come back by nine o'clock.
me
? (?)
me (? only): ordinal particle
me (? only): "Damn..."; abusive/pejorative
Classifier nouns: ordinal Amerika wa nikai me desu.
This is my second time to America.
Noun: abusive "damn..." Orokamono me!
?!
[You] damn fool!
mo
?(?)
Translates to: "also"
Mo always replaces wa and ga, but may follow other particles.
Nouns, phrases Watashi ni mo kureta.
?
She gave some to me, too.
mono/mon
Verb + mono (?) : creates a noun from the verb (only applies to certain verbs)
/ at the end of a sentence: casual feminine sentence ender like ?; is very feminine and a bit cheeky.
With verbs Nomimono
?
Drink
Tabemono
?
Food
Ikimono
?
Living thing
At the end of a sentence "Doushite konakatta no?" "Jugy? ga attanda mono."
?
"Why didn't you come?" "I had class."
"Doushite konakatta no?" "Jugy? ga attanda mon."
?
"Why didn't you come?" "I had class, hah."
mono de
Similar meaning as .
mono ka/mon-ka
/
Put at the end of sentences to strongly decline. (More gently ?/)
At the end of sentences Makeru-monka!
!
I will not surrender!
Dare ga anna tokoro-ni nido to iku-mondesuka!
!
Who would dare to go to a place like that for a second time!?
mono nara
? ()
if (I/we/etc.) could
mono o
Used in phrases to show deplore feelings about not doing something they should do.
Phrases "Sukida" to hito koto itte kure-sae shi-tara kekkon deki-ta mono o...
""?...
If you had said "I like you", we would have gotten married...
na and naa
?(and )
Na (? only): used with a class of adjectives which behave grammatically like nouns (see na-adjectives). A more archaic form of this na is naru (), which is used in the same way. If na follows a dictionary form verb, it is a negative command ("Don't... "). However, if used with a verb stem, it implies the opposite: "Do..." as a short form of nasai (). It is also used to modify general nouns before other particles which cannot directly follow nouns (e.g. no de).
Etymology: The na used with nouns (including na-adjectives) is a form of the copula. Na or naa at the end of a sentence is a variant of ne, implying more reflection.
Verb (plain non-future) Suru-na
?
Don't do (something).
Verb (stem) Tabe-na
? (short form of )
Do eat / Please eat.
Na-adjectives hen na hito
?
a strange person
Phrases Hen da na!
?!
How strange!
nado
(?)
Translates to: "for example, things like, such as, etc., and so on"
Functions as a noun and may be followed by no.
Nouns Natt? ya kabuki nado wa Nihon dake ni aru.
Things like natto and kabuki are only in Japan.
nanka/nante
? ()
Functions to: emphasize disgust, contempt, or otherwise negative feelings of the speaker.
Nante is slightly more formal than nanka.
Nouns Jogen nanka iranai.
I don't need any (damn) advice.
Verb[1] Oyogu nante dekinai.
I can't swim.
Adjectives[2] ?kiku nanka nai kedo, kirei da.
?
It's not big [or anything], but it's clean.
nara
Translates to: "if"; conditional
Hypothetical () or conditional form of the copula da. Related to the more formal naraba.
Nouns, adjectives, verbs, phrases Atsui nara, eakon o tsukete
??
If you're hot, turn on the air conditioner.
ne
?
Translates to: "eh"; interjection, tag question
Similar to English "hey", "eh?", French "non?" and Spanish "no?" Asks or shows agreement and reflection at phrase-end, also used before sentences to catch listener's attention (informal).
Phrases Kimi wa kashikoi yo ne.
?
You're pretty smart, aren't you.
Kakk? ii desu ne.
That's pretty neat, eh?
Ne, ima nanji?
?
Hey, what time is it?
ni
?
Translates to: "to, in, at, by"; indirect object, direction; following a na-adjective, it creates an adverb
Noun: location Gakk? ni iru.
I'm at/in school.
Noun: direction Gakk? ni iku.
I'm going to school.
Noun: indirect object Ore ni kaese.
Give it back to me.
Noun: passive agent Ka ni sasareta.
I was bitten by a mosquito.
Noun, verbs (stem only): purpose, intent Eiga o mi ni iku.
I'm going to see a movie.
Adjective: forms adverb teinei, teinei ni
polite, politely
ni te
Formal version of de, functions in exactly the same way.

