J%C5%8Dmon Period
Get J%C5%8Dmon Period essential facts below. View Videos or join the J%C5%8Dmon Period discussion. Add J%C5%8Dmon Period to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
J%C5%8Dmon Period
Characters for J?mon (meaning "cord marks" or "cord-patterned")

The J?mon period (, J?mon jidai) is the time in Japanese prehistory, traditionally dated between c. 14,000-300 BCE,[1] recently refined to about 1000 BCE,[2][3] during which Japan was inhabited by a hunter-gatherer culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity. The name "cord-marked" was first applied by the American zoologist and orientalist Edward S. Morse, who discovered sherds of pottery in 1877 and subsequently translated it into Japanese as J?mon.[4] The pottery style characteristic of the first phases of J?mon culture was decorated by impressing cords into the surface of wet clay and is generally accepted to be among the oldest in the world.[5]

The J?mon period was rich in tools and jewelery made from bone, stone, shell and antler; pottery figurines and vessels; and lacquerware.[6][7][8][9] It is often compared to pre-Columbian cultures of the North American Pacific Northwest and especially to the Valdivia culture in Ecuador because in these settings cultural complexity developed within a primarily hunting-gathering context with limited use of horticulture.[10][11][12][13]


The approximately 14,000 year J?mon period is conventionally divided into several phases: Incipient (13,750-8,500 years ago), Initial (8,500-5,000), Early (5,000-3,520), Middle (3,520-2,470), Late (2,470-1,250), and Final (1,250-500), with each phase progressively shorter than the prior phase.[14] The fact that this entire period is given the same name by archaeologists should not be taken to mean that there was not considerable regional and temporal diversity; the time between the earliest J?mon pottery and that of the more well-known Middle J?mon period is about twice as long as the span separating the building of the Great Pyramid of Giza from the 21st century.

Dating of the J?mon sub-phases is based primarily upon ceramic typology, and to a lesser extent radiocarbon dating.

Recent findings have refined the final phase of the J?mon period to 1,000 BCE.[1][2][3] The Yayoi period started between 1,000 and 800 BCE according to radio-carbon evidence.[15][16][17]


The earliest pottery in Japan was made at or before the start of the Incipient J?mon period. Small fragments, dated to were found at the Odai Yamamoto I site in 1998. Pottery of roughly the same age was subsequently found at other sites such as Kamikuroiwa and Fukui Cave.[18][19][20]

Archaeologist Junko Habu claims "[t]he majority of Japanese scholars believed, and still believe, that pottery production was first invented in mainland Asia and subsequently introduced into the Japanese archipelago."[20] This seems to be confirmed by recent archaeology. As of now, the earliest pottery vessels in the world date back to and were discovered in Xianren Cave in Jiangxi, China.[21][22] The pottery may have been used as cookware.[21] Other early pottery vessels include those excavated from the Yuchanyan Cave in southern China, dated from ,[23] and at present it appears that pottery emerged at roughly the same time in Japan, and in the Amur River basin of the Russian Far East.[24][25]

The first J?mon pottery is characterized by the cord-marking that gives the period its name and has now been found in large numbers of sites.[26] The pottery of the period has been classified by archaeologists into some 70 styles, with many more local varieties of the styles.[4] The antiquity of J?mon pottery was first identified after World War II, through radiocarbon dating methods.[7][a] The earliest vessels were mostly smallish round-bottomed bowls 10-50 cm high that are assumed to have been used for boiling food and, perhaps, storing it beforehand. They belonged to hunter-gatherers and the size of the vessels may have been limited by a need for portability. As later bowls increase in size, this is taken to be a sign of an increasingly settled pattern of living. These types continued to develop, with increasingly elaborate patterns of decoration, undulating rims, and flat bottoms so that they could stand on a surface.[27]

The manufacture of pottery typically implies some form of sedentary life because pottery is heavy, bulky, and fragile and thus generally unusable for hunter-gatherers. However, this does not seem to have been the case with the first J?mon people, who perhaps numbered over the whole archipelago.[18] It seems that food sources were so abundant in the natural environment of the Japanese islands that it could support fairly large, semi-sedentary populations. The J?mon people used chipped stone tools, ground stone tools, traps, and bows, and were evidently skillful coastal and deep-water fishermen.

