The Jamaican diaspora refers to the body of Jamaicans who have left the island of Jamaica, their dispersal and to a lesser extent the subsequent developments of their culture. Jamaicans can be found in the far corners of the world, but the largest pools of Jamaicans, outside of Jamaica itself, exist in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, other Caribbean islands, and all across the Caribbean Coast of Central America, namely Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras.
Early instances of Jamaican emigration were motivated by employment opportunities abroad. During the economic transition from slavery to wage labor, Indian-Jamaican migration to former slave industries (like sugar production) allowed select Black Jamaicans to find work in more skilled industries and to attain higher social statuses. Jamaicans of various skill levels supplied labor internationally, especially during the two phases of the Panama Canal's construction in the 1880s and 1910s. Job opportunities aimed at Jamaicans in Britain in post-war reconstruction in the 1940s, unemployment during the 1950s, and rising crime following the country's independence in 1962 and slow economic growth also influenced increased Jamaican emigration. Ample immigration opportunities in Canada, the USA and Britain also helped, providing Jamaicans with a thriving community of their kinsmen to join.
Over the past several decades, close to a million Jamaicans have emigrated, especially to the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada. Though this emigration appears to have been tapering off somewhat in recent years, the great number of Jamaicans living abroad has become known as the "Jamaican diaspora". Most Jamaican emigrants have followed a path first to the UK. Many who do not remain in the UK move on to other Commonwealth countries such as Canada. Jamaican emigrants also migrate directly to the United States, Canada, other Caribbean nations, Central & South America (mainly in Panama and Colombia), and even Africa (most notably Sierra Leone and Ethiopia). There has also been emigration of Jamaicans to Cuba and to Nicaragua.
The United Kingdom, and in particular London and Birmingham, have a strong Jamaican diaspora. An estimated 4% of Londoners and 3.5% of Brummies are of wholly or partly Jamaican heritage. Many are now at least second, if not third or fourth-generation Black British Caribbeans. Currently the fastest growing ethnic minority group in Britain is the mixed race category, with the mixed black & white Caribbean category (many of whom are half Jamaicans) being the single largest mixed ethnic minority.
One of the largest and most famous Jamaican expatriate communities is in Brixton, South London. More large Jamaican communities in London are Tottenham in North London, Hackney in East London, Harlesden in North-West London and both Croydon & Lewisham in South London. The highest concentration of Jamaicans are more precisely in the South London boroughs of Lambeth, Lewisham & Croydon.
On the last bank holiday of the year during late August the Annual Notting Hill Carnival takes place in west London which is the second biggest street party in the world after Rio Carnival. It spans areas of west London such as Shepherd's Bush, Ladbroke Grove, White City and of course Notting Hill. Many other Caribbean nations have large communities in this part of London such as Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados and Antigua. The Caribbean community including many Jamaicans are involved in the Carnival which starts on Saturday and finishes late on Monday. Jamaicans have many food stalls, soundsystems and floats involved in the procession. Well over a million Londoners come to Notting Hill on the Monday. There is also a much smaller carnival called the Tottenham Carnival which takes place in Tottenham during June, approximately 40,000 people attend. Other Jamaican communities include the areas of St Pauls in Bristol, Chapeltown in Leeds, Moss Side, Longsight and Hulme in Manchester, Toxteth in Liverpool, Burngreave in Sheffield, Handsworth, Ladywood, Lozells, and Aston in Birmingham, and St Ann's, Top Valley, and Basford in Nottingham.
Throughout the 1920s, Jamaican-U.S. migration was circular, with Jamaicans returning to home after working abroad. Immigration restrictions from the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 possibly influenced increases in Jamaican migrants over-staying contract limits. Jamaican-U.S. emigration increased dramatically during the 1960s, primarily of skilled Jamaican nurses. Possible factors behind this increase include high U.S. labor demand for nurses and medical workers during the 1960s, a shift in emigrant destinations after restrictions from Great Britain's Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962, and the U.S. Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 favoring higher skilled Jamaicans and other West Indians.
Concentrations of expatriate Jamaicans are large in a number of cities in the United States, including New York City, Buffalo, the Miami metro area and Fort Lauderdale, Atlanta, Orlando, Tampa, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., Houston, Philadelphia, Hartford, Providence, Boston and Los Angeles. Westchester County, New York and nearby Stamford, Connecticut also have significant Jamaican ex-pat communities.
New York City is home to a large Jamaican diaspora community. The Brooklyn communities are centred along Flatbush, Nostrand and Utica Avenues in the neighborhoods of Prospect Heights, Lefferts Gardens, Flatbush, East Flatbush, Crown Heights, Canarsie, and Flatlands. Flatbush, Nostrand, and Utica Avenues feature miles of Jamaican cuisine, food markets and other businesses, nightlife and residential enclaves. The Bronx neighborhoods are Wakefield, Eastchester, Baychester. The borough of Queens also has a Jamaican diaspora presence.
In Toronto, the Jamaican community is also large, with a metropolitan population of approximately 177,305 (3.2%). Jamaican populated areas of the city are located in the neighbourhoods of Rexdale in Etobicoke, Jane and Finch and Lawrence Heights in North York, Malvern and West Hill in Scarborough, and sections of Downtown Toronto and York, which also includes a Little Jamaica district that is identifiable along Eglinton Avenue West. In recent years, many Jamaicans have been moving out to suburbs such as Mississauga, Brampton and Ajax. The Jamaican community has had an influence on Toronto's culture. Caribana (the celebration of Caribbean culture) is an annual event in the city. The parade is held downtown on the first Saturday of August, shutting down a portion of Lake Shore Boulevard. Jamaica Day is in July, and the Jesus in the City parade attracts many Jamaican Christians. Reggae and dancehall are popular among Toronto's youth, of various ethnic backgrounds.
More recently many resort- and wild-life-management-skilled Jamaicans have been trending emigration toward such far-flung nations as Australia, New Zealand (Especially in Wellington and, to a lesser extent, Auckland) the Philippines, Japan, Malaysia and Indonesia. The nation continues to have a severe problem with barrel children--those left on their own by parents seeking a better life abroad.
Legal immigration statistics:
Total 1986-2010: 467,374