Etymology: Case particle ni + conjunctive particle te (cf. te form of Japanese verbs)

ni wa
Translates to: "for; in, to; in order to";
Etymology: ni + wa (always written ?)

The wa part is the topic particle.
Serves as emphasis for a negative ending.

Nouns: "for" Shichimi wa, watashi ni wa kara-sugiru.
?
Shichimi is too spicy for me. (i.e., "you might like it, but I'm not touching it.")
Noun: "in, to" Ky?to ni wa hana ga aru.
?
There are flowers in Ky?to.

(Lit.: As for in Ky?to, there are flowers.)

Verb: "in order to" Mizu o mitsukeru ni wa
In order to find water
no
?
Functions as: possession indicator, noun link, topic marker (subordinate clauses), nominalization

When nominalizing whole phrases, the no may function either as emphasis or as a question, depending on tone of voice. Similar to English, a falling tone denotes a statement, and a rising tone a question. Its use to mark statements tends to be more typical of feminine speech. See also Gender differences in spoken Japanese.

Nouns: possession ex. a sensei no kuruma
?
the teacher's car
Noun: possession ex. b watashi no konpyuuta
?
My computer
Noun: possession ex. c anata no shukudai
?
your homework
Noun: linking kuruma no Toyota
Toyota the car [company]
Noun: subject marker in subordinate clauses (see also: ga) Kare no tsukutta k?ki wa oishikatta.
The cake that he made was tasty.
i-adjectives: nominalization Yasui no wa, kore.
This is the cheap[er] one.
Verb: nominalization Taberu no ga daisuki.
?
I love eating.
Phrases: nominalization, question M?, tabeta no?
??
Have you eaten yet?
Kuruma na no?
??
Is it a car?
Kare ni m? ageta no yo!
?!
I already gave it to him!
no de
Translates to: "because"
Etymology: no + de
Colloquially, no de is often shortened to n de.
Phrases[3] Tesuto ga aru no de, ikenai.
??
Because I have a test, I can't go.
Gakk? na no de, kin'en da.
Because this is a school it's no smoking.
nomi
Translates to: "only, just"
Nomi is more formal and far less common than dake. Unlike dake, its only meaning is that of small quantity or singleness of frequency.
Nouns T?-ten de wa, Nihon en nomi go-riy? itadakemasu.
This store accepts Japanese Yen only.
no ni
Translates to: "despite, although, even though; would have; in order to"
Etymology: no + ni
Nouns and na-adjectives must be followed by na before using this particle.
No ni has a stronger meaning than kedo when used to mean "although", and conveys regret when used to mean "would have".
Adjectives, verbs: "although" Benky? shiten no ni, eigo ga hanasenai.
?
Although I'm studying, I can't speak English.
Adjectives (conditional), verbs (conditional): "would have" Kaette kitara, yokatta no ni.
??
It would have been nice if you had come home.
Verb (plain form): "in order to" Hikkosu no ni torakku ga hitsuy? da.
(In order) to move, you need a truck.
o
?
Functions as: direct object
Translates to: "through, from, past (motion verbs only)"
This is unrelated to the honorific prefix o, written ? or ?.
Nouns: direct object Neko ga esa o tabeta.
?
The cat ate the food.
Noun: through, etc. (motion) Sora o tobu
fly through the sky
sa/saa
?
Functions as: Masculine sentence/phrase final particle, indicating explanation of obvious facts. It is softer than yo.
Saa: Feminine sentence/phrase final particle, used like ne, but often more frequently as extremely colloquial filler.
Phrases: masculine sa Kanojo ga inai kara, dansu niwa ikanai sa.
??
I don't have a girlfriend, so I'm not going to the dance.
Phrases: saa Kin? saa, gakk? de saa, sensei ni saa, ch?i sarete saa, ch? mukatsuita.
??
Like, yesterday, in, like, school, I, like, got fussed at by, like, some teacher, and it totally made me sick.
sae
Sae: "even"

Note the meaning overlaps with mo. Sae implies (usually) positive emphasis that the evident extent of something is greater than initially expected. Can be followed by mo for additional emphasis. Contrast this with sura.

