Ishtup-Ilum
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Ishtup-Ilum
Ishtup-Ilum
Military governor of Mari
Statue of Ishtup-Ilum.jpg
Statue of Ishtup-Ilum.
Reignc.2147-2136 BCE
PredecessorNûr-Mêr
SuccessorIshgum-Addu
DynastyShakkanakku dynasty
Mari is located in Near East
Mari
Mari
Location of Mari, where Ishtup-Ilum ruled.

Ishtup-Ilum, also Ishtup-El (, Ish-dub-ilum, c. 2147-2136 BCE)[1] was a ruler of the city of Mari, one of the military governors known as Shakkanakku in northern Mesopotamia, after the fall of the Akkadian Empire.[2] He was probably contemporary with the Second Dynasty of Lagash, around the time of Gudea.[1] He was the son of Ishma-Dagan and brother of Nûr-Mêr, both Shakkanakkus of Mari before him, and, according to the dynastic lists, he ruled after them for a period of 11 years.[3]

He is known from inscriptions mentioning the building of a temple, as well as from a monumental statue, discovered in Mari.[2]

Statue of Ishtup-Ilum

His statue was discovered by the team of André Parrot on 14 March 1936, Syria. It has a rather simple and coarse design, a provincial characteristic during this period, and is significantly less sophisticated than the statues of his successors, such as Puzur-Ishtar.[4] The statue is now in the Aleppo National Museum, Syria.[5][6]

Dedication tablets

Ishtup-Ilum is also known from a dedication tablet for the "Temple of the King of the Country" (either Dagan or Enlil)[7] with the inscription:

Ishtup-Ilum Shakkanakku of Mari, son of Ishma-Dagan, Shakkanakku of Mari.jpg

/ / / / ? / ? / [8]

Ishtup-Ilum / Shakkanakku Mari-ki / dumu Ishma-Dagan / Shakkanakku Mari-ki / e / dLugal-m?dim / ibni[9]

"Ishtup-Ilum, Shakkanakku of Mari, son of Ishma-Dagan, Shakkanakku of Mari, built the Temple for God Lugal-m?tim (the "Lord of the Land", identified with Dagan or Enlil)"[10][11]

This implies that Ishtup-Ilum was the builder of this "Temple of the King of the Country", in which were also discovered beautiful copper statues of guardian lions, the "Lions of Mari", probably installed later during a rebuilding of the temple in the early 2nd millennium BCE. The Temple was excavated in 1938 by André Parrot.[15]

Ishtup-Ilum Mari
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Nûr-Mêr
Shakkanakku of Mari
c.2147-2136 BCE
Succeeded by
Ishgum-Addu

References

  1. ^ a b Durand, M.L. (2008). Supplément au Dictionnaire de la Bible: TELL HARIRI/MARI: TEXTES (PDF). p. 227.
  2. ^ a b Leick, Gwendolyn (2002). Who's Who in the Ancient Near East. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-78796-8.
  3. ^ Oliva, Juan (2008). Textos para un historia política de Siria-Palestina I (in Spanish). Ediciones AKAL. p. 86. ISBN 978-84-460-1949-7.
  4. ^ "The statue of Ishtup--ilum of Mari shows an almost brutal simplification of forms. This is a provincial trait." in Frankfort, Henri; Roaf, Michael; Matthews, Donald (1996). The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient. Yale University Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-300-06470-4.
  5. ^ Frankfort, Henri; Roaf, Michael; Matthews, Donald (1996). The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient. Yale University Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-300-06470-4.
  6. ^ With recent photograph: Eppihimer, Melissa (2019). Exemplars of Kingship: Art, Tradition, and the Legacy of the Akkadians. Oxford University Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-19-090301-5.
  7. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  8. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  9. ^ "CDLI-Archival View". cdli.ucla.edu.
  10. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  11. ^ Orientalia: Vol. 73 (in Italian). Gregorian Biblical BookShop. p. 325.
  12. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  13. ^ Orientalia: Vol. 73. Gregorian Biblical BookShop. p. 322.
  14. ^ "CDLI-Archival View". cdli.ucla.edu.
  15. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  16. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  17. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  18. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  19. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.

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Ishtup-Ilum
 



 



 
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