Chronological ceramic typology

Incipient J?mon

  • Linear applique
  • Nail impression
  • Cord impression
  • Muroya lower

Initial J?mon (7500-4000 BCE)

  • Igusa
  • Inaridai
  • Mito
  • Lower Tado
  • Upper Tado
  • Shiboguchi
  • Kayama

Incipient and Initial J?mon

Traces of Paleolithic culture, mainly stone tools, occur in Japan from around onwards.[2] The earliest "Incipient J?mon" phase began while Japan was still linked to continental Asia as a narrow peninsula.[18] As the glaciers melted following the end of the last glacial period (approximately ), sea levels rose, separating the Japanese archipelago from the Asian mainland; the closest point (in Kyushu) about 190 kilometres (120 mi) from the Korean Peninsula is near enough to be intermittently influenced by continental developments, but far enough removed for the peoples of the Japanese islands to develop independently. In addition, Luzon, Taiwan, Ryukyu, and Kyushu constitute a continuous chain of islands, connecting the J?mon with maritime Southeast Asia.

Within the archipelago, the vegetation was transformed by the end of the Ice Age. In southwestern Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu, broadleaf evergreen trees dominated the forests, whereas broadleaf deciduous trees and conifers were common in northeastern Honshu and southern Hokkaido. Many native tree species, such as beeches, buckeyes, chestnuts, and oaks produced edible nuts and acorns. These provided substantial sources of food for both humans and animals.

In the northeast, the plentiful marine life carried south by the Oyashio Current, especially salmon, was another major food source. Settlements along both the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean subsisted on immense amounts of shellfish, leaving distinctive middens (mounds of discarded shells and other refuse) that are now prized sources of information for archaeologists. Other food sources meriting special mention include Sika deer, wild boar (with possible wild-pig management[28]), wild plants such as yam-like tubers, and freshwater fish. Supported by the highly productive deciduous forests and an abundance of seafood, the population was concentrated in central and northern Honshu, but J?mon sites range from Hokkaido to the Ryukyu Islands.

Early J?mon (5000-3520 BCE)

Reconstructed buildings in the Sannai-Maruyama Site,[29]Aomori Prefecture

The Early J?mon period saw an explosion in population, as indicated by the number of larger aggregated villages from this period.[14] This period occurred during the Holocene climatic optimum, when the local climate became warmer and more humid.[30]

Early agriculture

The degree to which horticulture or small-scale agriculture was practiced by J?mon people is debated. The hunter-gatherer conceptualization of the J?mon period culture is part of scientific romanticized narratives.[28] There is evidence to suggest that arboriculture was practiced in the form of tending groves of lacquer (Toxicodendron verniciflua) and nut (Castanea crenata and Aesculus turbinata) producing trees,[31][32] as well as soybean, bottle gourd, hemp, Perilla, adzuki, among others. These characteristics place them somewhere in between hunting-gathering and agriculture.[28]

An apparently domesticated variety of peach appeared very early at J?mon sites in 6700-6400 BP (4700-4400 BCE).[33] This was already similar to modern cultivated forms. This domesticated type of peach was apparently brought into Japan from China. Nevertheless, in China, itself, this variety is currently attested only at a later date of c. 5300-4300 BP.[33]

Middle J?mon (3520-2470 BCE)

Highly ornate pottery dog? figurines and vessels, such as the so-called "flame style" vessels, and lacquered wood objects remain from that time. Although the ornamentation of pottery increased over time, the ceramic fabric always remained quite coarse. During this time Magatama stone beads make a transition from being a common jewelry item found in homes into serving as a grave good.[34] This is a period where there are large burial mounds and monuments.[14]

This period saw a rise in complexity in the design of pit-houses, the most commonly used method of housing at the time,[35] with some even having stone paved floors.[36] A study in 2015 found that this form of dwelling continued up until the Satsumon culture.[37] Using archaeological data on pollen count, this phase is the warmest of all the phases.[38] By the end of this phase the warm climate starts to enter a cooling trend.[14]

Late and Final J?mon (2470-500 BCE)

After 1500 BCE, the climate cooled entering a stage of neoglaciation, and populations seem to have contracted dramatically.[14] Comparatively few archaeological sites can be found after 1500 BCE.