Nouns Kanji sae kakeru.
??
He can even write kanji.
de sae
Translates to: "even"
Etymology: de + sae
De sae replaces wa and ga, like de mo above.
Nouns Sonna koto wa saru de sae dekiru.
??
Even a monkey can do that.
sae...ba/ra
...
Function: sae followed by a verb in the conditional means "if only".
Nouns Kore sae nomeba, futsukayoi ga naoru yo.
??
If you would just drink this, your hangover would get better.
shi
?
Translates to: "and what's more" (conjunction)
Adjectives, verbs Kirei da shi, hiroi shi, ii ne, kono apaato!
?
It's clean, it's spacious; this apartment is nice, isn't it!
shika
Translates to: "only, just"
Shika must be followed by a negative verb.
Shika may be compounded as dakeshika, kirishika, and nomishika (plus the negative verb) to stress an extremely limited quantity or frequency.
Nouns Ichi en dama shika nai.
I have just a one-yen coin.
Verb Y?bin-kyoku ni iku shika nai.
??
The only thing [to do] is to go to the post office.
sura
Translates to: "even"

Note the meaning overlaps with mo. Sura implies (usually) negative emphasis that the evident extent of something is less than initially expected. Contrast this with sae.

Nouns Kanji sura kakenai.
?
He can't even write kanji.
to
?
Translates to: "and" (conjunction); "with" or "as with" (preposition); "if"; quotation.
Nouns: conjunction sore to kore
that and this
Nouns: conjunction sore to kore to
? ?
that or this
Verbs: transition/state change taiy?kei dasshutsu e to chikazuite itta
? ? ? ?
They were getting close to the point of leaving the Solar System.
Noun: preposition Boku to ikitai?
Do you want to go with me?
Verb, adjectives: "if" Benky? suru to wakaru.
?
If you study, you'll understand.
Any phrase: quotation Umi made! to sakenda.
?!?
"To the sea!" he cried.
to ka
Functions as: A listing particle used like nado. Often used with the question word nani (what) in the form nantoka ("something or other").
Etymology: to + ka
Nouns Kani to ka, hotate to ka, zenbu tabeta yo.
?
We had crab, scallops, [other stuff,] we ate them all.
to mo
(?)
Tomo (?): "both, all of the"

To mo (no kanji): "even if, even though; at the ...-est; whether; [emphasis]"
If following a noun and used with a negative verb, meaning changes to "none".

Etymology: to + mo

Counted nouns Watashi wa, aitsura ga futari tomo kirai da.
??
I hate the both of those guys.
Zannen nagara, sono kuruma wa san dai tomo irimasen.
??
Unfortunately, we need none of those three cars.
Volitional verbs D? shiy? to mo amari susumanai.
No matter how we try [to do something], we don't make much progress.
Adverbial (continuative) form of i-adjectives Sukunaku to mo go-j? mairu aruite kita.
We walked at least fifty miles [to get here].
Osoku to mo itte miy? yo.
?
Even if it's late, let's go and check it out.
Verb (paired with same verb in negative) Kau to mo kawanai to mo hakkiri shite imasen.
?
It isn't clear whether they're going to buy or not.
Verb, adjectives
This use is similar to the English expression, "as if [something] wouldn't [phrase]."
Waratte ii to mo.
[4]
It's okay to laugh.
Ikimasen to mo.
As if I would go.
tte
Written as in hiragana, this is another form of to. It is a shortened version of toiu (), the present progressive form of the verb iu (), "to say"; it functions as a type of verbal quotation mark. It is sometimes used for a direct quote, sometimes for an indirect quote, and sometimes simply to emphasize a word or concept.

tte is casual, and (because it can be a direct quote) the politeness level of the quoted material does not necessarily reflect on the speaker. If you wish to be assuredly formal, use to iimasu instead of tte.

