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Irritable Bowel Syndrome
functional bowel disorder characterized by chronic issues without an organic cause
About 10-15% of people in the developed world are believed to be affected by IBS. It is estimated that 15-45% of people globally are affected by IBS. It is more common in South America and less common in Southeast Asia. It is twice as common in women as men and typically occurs before age 45. The condition appears to become less common with age. IBS does not affect life expectancy or lead to other serious diseases. The first description of the condition was in 1820, while the current term irritable bowel syndrome came into use in 1944.
IBS can be classified as diarrhea-predominant (IBS-D), constipation-predominant (IBS-C), with alternating stool pattern (IBS-A) or pain-predominant. In some individuals, IBS may have an acute onset and develop after an infectious illness characterized by two or more of: fever, vomiting, diarrhea, or positive stool culture. This postinfective syndrome has consequently been termed "postinfectious IBS" (IBS-PI).
The risk of developing IBS increases six-fold after acute gastrointestinal infection. Postinfection, further risk factors are young age, prolonged fever, anxiety, and depression. Psychological factors, such as depression or anxiety, have not been shown to cause or influence the onset of IBS, but may play a role in the persistence and perceived severity of symptoms. Nevertheless, they may worsen IBS symptoms and quality of life. Antibiotic use also appears to increase the risk of developing IBS. Research has found that genetic defects in innate immunity and epithelial homeostasis increase the risk of developing both post-infectious as well as other forms of IBS.
Publications suggesting the role of the brain-gut axis appeared in the 1990s and childhood physical and psychological abuse is often associated with the development of IBS. It is believed that psychological stress may trigger IBS in predisposed individuals.
Given the high levels of anxiety experienced by people with IBS and the overlap with conditions such as fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome, a potential explanation for IBS involves a disruption of the stress system. The stress response in the body involves the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the sympathetic nervous system, both of which have been shown to operate abnormally in people with IBS. Psychiatric illness or anxiety precedes IBS symptoms in two-thirds of people with IBS, and psychological traits predispose previously healthy people to developing IBS after gastroenteritis.
Approximately 10 percent of IBS cases are triggered by an acute gastroenteritis infection. The CdtB toxin is produced by bacteria causing gastroenteritis and the host may develop an autoimmunity when host antibodies to CdtB cross-react with vinculin. Genetic defects relating to the innate immune system and epithelial barrier as well as high stress and anxiety levels appear to increase the risk of developing post-infectious IBS. Post-infectious IBS usually manifests itself as the diarrhea-predominant subtype. Evidence has demonstrated that the release of high levels of proinflammatory cytokines during acute enteric infection causes increased gut permeability leading to translocation of the commensal bacteria across the epithelial barrier; this in turn can result in significant damage to local tissues, which can develop into chronic gut abnormalities in sensitive individuals. However, increased gut permeability is strongly associated with IBS regardless of whether IBS was initiated by an infection or not. A link between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and tropical sprue has been proposed to be involved as a cause of post-infectious IBS.
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs with greater frequency in people who have been diagnosed with IBS compared to healthy controls. SIBO is most common in diarrhea-predominate IBS but also occurs in constipation-predominant IBS more frequently than healthy controls. Symptoms of SIBO include bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation among others. IBS may be the result of the immune system interacting abnormally with gut microbiota resulting in an abnormal cytokine signalling profile.
Certain bacteria are found in lower or higher abundance when compared with healthy individuals. Generally Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria are increased and Actinobacteria, Bifidobacteria, and Lactobacillus are decreased. Within the human gut, there are common phyla found. The most common is Firmicutes. This includes Lactobacillus, which is found to have a decrease in people with IBS, and Streptococcus, which is shown to have an increase in abundance. Within this phylum, species in the class Clostridia are shown to have an increase, specifically Ruminococcus and Dorea. The family Lachnospiraceae presents an increase in IBS-D patients. The second most common phylum is Bacteroidetes. In people with IBS, the Bacteroidetes phylum has been shown to have an overall decrease, but an increase in the species Bacteroides. IBS-D shows a decrease for the phylum Actinobacteria and an increase in Proteobacteria, specifically in the family Enterobacteriaceae.