Castanea crenata becomes essential, not only as a nut bearing tree, but also because it was extremely durable in wet conditions and became the most used timber for building houses during the Late J?mon phase.[39]

During the Final J?mon period, a slow shift was taking place in western Japan: steadily increasing contact with the Korean Peninsula eventually led to the establishment of Korean-type settlements in western Kyushu, beginning around 900 BCE. The settlers brought with them new technologies such as wet rice farming and bronze and iron metallurgy, as well as new pottery styles similar to those of the Mumun pottery period. The settlements of these new arrivals seem to have coexisted with those of the J?mon and Yayoi for around a thousand years.

Outside Hokkaido, the Final J?mon is succeeded by a new farming culture, the Yayoi (c. 300 BCE - 300 CE), named after an archaeological site near Tokyo.[7]

Within Hokkaido, the J?mon is succeeded by the Zoku-J?mon (post-J?mon) or Epi-J?mon period, which is in turn succeeded by the Satsumon culture around the 7th century.

Main periods

Middle Jomon vessel
A jar with spirals. Final Jomon, Kamegaoka style
  • Middle J?mon (3520-2470 BCE):
    • Katsusaka/Otamadai
    • Kasori E1
    • Kasori E2
  • Late J?mon (2470-1250 BCE):
    • Horinouchi
    • Kasori B2,
    • Angyo 1
  • Final J?mon (1250-500 BCE):
    • Tohoku District
      • Oubora B
      • Oubora BC (?funato, Iwate)
      • Oubora C1
      • Oubora C2
      • Oubora A
      • Oubora A'
    • Kanto District

Population decline

At the end of the J?mon period the local population declined sharply. Scientists suggest that this was possibly caused because of food shortages and other environmental problems. They concluded that not all J?mon groups suffered under these circumstances but the overall population declined.[40] Examining the remains of the people who lived throughout the J?mon period, there is evidence that these deaths were not inflicted by warfare or violence on a large enough scale to cause these deaths.[41]

Foundation myths

The origin myths of Japanese civilization extend back to periods now regarded as part of the J?mon period, though they show little or no relation to the current archaeological understanding of J?mon culture. 11 February 660 BCE is the traditional founding date of the Japanese nation by Emperor Jimmu. This version of Japanese history, however, comes from the country's first written records, the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, dating from the 6th to the 8th centuries, after Japan had adopted Chinese characters (Go-on/Kan-on).[42]

Some elements of modern Japanese culture may date from this period and reflect the influences of a mingled migration from the northern Asian continent and the southern Pacific areas and the J?mon peoples. Among these elements are the precursors to Shinto, some marriage customs, architectural styles, and technological developments such as lacquerware, laminated yumi, metalworking, and glass making.

Proposed origin

Historical extent of the Ainu people


The relationship of J?mon people to the modern Japanese (Yamato people), Ryukyuans, and Ainu is diverse and not well clarified. Morphological studies of dental variation and genetic studies suggest that the J?mon people were of southern origin, while other studies of bacteria suggest that the J?mon people were of possible northern origin.[43][44] According to recent studies the contemporary Japanese people descended from a mixture of the ancient hunter-gatherer J?mon and the Yayoi rice agriculturalists, and these two major ancestral groups came to Japan over different routes at different times.[45][46][47][48][49][50] Recent studies however support a predominantly Yayoi ancestry for contemporary Japanese people.[51]

Migration route of paternal haplogroup C.

The J?mon people were not one homogenous ethnic group. According to Mitsuru Sakitani the J?mon people are an admixture of two distinct haplogroups: A more ancient group from Central Asia (carriers of Y chromosome D1a), that were present since more than in Japan and a more recent group from East Asia (carriers of Y chromosome type C1a) that migrated to Japan about ago.[52]Mark J. Hudson of Nishikyushu University posits that Japan was settled by a proto-Mongoloid population in the Pleistocene who became the J?mon, and that their features can be seen in the Ainu and Ryukyuan people.[19] The J?mon share several physical characteristics, such as relatively abundant body hair, with Europeans, but they derive from a separate lineage than modern Europeans.[53]

According to Schmidt & Seguchi (2013)[54] the prehistoric J?mon people descended from a paleolithic populations of Siberia (Altai mountains region). Other cited scholars point out similarities between the J?mon and various paleolithic and Bronze Age Siberians. There were likely multiple migrations into ancient Japan.[54]

