J%C5%8Dy%C5%8D Kanji
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J%C5%8Dy%C5%8D Kanji

The j?y? kanji (?, Japanese pronunciation: [d?o:jo:kad?i], lit. "regular-use Chinese characters") is the guide to kanji characters and their readings, announced officially by the Japanese Ministry of Education. Current j?y? kanji are those on a list of 2,136 characters issued in 2010. It is a slightly modified version of the t?y? kanji, which was the initial list of secondary school-level kanji standardized after World War II. The list is not a comprehensive list of all characters and readings in regular use; rather, it is intended as a literacy baseline for those who have completed compulsory education, as well as a list of permitted characters and readings for use in official government documents. Due to the requirement that official government documents make use of only j?y? kanji and their readings, several rare characters are also included by dint of being a part of the Constitution of Japan, which was being written at the same time the original 1,850-character t?y? kanji list was compiled.

The 2,136 kanji in the j?y? kanji consist of:

  • 1,026 kanji taught in primary school (the ky?iku kanji)
  • 1,110 additional kanji taught in secondary school

Changes from the t?y? kanji

In 1981, the j?y? kanji replaced the t?y? kanji as the standardized list of common kanji. The differences between the two consisted of 95 additional characters, and the simplification of ? as ?.

The 95 additional characters are as follows:

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

History

  • 1923: The Ministry of Education specified 1,962 kanji and 154 simplified characters.
  • 1931: The former j?y? kanji was revised and 1,858 characters were specified.
  • 1942: 1,134 characters as standard j?y? kanji and 1,320 characters as sub-j?y? kanji were specified.
  • 1946: The 1,850 characters of t?y? kanji were adopted by law "as those most essential for common use and everyday communication".[1] This list included 881 'basic requirement' kanji for elementary school.
  • 1981: The 1,945 characters of j?y? kanji were adopted, replacing the list of t?y? kanji.[2]
  • 2010: The list was revised on 30 November to include an additional 196 characters and remove 5 characters (?, ?, ?, ?, and ?), for a total of 2,136. The amendment also made changes to the readings of kanji present in the previous j?y? kanji list. Twenty-eight kanji gained new readings, three kanji lost obscure readings and the kun'yomi of ? was changed from kawa () to gawa ().[3] The 196 additional characters are:[3][4]
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?[?] ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?[?] ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?[?] ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?[?] ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Note: Characters in bold are used in the names of prefectures. Characters followed by an alternate in [parentheses] indicate a difference between the official version of the character and the version used in JIS X 0208 (the JIS version is in parentheses).

The Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry instructed teachers to start teaching the new characters in fiscal 2012, so that junior high school students would be able to read them and high school students would be able to write them. High schools and universities started using the characters in their entrance exams since the 2015 academic year.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ A Guide to Reading & Writing Japanese, Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1961 Edition
  2. ^ "In 1981 the j?y? kanji list superseded the old t?y? kanji list -- the list of Chinese characters which was announced in November 1946 and designated for daily use." -Japan Times editorial, "Revising the list of kanji" Archived 2009-02-16 at the Wayback Machine, Nov. 16, 2008, retrieved 27 May 2009.
  3. ^ a b "30 ?" [The amended list of j?y? kanji receives cabinet notice on 30th: to be officially confirmed in cabinet meeting.] (in Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 24 November 2010. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  4. ^ "9? " [Nine kanji such as "?" added, "?" is not selected in the new j?y? kanji amendment] (in Japanese). Asahi Shimbun. 23 October 2009. Archived from the original on 14 February 2010. Retrieved 2009.
  5. ^ http://www.japantoday.com/category/national/view/govt-to-announce-new-list-of-kanji-for-common-use-at-end-of-month[permanent dead link]

External links


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