Isaiah 1 is the first chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the ChristianBible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is one of the Book of the Prophets. This chapter provides an introduction to the issues of sin, judgement, and hoped-for restoration which form the overarching structure of the whole book. It concludes (verse 31) with 'a reference to the burning of those who trust in their own strength', in a fire which cannot be 'quenched' (Heb. root: k-b-h), a relatively rare word which is also used in the last verse of the book (verse 66:24: 'their fire shall not be quenched'), thereby linking together beginning and ending of this whole book.
The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.
"Vision" (Hebrew ch?zôn, from the verb, châzâh, "to see, to behold"): Introducing the whole book as a vision in the title (see Obadiah 1, Nahum 1:1, Amos 1:1, Micah 1:1, Habakkuk 1:1), as well as in : Now the rest of the acts of Hezekiah, and his goodness, behold they are written in the vision of Isaiah.
"The son of Amoz": not of Amos the prophet. Jewish tradition has a note that Amoz, the father of Isaiah, was the brother of Amaziah, king of Judah, so that Isaiah was of the royal family.
According to the Pulpit Commentary, the prophecies of Isaiah "concern primarily the kingdom of Judah, not that of Israel". This verse "is probably best understood as the heading of the first great collection of prophecies" in chapters 1-12. Chapter 13 initiates a proclamation against Babylon.
The great accusation (1:2-4)
Isaiah calls the people of Judah "a thoughtless people".
This verse has played an important part in Christian Christmas tradition, along with a number of other verses in Isaiah which are treated as pointing forward to the time of Christ, and, although not mentioned in the gospels, "the ox and the donkey/ass" are often connected with accounts of the birth of Jesus. The animals in the Christmas crib are first mentioned in the apocryphal Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew (dated to the eighth or ninth century CE), where it is said that Mary 'put her child in a manger, and an ox and an ass worshipped him. Then was fulfilled that which was spoken through the prophet Isaiah: "The ox knows his owner and the ass his master's crib"'.
The devastation of Judah (1:5-9)
Isaiah uses images of the sick individual (verses 5-6) and the desolate nation (verses 7-8) to portray the sinfulness of his nation. The "daughter of Zion" (i.e. the city of Jerusalem) remained an isolated stronghold when Sennacherib, king of Assyria attacked the fortified cities of Judah in 701 BCE.
Pious corruption and its cleansing (1:10-20)
Considered 'the most powerful and sustained' prophetic outburst at religious unreality[clarification needed] (cf. 1 Samuel 15:22; Jeremiah 7:21-23; Hosea 6:6; Amos 5:21-24; Micah 6:6-8), the vehemence of this prophecy is built up together in its form and content. First, God rejected the offerings, then the offerers (verses 11-12), the specific accusation in the lurid conclusion of verse 15: Your hands are full of blood, followed by the command to 'have done with evil' in 'eight thunderous calls', ending in the reminder of the life-and-death alternatives similar to Deuteronomy 30:15-20.
And the strong shall be as tow, and the maker of it as a spark, and they shall both burn together, and none shall quench them.
"Quench": Illusion of a fire ("spark") which cannot be 'quenched', from the Hebrew root: k-b-h (, kabah, "to be quenched or extinguished, to go out"), links this verse (the beginning chapter) to the last verse (of the ending chapter) of the whole book (Isaiah 66:24: 'their fire shall not be quenched'). Moreover, it is also used in three other places: (1) of the servant in 42:3, that 'a dimly burning wick ("smoking flax") he will not quench'; (2) that 'the fire devouring Edom "will not be quenched"' (34:10), and (3) those who oppose the LORD'S path are 'quenched like a wick' (43:17).