A study by Lee and Hasegawa of the Waseda University, concluded that the J?mon period population consisted largely of a distinctive Paleolithic population from Central Asia and an ancient Northeast Asian population (Okhotsk people), with both arriving at different times during the J?mon period in Japan. According to them, the direct ancestors of the later Ainu people formed from the combination of these two distinct populations during the J?mon period in northern Hokkaido, long before the arrival of contemporary Japanese people. From their the ancestors of the Ainu-speakers expanded into large parts of Honshu and the Kurils. Lee and Hasegawa presented evidence that the Ainu language originated from the Northeast Asian/Okhotsk population, which established themselves in northern Hokkaido and had significant impact on the formation of the J?mon culture and ethnicities. They further concluded that the "dual structure theory" regarding the population history of Japan must be revised and that the J?mon people had more diversity than originally suggested.[55]

Recent full genome analyses in 2020 by Boer et al. 2020 and Yang et al. 2020, reveals some further information regarding the origin of the J?mon peoples. They were found to have largely formed from a Paleolithic Siberian/Central Asian population and an East Asian-related population.[56][57]

One study, published in the Cambridge University Press in 2020, suggests that the J?mon people were rather heterogeneous, and that there was also an "Altaic-like" pre-Yayoi population (close to modern Northeast Asians) in J?mon period Japan, which established itself over the local hunter gatherers. This "Altaic-like" population migrated from Northeast Asia in about 6000BC, before the actual Yayoi migration. The authors additionally note that Austronesian peoples were possibly present in southernmost Japan (Sakishima) before the arrival of the Yayoi people.[58]


Recent Y chromosome haplotype testing has led to the hypothesis that male haplogroups D-M55 and C1a1, which have been found in different percentages of samples of modern Japanese, Ryukyuan, and Ainu population, may reflect patrilineal descent from members of pre-J?mon and J?mon period of the Japanese Archipelago.[46] Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of J?mon skeletons from Hokkaido, Okinawa Island and T?hoku region indicates that haplogroups N9b and M7a may reflect maternal J?mon contribution to the modern Japanese mtDNA pool.[44][59][60][61][62] In another study of ancient DNA published by the same authors in 2011, both the control and coding regions of mtDNA recovered from J?mon skeletons excavated from the northernmost island of Japan, Hokkaido, were analyzed in detail, and 54 mtDNA samples were confidently assigned to relevant haplogroups. Haplogroups N9b, D4h2, G1b, and M7a were observed in these individuals.[63] According to 2013 study, there was mtDNA sub-haplogroups inter-regional heterogeneity within the J?mon people, specifically between studied Kant?, Hokkaido and T?hoku J?mon.[44] According to 2011 study all major East Asian mtDNA lineages expanded before 10,000 YBP, except for two Japanese lineages D4b2b1 and M7a1a which population expanded around 7000 YBP unequivocally during the J?mon Period (14-2.3 kya), thousands of years before intensive agriculture which imply that the use of abundant uncultivated food resources was the reason for population expansion and not agriculture.[64]

A study about ancient Jomon aDNA from Sanganji shell mound in T?hoku region in 2017, estimates that the modern mainland Japanese population probably inherit less than 20% of their DNA from J?mon peoples' genomes.[50] A genome research (Takahashi et al. 2019) shows that modern Japanese (Yamato) do not have much J?mon ancestry at all. Nuclear genome analysis of J?mon samples and modern Japanese samples show strong differences.[51] Another recent estimate (Gakuhari et al. 2019) suggests about 9.8% J?mon ancestry in modern Japanese, and about 79.3% Jomon ancestry in the Ainu people.[65][66][67] A study by Kanazawa-Kiriyama et al. (2019) suggests 9-13% Jomon ancestry in the modern Japanese and 27% in Ryukyuans (with the remainder in both being from the Yayoi people) and about 66% Jomon ancestry in the Ainu.[68]


See also


  1. ^ Radiocarbon measures of carbonized material from pottery artifacts (uncalibrated): Fukui Cave and Kamaki & Serizawa (1967), Kamikuroiwa rockshelter in Shikoku.