There is growing evidence that alterations of gut microbiota (dysbiosis) are associated with the intestinal manifestations of IBS, but also with the psychiatric morbidity that coexists in up to 80% of people with IBS. The role of the gut mycobiota, and especially of the abnormal proliferation of the yeast Candida albicans in some people with IBS, was under investigation as of 2005.
Prevalence of protozoal infections in industrialized countries (United States and Canada) in the 21st century
As of 2017, evidence indicates that blastocystis colonisation occurs more commonly in IBS affected individuals and is a possible risk factor for developing IBS.Dientamoeba fragilis has also been considered a possible organism to study, though it is also found in people without IBS.
Vitamin D deficiency is more common in individuals affected by irritable bowel syndrome. Vitamin D is involved in regulating triggers for IBS including the gut microbiome, inflammatory processes and immune responses, as well as psychosocial factors.
SCN5A mutations are found in a small number of people who have IBS, particularly the constipation-predominant variant (IBS-C). The resulting defect leads to disruption in bowel function, by affecting the Nav1.5 channel, in smooth muscle of the colon and pacemaker cells.
Genetic, environmental, and psychological factors seem to be important in the development of IBS. Studies have shown that IBS has a genetic component even though there is a predominant influence of environmental factors.
There is evidence that abnormalities occur in the gut flora of individuals who have IBS, such as reduced diversity, a decrease in bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes, and an increase in those belonging to the phylum Firmicutes. The changes in gut flora are most profound in individuals who have diarrhoea predominant IBS. Antibodies against common components (namely flagellin) of the commensal gut flora are a common occurrence in IBS affected individuals.
Chronic low-grade inflammation commonly occurs in IBS affected individuals with abnormalities found including increased enterochromaffin cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes, and mast cells resulting in chronic immune-mediated inflammation of the gut mucosa. IBS has been reported in greater quantities in multigenerational families with IBS than in the regular population. It is believed that psychological stress can induce increased inflammation and thereby cause IBS to develop in predisposed individuals.
No specific laboratory or imaging tests can diagnose irritable bowel syndrome. Diagnosis should be based on symptoms, the exclusion of worrisome features, and the performance of specific investigations to rule out organic diseases that may present similar symptoms.
The Rome IV criteria include recurrent abdominal pain, on average, at least 1 day/week in the last 3 months, associated with two or more of the following further criteria:
Related to defecation
Associated with a change in frequency of stool
Associated with a change in form (appearance) of stool
Physicians may choose to use one of these guidelines or may simply choose to rely on their own anecdotal experience with past patients. The algorithm may include additional tests to guard against misdiagnosis of other diseases as IBS. Such "red flag" symptoms may include weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding, anemia, or nocturnal symptoms[vague]. However, red flag conditions may not always contribute to accuracy in diagnosis; for instance, as many as 31% of people with IBS have blood in their stool, many possibly from hemorrhoidal bleeding.
The diagnostic algorithm identifies a name that can be applied to the person's condition based on the combination of symptoms of diarrhea, abdominal pain, and constipation. For example, the statement "50% of returning travelers had developed functional diarrhea while 25% had developed IBS" would mean half the travelers had diarrhea while a quarter had diarrhea with abdominal pain. While some researchers believe this categorization system will help physicians understand IBS, others have questioned the value of the system and suggested all people with IBS have the same underlying disease but with different symptoms.
Ruling out parasitic infections, lactose intolerance, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and coeliac disease is recommended before a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome is made. An upper endoscopy with small bowelbiopsies is necessary to identify the presence of celiac disease. An ileocolonoscopy with biopsies is useful to exclude Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (Inflammatory bowel disease).
Several medical conditions, or comorbidities, appear with greater frequency in people with IBS.
Neurological/psychiatric: A study of 97,593 individuals with IBS identified comorbidities such as headache, fibromyalgia, and depression. IBS occurs in 51% of people with chronic fatigue syndrome and 49% of people with fibromyalgia, and psychiatric disorders occur in 94% of people with IBS.
