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Flag of Jamaica.svg
Total population
c. 4.4 million
2,683,707 (2011 census)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Jamaica   2,934,847[2][3]
United States1,100,000+[4]
United Kingdom800,000+[6]
The Bahamas5,572[7]
Trinidad and Tobago15,000[6]
Primarily Protestantism[8]

Jamaicans are the citizens of Jamaica and their descendants in the Jamaican diaspora. The vast majority of Jamaicans are of African descent, with minorities of Europeans, East Indians, Chinese, Middle Eastern and others or mixed ancestry. The bulk of the Jamaican diaspora resides in other Anglophone countries, namely Australia, Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom and, to a lesser extent, other Caribbean countries and Commonwealth realms. Outside of Anglophone countries, the largest Jamaican diaspora community lives in Costa Rica, where Jamaicans make up a significant percentage of the population.



According to the official Jamaica Population Census of 1970, ethnic origins categories in Jamaica include: Black (Mixed); Chinese; East Indian; White; and 'Other' (e.g.: Syrian or Lebanese).[1] Jamaicans of African descent made up 92% of the working population. Those of non-African or mixed race were the second-most prominent labour group, making up 8% of the population.[9]

Self-identified ethnic origin

Responses of the 2011 official census.[10]

Ethnic origin Population Males Females Percentage
Black 2,471,946 1,226,026 1,245,920 92.1
Chinese 5,228 2,880 2,348 0.2
Mixed 162,718 73,293 89,425 6.0
East Indian 20,066 10,491 9,575 0.7
White 4,365 2,192 2,173 0.2
Other 1,898 970 928 0.1
Not Reported 17,486 8,638 8,848 0.6
Total 2,683,707 1,324,490 1,359,217 100.0%


Members of Christian denominations formed TBD per cent. of those who made answer to the inquiry at the last census; non-Christian sects were TBD per cent.; and those who described themselves as of no religion TBD per cent.; whilst "indefinite" religions constituted TBD per cent.

Denomination 2011 census[12]
Number Percentage
    Anglicanism 74,891
    Baptists 180,640
    Brethren 23,647
    Baptists 20,872 -
    Brethren 9,758 1.0
     Church of God in Jamaica 129,544 -
     Church of God of Prophecy 121,400 -
    New Testament Church of God 192,086 -
     Other Church of God 246,838 -
    Jehovah's Witnesses 50,849 2.0
    Methodist 43,336 2.0
    Moravian 18,351
    Pentecostal 295,195
    Rastafarian 29,026
    Revivalist 36,296
    Roman Catholic 57,946
    Seventh-day Adventist 322,228 -
    United Church 56,360
    Bahá'í 269
    Hinduism 1,836 -
     Islam 1,513 -
Judaism 506
Other Religion/Denomination 169,014 -
Totals, specified religions 100.00
No Religion/Denomination 572,008 -
Not reported 60,326 -
Totals, Jamaica 2,683,105 100.00


Many Jamaicans now live overseas and outside Jamaica, while many have migrated to Anglophone countries, including over 400,000 Jamaicans in the United Kingdom, over 300,000 in Canada, 800,000 in the United States.

There are about 30,000 Jamaicans residing in other CARICOM member including the Bahamas (5,600),[]Cuba (5,000),[]Antigua & Barbuda, Barbados and Trinidad & Tobago.[13] There are also communities of Jamaican descendants in Central America, particularly Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama. Most of Costa Rica's Afro-Costa Rican and Mulatto population, which combined represents about 7% of the total population, is of Jamaican descent.[14][15]

Notable Jamaicans

See also


  1. ^ a b 2011 Census of Population & Housing, Population by sex and Ethnic Origin by Parish (Page: 72) - Jamaica
  2. ^ ""World Population prospects - Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ ""Overall total population" - World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ "2013 census". United States Census.
  5. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Canada". Statistics Canada. Retrieved .
  6. ^ a b c d "World Migration". iom.int. 15 January 2015.
  7. ^ "The Nassau Guardian Home - The Nassau Guardian". The Nassau Guardian.
  8. ^ "Jamaica - Religion", Encyclopædia Britannica online.
  9. ^ Jamaica Population Census 1970.
  10. ^ "2011 Census of Population & Housing, Population by sex and Ethnic Origin by Parish (P. 72)". issuu.com. Retrieved 2020.
  11. ^ "2011 Census of Population & Housing, Population by sex and Ethnic Origin by Parish (P. 72)". issuu.com. Retrieved 2020.
  12. ^ "2011 Census of Population by Sex and Religious Affiliation/Denomination by Parish (P. 80)". issuu.com. Retrieved 2020.
  13. ^ "30,000 Jamaicans residing in other CARICOM member states". caricomnews.net. Archived from the original on 2017-06-20. Retrieved .
  14. ^ Schulman, Bob. "'Little Jamaica' Rocks on the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2019.
  15. ^ Koch, Charles W. (1977). "JAMAICAN BLACKS AND THEIR DESCENDANTS IN COSTA RICA". Social and Economic Studies. Jamaica: Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies, University of the West Indies. 26 (3): 339-361. JSTOR 27861669.

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