  1. ^ a b Perri, Angela R. (2016). "Hunting dogs as environmental adaptations in J?mon Japan" (PDF). Antiquity. 90 (353): 1166-1180. doi:10.15184/aqy.2016.115.
  2. ^ a b c Timothy Jinam; Hideaki Kanzawa-Kiriyama; Naruya Saitou (2015). "Human genetic diversity in the Japanese Archipelago: dual structure and beyond". Genes & Genetic Systems. 90 (3): 147-152. doi:10.1266/ggs.90.147. PMID 26510569.
  3. ^ a b Robbeets, Martine (2015), Diachrony of Verb Morphology: Japanese and the Transeurasian Languages, De Gruyter, p. 26, ISBN 978-3-11-039994-3
  4. ^ a b Mason, 14
  5. ^ Kuzmin, Y.V. (2006). "Chronology of the Earliest Pottery in East Asia: Progress and Pitfalls". Antiquity. 80 (308): 362-371. doi:10.1017/s0003598x00093686.
  6. ^ Birmingham Museum of Art (2010). Birmingham Museum of Art : Guide to the Collection. Birmingham, AL: Birmingham Museum of Art. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-904832-77-5.
  7. ^ a b c Imamura, K. (1996) Prehistoric Japan: New Perspectives on Insular East Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press
  8. ^ Mizoguchi, Koji (2002). An Archaeological History of Japan, 30,000 B.C. to A.D. 700. University of Pennsylvania Press, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-8122-3651-4.
  9. ^ ? (1996-07-01). "". Comprehensive Database of Archaeological Site Reports in Japan. Retrieved .
  10. ^ Koyama, Shuzo, and David Hurst Thomas (eds.). (1979). Affluent Foragers: Pacific Coasts East and West. Senri Ethnological Studies No. 9. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology.
  11. ^ Aikens, C. Melvin (1992). Pacific northeast Asia in prehistory: hunter-fisher-gatherers, farmers, and sociopolitical elites. WSU Press. ISBN 978-0-87422-092-6.
  12. ^ Fiedel, Stuart J. (1992). Prehistory of the Americas. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521425445.
  13. ^ "Archaeology | Studies examine clues of transoceanic contact". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved .
  14. ^ a b c d e Sakaguchi, Takashi. (2009). Storage adaptations among hunter-gatherers: A quantitative approach to the Jomon period. Journal of anthropological archaeology, 28(3), 290-303. SAN DIEGO: Elsevier Inc.
  15. ^ Silberman et al., 154-155.
  16. ^ Schirokauer et al., 133-143.
  17. ^ Sh?da, Shinya (2007). "A comment on the Yayoi Period dating controversy". Bulletin of the Society for East Asian Archaeology. 1.
  18. ^ a b c Mason, 13
  19. ^ a b Hudson, Mark J. (1999). Ruins of Identity: Ethnogenesis in the Japanese islands. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2156-2.
  20. ^ a b Habu, Junko (2004). Ancient Jom?n of Japan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77670-7.
  21. ^ a b Wu, X.; Zhang, C.; Goldberg, P.; Cohen, D.; Pan, Y.; Arpin, T.; Bar-Yosef, O. (June 29, 2012). "Early pottery at ago in Xianrendong Cave, China". Science. 336 (6089): 1696-1700. Bibcode:2012Sci...336.1696W. doi:10.1126/science.1218643. PMID 22745428. S2CID 37666548.
  22. ^ Stanglin, Douglas (29 June 2012). "Pottery found in China cave confirmed as world's oldest". USA Today.
  23. ^ "Chinese pottery may be earliest discovered". Cleveland.com. Associated Press. 1 June 2009.
  24. ^ Kuzmin, Y.V.; Keally, C.T. (2001). "Radiocarbon chronology of the earliest Neolithic sites in east Asia". Radiocarbon. 43 (2B): 1121-1128. doi:10.1017/s0033822200041771.
  25. ^ Craig, O.E.; Saul, H. (2013). "Earliest evidence for the use of pottery". Nature. 496 (7445): 351-354. Bibcode:2013Natur.496..351C. doi:10.1038/nature12109. PMID 23575637. S2CID 3094491.
  26. ^ Craig & Saul 2013.
  27. ^ Mason, 15, 17
  28. ^ a b c Crawford, Gary W. (2011). "Advances in understanding early agriculture in Japan". Current Anthropology. 52 (S4): S331-S345. doi:10.1086/658369. JSTOR 10.1086/658369. S2CID 143756517.
  29. ^ "?". Comprehensive Database of Archaeological Site Reports in Japan. Retrieved .
  30. ^ Francis E. Mayle, David Beerling, William D. Gosling, Mark B. Bush (2004). "Responses of Amazonian ecosystems to climatic and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes since the Last Glacial Maximum". Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences. 359 (1443): 499-514. doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1434. PMC 1693334. PMID 15212099.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  31. ^ Matsui, A.; Kanehara, M. (2006). "The question of prehistoric plant husbandry during the Jom?n Period in Japan". World Archaeology. 38 (2): 259-273. doi:10.1080/00438240600708295. S2CID 162258797.
  32. ^ Crawford, G.W. (1992). "The transitions to agriculture in Japan". In Gebauer, A.B.; Price, T.D. (eds.). Transitions to Agriculture in Prehistory. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 117-132.