Any phrase Sugu kimasu tte
Could be, "He said he'll come soon" (more politely) or, "He said, 'I'll come soon.'" (less so).
Arabiago tte, muzukashikunai?
?
"Arabic-isn't it difficult?"
(Emphasizing a word; used instead of or ?)
tteba
Functions as:'strong emphasis marker, especially when the speaker has grown impatient.
Etymology: te + ba
Any phrase: quotation k?h? datteba !
!
I said "coffee"!
wa
?
? wa is a topic marker. It is written with the hiragana ? ha, rather than the hiragana ?, wa. Not to be confused with the particle ?.
wa
?
? wa is used at the end of the sentence to establish an emotional connection. It is used by both genders when it is pronounced with a falling intonation especially in dialects of Kansai, Nagoya and elsewhere, but with a rising intonation, it is generally used by females. This also conveys a certain deference to the speaker's wishes and emotions.
ya
?
Ya is used to make incomplete lists of things (usually nouns). To make an exhaustive list, the particle to is used instead.
Watashi no suki na tabemono wa okashi ya pan ya mikan nado desu
"I like snacks, bread and tangerines."
yara
Denotes either uncertainty or listing.
yo
?
Yo comes at the end of the sentence, and is used to make assertions. Compare zo and ze below.

Yo is also sometimes used after nouns, and functions as a vocative marker. This is especially used in older speech, poetry, and songs.

Kaeru yo!
!
"I'm going home!"
Saraba, tomo yo
"Farewell, oh friend!"
yori
Yori can mean "from", and is also used to make comparisons. Yori is usually written in hiragana.
Kono densha-wa, Kashiwa-yori saki wa kaku eki-ni tomarimasu
?
"This train will stop at every station after Kashiwa".
Dare-yori-mo kanemochi-ni naritai
?
"I want to become richer than anyone (else)".
ze
?
ze indicates assertion. Used mostly by men, it is never considered polite. Compare yo and zo.
zo
?
zo indicates assertion. Used mainly by men, it is considered somewhat less forceful and more positive than ze. Compare yo and ze above.
zutsu
Zutsu denotes an equal or gradual distribution of quantity like "at a time" in "one at a time", "by" in "one by one", or "each" in "one each". It usually follows counted nouns, and is written with hiragana as .
Noun: counted Chokor?to-o ni-ko-zutsu tabemashita
Either "I ate two pieces of chocolate on each (countable) times." or "Each one ate (=shared) two pieces of chocolate (from larger amount)."

Contrast

? wa and ? ga

? ni and ? de

Ni and de can both be used to show location, corresponding to the prepositions "in" or "at" in English. Their uses are mutually exclusive.

Ni, when used to show location, is used only with stative verbs such as iru, "to be, exist;" aru, "to be, exist, have;" and sumu, "to live, inhabit."

  • (Nihon-ni sunde iru. "I live in Japan.")
  • (Gakk?-ni iru. "I am in school.")

De is used with action verbs to convey the place of action, as opposed to location of being.

  • (Gakk?-de neru. "I sleep in/at school.")
    • *Gakk?-ni neru. *"I sleep to school," is not usually used.

? ni and ? e

Ni and e can both indicate direction of motion, literally meaning "to" or "at" in English. However, as particles in Japanese directly modify the preceding verb, some Japanese language courses call this the "goal of movement" usage because it marks the goal of the movement. For example, in the sentence (Watashi wa uchi ni kaerimasu or "I'm going back home") the goal of the movement is home (uchi ni). In this sense, e is perhaps closer to English "towards" in terms of use (see example below). As long as ni is used directionally, it is possible to substitute e in its place. Ni used in other senses cannot be replaced by e:

  • (Gakk? ni iku. "I'm going to school"), where gakk?, "school," is the destination of iku, "go."
    • Gakk? e iku. "I'm going to school," where gakk?, "school," is the destination of iku, "go."
  • (Gakk? ni iru. "I'm at school"), where gakk?, "school," is the location of iru, "be;" not a destination.
    • Gakk? e iru. *"I'm to school," is not a possible construction since "be" is not a verb of motion.
  • (Tomodachi ni au "I'll meet my friends") where tomodachi, "friends," is the indirect object of au, "meet;" not a destination.
    • Tomodachi e au *"I'll meet to my friends," which is impossible because "meet" is not a verb of motion.
  • (Hon o kai ni itta "I went to buy a book"), where kai ni, "to buy," shows purpose or intent, and is a verbal adverb; not destination.
    • Hon o kai e itta *"I went towards buying a book," is not possible because kai, "buying," cannot be a destination.