Channelopathy and muscular dystrophy: IBS and functional GI diseases are comorbidities of genetic channelopathies that cause cardiac conduction defects and neuromuscular dysfunction, and result also in alterations in GI motility, secretion, and sensation. Similarly, IBS and FBD are highly prevalent in myotonic muscle dystrophies. Digestive symptoms may be the first sign of dystrophic disease and may precede the musculo-skeletal features by up to 10 years. 
Inflammatory bowel disease: IBS may be marginally associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Researchers have found some correlation between IBS and IBD, noting that people with IBD experience IBS-like symptoms when their IBD is in remission. A three-year study found that patients diagnosed with IBS were 16.3 times more likely to be diagnosed with IBD during the study period, although this is likely due to an initial misdiagnosis.
Abdominal surgery: People with IBS were at increased risk of having unnecessary gall bladder removal surgery not due to an increased risk of gallstones, but rather to abdominal pain, awareness of having gallstones, and inappropriate surgical indications. These people also are 87% more likely to undergo abdominal and pelvic surgery and three times more likely to undergo gallbladder surgery. Also, people with IBS were twice as likely to undergo hysterectomy.
Other chronic disorders: Interstitial cystitis may be associated with other chronic pain syndromes, such as irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. The connection between these syndromes is unknown.
A 2018 systematic review found that although there is evidence of improved IBS symptoms with a low FODMAP diet; the evidence is of very low quality. Symptoms most likely to improve include urgency, flatulence, bloating, abdominal pain, and altered stool output. One national guideline advises a low FODMAP diet for managing IBS when other dietary and lifestyle measures have been unsuccessful. The diet restricts various carbohydrates which are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, as well as fructose and lactose, which are similarly poorly absorbed in those with intolerances to them. Reduction of fructose and fructan has been shown to reduce IBS symptoms in a dose-dependent manner in people with fructose malabsorption and IBS.
FODMAPs are fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols, which are poorly absorbed in the small intestine and subsequently fermented by the bacteria in the distal small and proximal large intestine. This is a normal phenomenon, common to everyone. The resultant production of gas potentially results in bloating and flatulence. Although FODMAPs can produce certain digestive discomfort in some people, not only do they not cause intestinal inflammation, but they help avoid it, because they produce beneficial alterations in the intestinal flora that contribute to maintaining the good health of the colon. FODMAPs are not the cause of irritable bowel syndrome nor other functional gastrointestinal disorders, but rather a person develops symptoms when the underlying bowel response is exaggerated or abnormal.
A low-FODMAP diet consists in restricting them from the diet. They are globally trimmed, rather than individually, which is more successful than for example restricting only fructose and fructans, which are also FODMAPs, as is recommended for those with fructose malabsorption.
A low-FODMAP diet might help to improve short-term digestive symptoms in adults with irritable bowel syndrome, but its long-term follow-up can have negative effects because it causes a detrimental impact on the gut microbiota and metabolome. It should only be used for short periods of time and under the advice of a specialist. A low-FODMAP diet is highly restrictive in various groups of nutrients and can be impractical to follow in the long-term. More studies are needed to assess the true impact of this diet on health.
In addition, the use of a low-FODMAP diet without verifying the diagnosis of IBS may results in misdiagnosis of other conditions such as celiac disease. Since the consumption of gluten is suppressed or reduced with a low-FODMAP diet, the improvement of the digestive symptoms with this diet may not be related to the withdrawal of the FODMAPs, but of gluten, indicating the presence of an unrecognized celiac disease, avoiding its diagnosis and correct treatment, with the consequent risk of several serious health complications, including various types of cancer.
Some evidence suggests soluble fiber supplementation (e.g., psyllium/ispagula husk) is effective. It acts as a bulking agent, and for many people with IBS-D, allows for a more consistent stool. For people with IBS-C, it seems to allow for a softer, moister, more easily passable stool.
However, insoluble fiber (e.g., bran) has not been found to be effective for IBS. In some people, insoluble fiber supplementation may aggravate symptoms.
Fiber might be beneficial in those who have a predominance of constipation. In people who have IBS-C, soluble fiber can reduce overall symptoms, but will not reduce pain. The research supporting dietary fiber contains conflicting small studies complicated by the heterogeneity of types of fiber and doses used.