  33. ^ a b Yang, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W.; Chen, Xugao (2014). "Archaeological evidence for peach (Prunus persica) cultivation and domestication in China". PLOS ONE. 9 (9): e106595. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9j6595Z. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0106595. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4156326. PMID 25192436.
  34. ^ Nishimura, Y. (2018). The Evolution of Curved Beads (Magatama /) in J?mon Period Japan and the Development of Individual Ownership. Asian Perspectives 57(1), 105-158. doi:10.1353/asi.2018.0004.
  35. ^ "Early Jomon hamlet found". The Japan Times. May 27, 1997.
  36. ^ Moriya, Toyohito (2015). "A Study of the Utilization of Wood to Build Pit Dwellings from the Epi-Jomon Culture" (PDF). Journal of the Graduate School of Letters. 10: 71-85. doi:10.14943/jgsl.10.71.
  37. ^ Moriya 2015.
  38. ^ Kusaka, Soichiro, Hyodo, Fujio, Yumoto, Takakazu, & Nakatsukasa, Masato. (2010). Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis on the diet of Jomon populations from two coastal regions of Japan. Journal of archaeological science, 37(8), 1968-1977. LONDON: Elsevier BV.
  39. ^ Noshiro, Shuichi, & Sasaki, Yuka. (2014). Pre-agricultural management of plant resources during the Jomon period in Japan--a sophisticated subsistence system on plant resources. Journal of archaeological science, 42(1), 93-106. LONDON: Elsevier BV.
  40. ^ Ohashi, Jun; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Hitomi, Yuki; Sawai, Hiromi; Khor, Seik-Soon; Naka, Izumi; Watanabe, Yusuke (2019-06-17). "Analysis of whole Y-chromosome sequences reveals the Japanese population history in the Jomon period". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 8556. Bibcode:2019NatSR...9.8556W. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-44473-z. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6572846. PMID 31209235.
  41. ^ Nakao, Hisashi, Tamura, Kohei, Arimatsu, Yui, Nakagawa, Tomomi, Matsumoto, Naoko, & Matsugi, Takehiko. (2016). Violence in the prehistoric period of Japan: the spatio-temporal pattern of skeletal evidence for violence in the Jomon period. Biology letters (2005), 12(3), 20160028. Historical Article, LONDON: The Royal Society.
  42. ^ OKimori Takuya "1600? (1600 years of history in Japanese Kanji)" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-17. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  43. ^ "Out of Sunda by J?mon Japanese". Southeast Asia. Scribd. Earth & Life Sciences. Retrieved .
  44. ^ a b c Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Hideaki; Saso, Aiko; Suwa, Gen; Saitou, Naruya (2013). "Ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences of J?mon teeth samples from Sanganji, Tohoku district, Japan". Anthropological Science. 121 (2): 89-103. doi:10.1537/ase.121113. Retrieved 2017.
  45. ^ Hanihara, K. (1984). "Origins and affinities of Japanese viewed from cranial measurements". Acta Anthropogenetica. 8 (1-2): 149-158. PMID 6537211.
  46. ^ a b Hammer, Michael F.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Park, Hwayong; Omoto, Keiichi; Harihara, Shinji; Stoneking, Mark; Horai, Satoshi (2006). "Dual origins of the Japanese: Common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". Journal of Human Genetics. 51 (1): 47-58. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. PMID 16328082.
  47. ^ Rita Rasteiro; Lounès Chikhi (2009). "Revisiting the peopling of Japan: An admixture perspective". Journal of Human Genetics. 54 (6): 349-354. doi:10.1038/jhg.2009.39. PMID 19424284.
  48. ^ He, Yungang; Wang, Wei R.; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li (2012). "Paleolithic contingent in modern Japanese: Estimation and inference using genome-wide data". Scientific Reports. 2 (355): 47-58. Bibcode:2012NatSR...2E.355H. doi:10.1038/srep00355. PMC 3320058. PMID 22482036.
  49. ^ Sato, Youichi; et al. (2014). "Overview of genetic variation in the Y chromosome of modern Japanese males". Anthropological Science. 122 (3): 131-136. doi:10.1537/ase.140709.
  50. ^ a b Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Hideaki; Kryukov, Kirill; Jinam, Timothy A.; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Saso, Aiko; Suwa, Gen; et al. (February 2017). "A partial nuclear genome of the J?mons who lived ago in Fukushima, Japan". Journal of Human Genetics. 62 (2): 213-221. doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.110. PMC 5285490. PMID 27581845.
  51. ^ a b Nara, Takashi; Adachi, Noboru; Yoneda, Minoru; Hagihara, Yasuo; Saeki, Fumiko; Koibuchi, Ryoko; Takahashi, Ryohei (2019). "Mitochondrial DNA analysis of the human skeletons excavated from the Shomyoji shell midden site, Kanagawa, Japan". Anthropological Science. 127 (1): 65-72. doi:10.1537/ase.190307. ISSN 0918-7960.
  52. ^ ?DNA?(? 2009?)(in Japanese)
  53. ^ Koppel, Tom (June 2003). Lost World - Rewriting Prehistory: How new science is tracing America's ice-age mariners. Atria Books. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster. p. 389ff. ISBN 978-1-439-11800-9.