Indicating direction, using e instead of ni is preferred when ni is used non-directionally in proximity:

  • ? (Tomodachi ni ai ni Ky?to e itta. "I went to Kyoto to meet my friends.")

Ni can not be replaced by e in all uses. It must be used with days of the week as in (Nichiyoubi ni Kyoto ni ikimasu "I will go to Kyoto on Sunday".) where ni is used both to mark the day of the week () and the goal of the movement (). It is also required with numerical times (but not relative times). For example, ni must be used in the sentence ? (Juu ichi ji ni nemasu "I will go to sleep at 10 o'clock") to mark the numerical time () but it is not used with the relative time words like tomorrow (), yesterday (), today (), last week (), next month (), etc. For example, in the sentence (watashi wa kinou shigoto ni ikimasen deshita "I did not go to work yesterday") no particle is needed for "yesterday" (), but ni is used to mark the goal of movement ().

? ga and ? o

In some cases, ga and o are interchangeable. For example, with the tai form, meaning "want to", it is possible to say either of the following:

  • (Gohan ga tabetai. "I want to eat rice.")
  • (Gohan o tabetai. "I want to eat rice.")

Similarly, suki, a na adjective meaning "liked", can take either ga or o:

  • (Kimi ga suki da "I like you")
  • (Kimi o suki de yokatta "I'm glad I like you") (words from a popular song)

? ni and ? to

Ni and to are sometimes interchangeable in forms like ni naru and to naru. The ni naru form suggests a natural change, whereas to naru suggests change to a final stage.

? ya and ? to

Ya is used for incomplete lists, whereas to is used for complete ones.

Historical particles

? i was used in Old Japanese and kanbun works. Its meaning is still debated, but has traditionally been considered emphatic.[5]

Differences from English prepositions

Many Japanese particles fill the role of prepositions in English, but they are unlike prepositions in many ways. Japanese does not have equivalents of prepositions like "on" or "about", and often uses particles along with verbs and nouns to modify another word where English might use prepositions. For example, ue is a noun meaning "top/up"; and ni tsuite is a fixed verbal expression meaning "concerning":

?
T?buru-no -ue-ni aru.
Table-OF top/up-AT exists.
"It's on the table."
??
Ano hito-wa, git?-ni tsuite nandemo wakaru.
That person-TOPIC guitar-TO concerning anything knows.
"That person knows everything about guitars."

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Nanka/nante is usually followed by a verb which conveys some kind of undervalue, lacking, or dislike, often in the negative.
  2. ^ Can immediately follow i-adjectives, using the adjective's ku form if followed by the negative, or if the adjective is followed by no. Na-adjectives require the copula da or no before nante or nanka.
  3. ^ Phrases ending in a noun or na-adjective require the na form of the copula before the nominalizing no.
  4. ^ Title of a Japanese TV programme hosted by Tamori.
  5. ^ Frellesvig, Bjark (2010). A History of the Japanese Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 131. ISBN 9780521653206.

References

  • Chino, Naoko. How to Tell the Difference Between Japanese Particles. Tokyo; New York: Kodansha International, 2005. ISBN 4-7700-2200-X.
  • Martin, Samuel E. A Reference Grammar of Japanese. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1975. ISBN 0-300-01813-4.
  • Makino, Seiichi, and Michio Tsutsui. A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar. Tokyo: Japan Times, 1986. ISBN 4-7890-0454-6.
  • Makino, Seiichi, and Michio Tsutsui. A Dictionary of Intermediate Japanese Grammar. Tokyo: Japan Times, 1997. ISBN 4-7890-0775-8.
  • McClain, Yoko Matsuoka. A Handbook of Modern Japanese Grammar: Including Lists of Words and Expressions with English Equivalents for Reading Aid. Tokyo: Hokuseido Press, 1981. ISBN 4-590-00570-0, ISBN 0-89346-149-0.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Japanese_particles
 



 



 
Music Scenes