One meta-analysis found only soluble fiber improved global symptoms of irritable bowel, but neither type of fiber reduced pain.
An updated meta-analysis by the same authors also found soluble fiber reduced symptoms, while insoluble fiber worsened symptoms in some cases. Positive studies have used 10-30 grams per day of ispaghula (psyllium). One study specifically examined the effect of dose, and found 20 g of ispaghula (psyllium) were better than 10 g and equivalent to 30 g per day.
The use of antispasmodic drugs (e.g., anticholinergics such as hyoscyamine or dicyclomine) may help people who have cramps or diarrhea. A meta-analysis by the Cochrane Collaboration concludes if seven people are treated with antispasmodics, one of them will benefit. Antispasmodics can be divided into two groups: neurotropics and musculotropics. Musculotropics, such as mebeverine, act directly at the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract, relieving spasm without affecting normal gut motility. Since this action is not mediated by the autonomic nervous system, the usual anticholinergic side effects are absent. The antispasmodic otilonium may also be useful.
Discontinuation of proton pump inhibitors
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) used to suppress stomach acid production may cause bacterial overgrowth leading to IBS symptoms. Discontinuation of PPIs in selected individuals has been recommended as it may lead to an improvement or resolution of IBS symptoms.
Evidence is conflicting about the benefit of antidepressants in IBS. Some meta-analyses have found a benefit, while others have not.
However, the evidence is less robust as to the effectiveness of other antidepressant classes such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs). SSRIs, because of their serotonergic effect, have been studied to see if they help IBS, especially people who are constipation predominant. But as of 2015, the evidence indicates that SSRIs do not help.
Antidepressants are not effective for IBS in people with depression, possible because lower doses of antidepressants than the doses used to treat depression are required for relief of IBS.
Rifaximin may be useful as a treatment for IBS symptoms, including abdominal bloating and flatulence, although relief of abdominal distension is delayed. It is especially useful where small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is involved.
In individuals with IBS and low levels of vitamin D supplementation is recommended. Some evidence suggests that vitamin D supplementation may improve symptoms of IBS, but further research is needed before it can be recommended as a specific treatment for IBS.
Domperidone, a dopamine receptor blocker and a parasympathomimetic, has been shown to reduce bloating and abdominal pain as a result of an accelerated colon transit time and reduced fecal load, that is, a relief from 'hidden constipation'; defecation was similarly improved.
There is low quality evidence from studies with poor methodological quality that psychological therapies can be effective in the treatment of IBS; however there are no significant adverse effects from psychological therapies for IBS. The mind-body or brain-gut interactions has been proposed for IBS, and is gaining increasing research attention.Hypnosis can improve mental well-being, and cognitive behavioural therapy can provide psychological coping strategies for dealing with distressing symptoms, as well as help suppress thoughts and behaviours that increase the symptoms of IBS. Although the evidence base for effectiveness of psychotherapy and hypnosis is weak and such therapies are in general not recommended, in treatment-resistant cases where pharmacological therapies over a period of at least 12 months have failed to give relief, NICE clinical guidelines recommend that consideration should be given to psychological treatment strategies such as cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT], hypnotherapy and/or psychological therapy.
Reducing stress may reduce the frequency and severity of IBS symptoms. Techniques that may be helpful include:
Regular exercise such as swimming, walking, or running
A meta-analysis found no benefits of acupuncture relative to placebo for IBS symptom severity or IBS-related quality of life.
Probiotics can be beneficial in the treatment of IBS; taking 10 billion to 100 billion beneficial bacteria per day is recommended for beneficial results. However, further research is needed on individual strains of beneficial bacteria for more refined recommendations. Probiotics have positive effects such as enhancing the intestinal mucosal barrier, providing a physical barrier, bacteriocin production (resulting in reduced numbers of pathogenic and gas-producing bacteria), reducing intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation, and regulating the immune system both locally and systemically among other beneficial effects. Probiotics may also have positive effects on the gut-brain axis by their positive effects countering the effects of stress on gut immunity and gut function.
A number of probiotics have been found to be effective, including Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bifidobacteria infantis; but one review found only Bifidobacteria infantis showed efficacy.B. infantis may have effects beyond the gut via it causing a reduction of proinflammatory cytokine activity and elevation of blood tryptophan levels, which may cause an improvement in symptoms of depression. Some yogurt is made using probiotics that may help ease symptoms of IBS. A probiotic yeast called Saccharomyces boulardii has some evidence of effectiveness in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.
Certain probiotics have different effects on certain symptoms of IBS. For example, Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, and Lactobacillus acidophilus have been found to alleviate abdominal pain. B. breve, B. infantis, L. casei, or L. plantarum species alleviated distension symptoms. B. breve, B. infantis, L. casei, L. plantarum, B. longum, L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus have all been found to affect flatulence levels. Most clinical studies show probiotics do not improve straining, sense of incomplete evacuation, stool consistency, fecal urgency, or stool frequency, although a few clinical studies did find some benefit of probiotic therapy. The evidence is conflicting for whether probiotics improve overall quality of life scores.
Probiotics may exert their beneficial effects on IBS symptoms via preserving the gut microbiota, normalisation of cytokine blood levels, improving the intestinal transit time, decreasing small intestine permeability, and by treating small intestinal bacterial overgrowth of fermenting bacteria. A fecal transplant does not appear useful as of 2019.
Peppermint oil appears useful. In a meta-analysis it was found to be superior to placebo for improvement of IBS symptoms, at least in the short term. An earlier meta-analysis suggested the results of peppermint oil were tentative as the number of people studied was small and blinding of those receiving treatment was unclear. Safety during pregnancy has not been established, however, and caution is required not to chew or break the enteric coating; otherwise, gastroesophageal reflux may occur as a result of lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Occasionally, nausea and perianal burning occur as side effects.Iberogast, a multi-herbal extract, was found to be superior in efficacy to placebo.
Only limited evidence exists for the effectiveness of other herbal remedies for IBS. As with all herbs, it is wise to be aware of possible drug interactions and adverse effects.
Percentage of population with IBS reported in various studies in different countries
The prevalence of IBS varies by country and by age range examined. The bar graph at right shows the percentage of the population reporting symptoms of IBS in studies from various geographic regions (see table below for references). The following table contains a list of studies performed in different countries that measured the prevalence of IBS and IBS-like symptoms:
Percentage of population reporting symptoms of IBS in various studies from various geographic areas
Study measured prevalence of GI abdominal pain/cramping
Women are around two to three times more likely to be diagnosed with IBS and four to five times more likely to seek specialty care for it than men. These differences likely reflect a combination of both biological (sex) and social (gender) factors. People diagnosed with IBS are usually younger than 45 years old. Studies of females with IBS show symptom severity often fluctuates with the menstrual cycle, suggesting hormonal differences may play a role. Endorsement of gender-related traits has been associated with quality of life and psychological adjustment in IBS. Gender differences in healthcare-seeking may also play a role. Gender differences in trait anxiety may contribute to lower pain thresholds in women, putting them at greater risk for a number of chronic pain disorders. Finally, sexual trauma is a major risk factor for IBS, with as many as 33% of those affected reporting such abuse. Because women are at higher risk of sexual abuse than men, sex-related risk of abuse may contribute to the higher rate of IBS in women.
The concept of an "irritable bowel" appeared in the Rocky Mountain Medical Journal in 1950. The term was used to categorize people who developed symptoms of diarrhea, abdominal pain, and constipation, but where no well-recognized infective cause could be found. Early theories suggested the irritable bowel was caused by a psychosomatic or mental disorder.
Society and culture
Other names for the condition used in the past included irritable colon, spastic colon, nervous colon, colitis, mucous colitis, and spastic bowel.
The terminologies that refer to the colon are inaccurate and discouraged, since the disorder is not limited to this section of the digestive tract. Similarly, the term "colitis" is not accurate as inflammation is not present. Other reasons why these terms were abandoned were to reflect the understanding that the disorder is not a figment of a person's imagination.
The aggregate cost of irritable bowel syndrome in the United States has been estimated at $1.7-10 billion in direct medical costs, with an additional $20 billion in indirect costs, for a total of $21.7-30 billion. A study by a managed care company comparing medical costs for people with IBS to non-IBS controls identified a 49% annual increase in medical costs associated with a diagnosis of IBS. People with IBS incurred average annual direct costs of $5,049 and $406 in out-of-pocket expenses in 2007. A study of workers with IBS found that they reported a 34.6% loss in productivity, corresponding to 13.8 hours lost per 40 hour week. A study of employer-related health costs from a Fortune 100 company conducted with data from the 1990s found people with IBS incurred US$4527 in claims costs vs. $3276 for controls. A study on Medicaid costs conducted in 2003 by the University of Georgia College of Pharmacy and Novartis found IBS was associated in an increase of $962 in Medicaid costs in California, and $2191 in North Carolina. People with IBS had higher costs for physician visits, outpatients visits, and prescription drugs. The study suggested the costs associated with IBS were comparable to those found for people with asthma.
Individuals with IBS have been found to have decreased diversity and numbers of bacteroidetes microbiota. Preliminary research into the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplant in the treatment of IBS has been very favourable with a 'cure' rate of between 36 percent and 60 percent with remission of core IBS symptoms persisting at 9 and 19 months follow up. Treatment with probiotic strains of bacteria has shown to be effective, though not all strains of microorganisms confer the same benefit and adverse side effects have been documented in a minority of cases.
There is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) in the treatment of IBS. Mesalazine is a drug with anti-inflammatory properties that has been reported to significantly reduce immune mediated inflammation in the gut of IBS affected individuals with mesalazine therapy resulting in improved IBS symptoms as well as feelings of general wellness in IBS affected people. It has also been observed that mesalazine therapy helps to normalise the gut flora which is often abnormal in people who have IBS. The therapeutic benefits of mesalazine may be the result of improvements to the epithelial barrier function. Treatment based on "abnormally" high IgG antibodies cannot be recommended.
Differences in visceral sensitivity and intestinal physiology have been noted in IBS. Mucosal barrier reinforcement in response to oral 5-HTP was absent in IBS compared to controls. IBS/IBD individuals are less often HLA DQ2/8 positive than in upper functional gastrointestinal disease and healthy populations.
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^ abcdStaudacher HM, Irving PM, Lomer MC, Whelan K (April 2014). "Mechanisms and efficacy of dietary FODMAP restriction in IBS". Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology (Review). 11 (4): 256-66. doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2013.259. PMID24445613. S2CID23001679. An emerging body of research now demonstrates the efficacy of fermentable carbohydrate restriction in IBS. [...] However, further work is urgently needed both to confirm clinical efficacy of fermentable carbohydrate restriction in a variety of clinical subgroups and to fully characterize the effect on the gut microbiota and the colonic environ¬ment. Whether the effect on luminal bifidobacteria is clinically relevant, preventable, or long lasting, needs to be investigated. The influence on nutrient intake, dietary diversity, which might also affect the gut microbiota,137 and quality of life also requires further exploration as does the possible economic effects due to reduced physician contact and need for medication. Although further work is required to confirm its place in IBS and functional bowel disorder clinical pathways, fermentable carbohydrate restriction is an important consideration for future national and international IBS guidelines.
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^ abBarrett JS (March 2017). "How to institute the low-FODMAP diet". Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Review). 32 (Suppl 1): 8-10. doi:10.1111/jgh.13686. PMID28244669. S2CID24990614. Common symptoms of IBS are bloating, abdominal pain, excessive flatus, constipation, diarrhea, or alternating bowel habit. These symptoms, however, are also common in the presentation of coeliac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, defecatory disorders, and colon cancer. Confirming the diagnosis is crucial so that appropriate therapy can be undertaken. Unfortunately, even in these alternate diagnoses, a change in diet restricting FODMAPs may improve symptoms and mask the fact that the correct diagnosis has not been made. This is the case with coeliac disease where a low-FODMAP diet can concurrently reduce dietary gluten, improving symptoms, and also affecting coeliac diagnostic indices.3,4 Misdiagnosis of intestinal diseases can lead to secondary problems such as nutritional deficiencies, cancer risk, or even mortality in the case of colon cancer.
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