  54. ^ a b Schmidt, Ryan W.; Seguchi, Noriko (2014) [31 August 2013]. "J?mon culture and the peopling of the Japanese archipelago". Japanese Journal of Archaeology. 2 (1): 34-5. ISSN 2187-9524.
  55. ^ Lee, Hasegawa, Sean, Toshikazu (April 2013). "Evolution of the Ainu Language in Space and Time". In this paper, we reconstructed spatiotemporal evolution of 19 Ainu language varieties, and the results are in strong agreement with the hypothesis that a recent population expansion of the Okhotsk people played a critical role in shaping the Ainu people and their culture. Together with the recent archaeological, biological and cultural evidence, our phylogeographic reconstruction of the Ainu language strongly suggests that the conventional dual-structure model must be refined to explain these new bodies of evidence. The case of the Ainu language origin we report here also contributes additional detail to the global pattern of language evolution, and our language phylogeny might also provide a basis for making further inferences about the cultural dynamics of the Ainu speakers [44,45].
  56. ^ Yang, Melinda A.; Fan, Xuechun; Sun, Bo; Chen, Chungyu; Lang, Jianfeng; Ko, Ying-Chin; Tsang, Cheng-hwa; Chiu, Hunglin; Wang, Tianyi; Bao, Qingchuan; Wu, Xiaohong (2020-07-17). "Ancient DNA indicates human population shifts and admixture in northern and southern China". Science. 369 (6501): 282-288. Bibcode:2020Sci...369..282Y. doi:10.1126/science.aba0909. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 32409524. S2CID 218649510.
  57. ^ Boer, Elisabeth de; Yang, Melinda A.; Kawagoe, Aileen; Barnes, Gina L. (2020/ed). "Japan considered from the hypothesis of farmer/language spread". Evolutionary Human Sciences. 2. doi:10.1017/ehs.2020.7. ISSN 2513-843X. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  58. ^ Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Driem, George van (2020/ed). "Munda languages are father tongues, but Japanese and Korean are not". Evolutionary Human Sciences. 2. doi:10.1017/ehs.2020.14. ISSN 2513-843X. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  59. ^ Masashi Tanaka; et al. (2004). "Mitochondrial Genome Variation in Eastern Asia and the Peopling of Japan". Genome Research. 14 (10a): 1832-1850. doi:10.1101/gr.2286304. PMC 524407. PMID 15466285.
  60. ^ Adachi, N.; Shinoda, K.; Umetsu, K.; Matsumura, H. (2009). "Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Jomon skeletons from the Funadomari site, Hokkaido, and its implication for the origins of Native American". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 138 (3): 255-265. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20923. PMID 18951391.
  61. ^ Ken-ichi Shinoda; Tsuneo Kakuda; Naomi Doi (2012). "Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in late Shell midden period skeletal remains excavated from two archaeological sites in Okinawa" (PDF). Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Series D. 38: 51-61. Retrieved 2017.
  62. ^ Ken-ichi Shinoda; Tsuneo Kakuda; Naomi Doi (2013). "Ancient DNA Analyses of Human Skeletal Remains from the Gusuku Period in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan" (PDF). Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Series D. 39: 1-8. Retrieved 2017.
  63. ^ Adachi, N; Shinoda, K; Umetsu, K; Kitano, T; Matsumura, H; Fujiyama, R; Sawada, J; Tanaka, M (Nov 2011). "Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Hokkaido J?mon skeletons: remnants of archaic maternal lineages at the southwestern edge of former Beringia". Am J Phys Anthropol. 146 (3): 346-60. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21561. PMID 21953438.
  64. ^ Hong-Xiang Zheng; Shi Yan; Zhen-Dong Qin; Yi Wang; Jing-Ze Tan; Hui Li; Li Jin (2011). "Major Population Expansion of East Asians Began before Neolithic Time: Evidence of mtDNA Genomes". PLOS ONE. 6 (10): e25835. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...625835Z. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025835. PMC 3188578. PMID 21998705.
  65. ^ "'Jomon woman' helps solve Japan's genetic mystery". NHK World - Japan News. Retrieved .
  66. ^ Khan, Razib (2019-05-24). "The Jomon contributed little to the Japanese". Gene Expression. Retrieved .
  67. ^ Gakuhari, Takashi; Nakagome, Shigeki; Rasmussen, Simon; Allentoft, Morten; Sato, Takehiro; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Chuinneagáin, Blánaid; Matsumae, Hiromi; Koganebuchi, Kae; Schmidt, Ryan; Mizushima, Souichiro (March 15, 2019) [2019]. "Jomon genome sheds light on East Asian population history" (PDF). bioRxiv: 3-5. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  68. ^ Late Jomon male and female genome sequences from the Funadomari site in Hokkaido, Japan - Hideaki Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Nature and Science 2018/2019en


  • Aikens, C. Melvin, and Takayasu Higuchi. (1982). Prehistory of Japan. Studies in Archaeology. New York: Academic Press. (main text 337 pages; Jomon text 92 pages) ISBN 0-12-045280-4
  • Habu, Junko (2004). Ancient Jomon of Japan. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77670-7.
  • Schirokauer, Conrad (2013). A Brief History of Chinese and Japanese Civilizations. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
  • Silberman, Neil Asher (2012). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Habu, Junko, "Subsistence-Settlement systems in intersite variability in the Moroiso Phase of the Early Jomon Period of Japan"
  • Hudson, Mark J., Ruins of Identity: Ethnogenesis in the Japanese Islands, University of Hawai`i Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8248-2156-4
  • Imamura, Keiji, Prehistoric Japan, University of Hawai`i Press, 1996, ISBN 0-8248-1852-0
  • Kobayashi, Tatsuo. (2004). Jomon Reflections: Forager Life and Culture in the Prehistoric Japanese Archipelago. Ed. Simon Kaner with Oki Nakamura. Oxford, England: Oxbow Books. (main text 186 pages, all on Jomon) ISBN 978-1-84217-088-5
  • Koyama, Shuzo, and David Hurst Thomas (eds.). (1979). Affluent Foragers: Pacific Coasts East and West. Senri Ethnological Studies No. 9. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology.
  • Mason, Penelope E., with Donald Dinwiddie, History of Japanese art, 2nd edn 2005, Pearson Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-117602-1, 9780131176027
  • Michael, Henry N., "The Neolithic Age in Eastern Siberia." Henry N. Michael. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Ser., Vol. 48, No. 2 (1958), pp. 1-108. (laminated bow from Korekawa, Aomori)
  • Mizoguchi, Koji, An Archaeological History of Japan: 10,000 B.C. to A.D. 700, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002, ISBN 0-8122-3651-3
  • Pearson, Richard J., Gina Lee Barnes, and Karl L. Hutterer (eds.). (1986). Windows on the Japanese Past: Studies in Archaeology and Prehistory. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Center for Japanese Studies, The University of Michigan. (main text 496 pages; Jomon text 92 pages)
  • Temple, DH (2007). "Stress and dietary variation among prehistoric Jomon foragers". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 133 (4): 1035-1046. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20645. PMID 17554758.
  • Temple, DH (2008). "What can stature variation reveal about environmental differences between prehistoric Jomon foragers? Understanding the impact of developmental stress on environmental stability". American Journal of Human Biology. 20 (4): 431-439. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20756. PMID 18348169. S2CID 8905568.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes