Ipoh
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Ipoh

Ipoh
City of Ipoh
Bandaraya Ipoh
Other transcription(s)
 o Jawi?
 o Chinese
 o Tamil
Clockwise from top: Jalan Tun Sambanthan within the Old Town, Railway Station, City Hall, St. Michael's Institution, Perak Tong Temple
Clockwise from top: Jalan Tun Sambanthan within the Old Town, Railway Station, City Hall, St. Michael's Institution, Perak Tong Temple
Flag of Ipoh
Flag
Official seal of Ipoh
Seal
Nickname(s): 
City of Millionaires, Bougainvillea City, Silver Valley
Motto(s): 
Ipoh Bersih, Hijau dan Maju
(English: Ipoh Clean, Green and Progressive)
Location of Ipoh in Perak
Ipoh is located in Malaysia
Ipoh
Ipoh
   Ipoh in    Malaysia
Ipoh is located in Asia
Ipoh
Ipoh
Ipoh (Asia)
Ipoh is located in Earth
Ipoh
Ipoh
Ipoh (Earth)
Coordinates: 04°35?50?N 101°04?30?E / 4.59722°N 101.07500°E / 4.59722; 101.07500Coordinates: 04°35?50?N 101°04?30?E / 4.59722°N 101.07500°E / 4.59722; 101.07500
Country Malaysia
State Perak
EstablishmentAround 1880
Granted States Capital status31 May 1937
Granted Municipality status31 May 1962
Granted City status27 May 1988
Government
 o MayorRumaizi Baharin
Area
 o City and state capital643 km2 (248 sq mi)
Elevation
21.95 m (72 ft)
Population
(2010)
 o City and state capital657,892
 o Density1,023/km2 (2,650/sq mi)
 o Metro
737,861[1]
Time zoneUTC+8 (MST)
 o Summer (DST)Not observed
Postcode
30xxx, 31xxx
Area code(s)05
Websitembi.gov.my

Ipoh is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Perak. Located by the Kinta River, it is nearly 180 km (110 mi) north of Kuala Lumpur and 123 km (76 mi) southeast of George Town in neighbouring Penang. As of 2010, Ipoh had a population of 657,892, making it the third largest city in Malaysia by population.[2]

Originally a village, Ipoh began to grow rapidly in the 1880s after huge deposits of tin were discovered within its vicinity.[3] By 1895, it was the second largest town within the Federated Malay States, which also consisted of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang.[4] Ipoh was declared a city in 1988.[3][4] However, following the depletion of its tin deposits and the collapse of tin prices in the 1970s, the city suffered decades of decline and neglect.[5][6][7][8]

In recent years, Ipoh's popularity as a tourist destination has been significantly boosted by efforts to conserve its British colonial-era architecture.[7][8] The city is also well known for its cuisine and natural attractions, such as its limestone hills and caves within which Buddhist temples were built.[9] In addition, Ipoh has managed to maintain its reputation as one of the cleanest cities in Malaysia.[10]

Ipoh's location between Kuala Lumpur and George Town has made it a major land transportation hub within West Malaysia, with both the Malayan Railway's West Coast Line and the North-South Expressway cutting through the city. Aside from the land transportation links, Ipoh is also served by the Sultan Azlan Shah Airport.

Ipoh is known as the Hipster Capital of Malaysia by various tourism rating and official agencies.[11][12][13][14]

Etymology

The name Ipoh is derived from a local tree, Pohon Epu, now more commonly known as Pokok Ipoh. The sap of this plant is poisonous and was used by Orang Asli (indigenous peoples in Malay) to coat the tips of the darts of their blowpipes for hunting.

History

Ipoh grew out from the Malay village of Paloh along the banks of the Kinta River in the 1880s.[3] Its geographic location in the rich tin-bearing valley of the Kinta River made it a natural centre of growth.

The Great Fire of Ipoh in 1892 destroyed over half the town, but also presented an opportunity to rebuild the town in a more orderly grid pattern. Ipoh was subsequently rebuilt in time for the second tin rush and grew rapidly as a result of the booming tin mining industry, particularly in the 1920s and 1930s.

A local Hakka miner, millionaire Yau Tet Shin, started developing a large tract of the town in the early 1930s, today known as the "New Town", from the eastern bank of the Kinta River to Greentown.[15] In 1937, Ipoh was made the capital of Perak, replacing Taiping.

Ipoh was invaded by the Japanese on 15 December 1941. In March 1942, the Japanese Civil Administration or Perak Shu Seicho was set up at the St. Michael's Institution. After the liberation of Malaya by British forces, Ipoh remained the capital of Perak as it does to this day.[16]

The decline of the tin mining industry during the latter half of the 20th century caused the growth of Ipoh to stagnate.[] With the closure of the tin mines, its urban population was forced to seek employment in other cities within Malaysia. In spite of this, Ipoh remains one of the largest cities in Malaysia in terms of population, with tourism now a main driver of the city's economy.[17]

Ipoh gained Municipal status in 1962, and in 1988 it was declared a city by the then Sultan of Perak, Sultan Azlan Shah.[3]

Geography

Locations of Ipoh and its suburbs

Topography

Ipoh is in the state of Perak, which is in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The city is in the middle of the Kinta Valley, on the bank of the Kinta River and the confluence of the smaller rivers Sungai Pinji and Sungai Pari. The city is surrounded by limestone hills, which can be found around suburban areas to the northeast, east and southeast.[18]

The Kledang mountain range stretches from the north to the west of the city. This range runs parallel to the Bintang mountain range with the Perak River running on its left bank and the Kinta River to its right. This range is interrupted to the north of Ipoh by a tributary of the Perak River called the Pelus River, which is sourced from the Titiwangsa mountain range, which runs to the east of Ipoh.[19]

Climate

Ipoh has a tropical rainforest climate. Ipoh is more subject to the Intertropical Convergence Zone than the trade winds and very rarely has cyclones, therefore it can be described as having an equatorial climate. The city's temperature shows little variation throughout the year, the average temperature being 28 °C (82 °F). Ipoh sees high precipitation throughout the year with an average of 200 mm (7.9 in) of rain each month and averaging 2,427.9 mm (95.59 in) of rain per year. The wettest month is October when on average 297.2 mm (11.70 in) of rain falls. Ipoh's driest month is January which has 132.3 mm (5.21 in) of rainfall on average.

Climate data for Ipoh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 32.9
(91.2)
33.7
(92.7)
33.9
(93.0)
33.7
(92.7)
33.5
(92.3)
33.3
(91.9)
33.0
(91.4)
33.0
(91.4)
32.5
(90.5)
32.4
(90.3)
32.1
(89.8)
32.1
(89.8)
33.0
(91.4)
Average low °C (°F) 22.6
(72.7)
23.0
(73.4)
23.4
(74.1)
23.9
(75.0)
24.0
(75.2)
23.7
(74.7)
23.2
(73.8)
23.3
(73.9)
23.2
(73.8)
23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
22.8
(73.0)
23.3
(73.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 132.3
(5.21)
149.8
(5.90)
169.9
(6.69)
259.1
(10.20)
210.9
(8.30)
151.8
(5.98)
156.6
(6.17)
157.8
(6.21)
216.0
(8.50)
297.2
(11.70)
275.4
(10.84)
251.1
(9.89)
2,427.9
(95.59)
Average rainy days 9 10 12 14 14 10 10 12 15 18 18 15 157
Source: World Meteorological Organisation[20]
The Gua Tempurung Limestone Caves

Limestone caves

Sam Poh Tong, one of the many temples in Ipoh
Lang Mountains in Ipoh

Limestone outcrops rise on the outskirts of Ipoh. There are many caves in these outcrops, some of which have cave temples built in them.[21] The Sam Poh Tong Temple (Chinese: ) is a notable example, along with Kek Lok Tong (Chinese: ; Cavern of Utmost Happiness), which lies on the other side of the same outcrop. It is accessible through the Gunung Rapat housing area. Other cave temples in Ipoh include Ling Sen Tong, Nan Tian Tong, Kwan Yin Tong and Perak Tong.

Gua Tempurung, near Gopeng, south of Ipoh, is a show cave open to the public and popular among spelunkers. More than 3 km (1.9 mi) long, it is one of the longest caves in Peninsular Malaysia. Part of it has been developed with electric lighting and walkways, and there are tours of varying lengths and difficulty. A river passage runs about 1.6 km (0.99 mi) through the hill. There are five large chambers, and stalactites and stalagmites.

Economy

In its early history, Ipoh as a settlement was built around its mining industry, although inferior to that of Gopeng, some 19 kilometres (12 mi) to the south. Ipoh was once one of the richest cities in Malaysia and South East Asia in the days when tin was its major product. During the 1980s, when tin prices collapsed, the economy of Ipoh was affected significantly. However, recently the city has experienced economic growth. The city of Ipoh also hosts some large multinational corporations. Kuala Lumpur Kepong Berhad, a palm oil company among the top 15 biggest companies in Malaysia by revenue, has its headquarters in Ipoh. Batu Kawan Berhad, an investment company which is the biggest shareholder in Kuala Lumpur Kepong Berhad, also has its headquarters in Malaysia. Ipoh houses the headquarters of Hovid Berhad, a pharmaceutical company which claims to be the first Malaysian company to introduce Malaysian generic drugs overseas. Old Town Berhad, which is a food and beverage public listed company specializing in white coffee, has its headquarters in Ipoh. There are other public listed companies in Ipoh such as Perak Transit Berhad, Tasek Cement Berhad, DKLS Industries Berhad, Wellcall Holding Berhad, Rubberex Berhad, and Perak Corp. Ipoh also hosts the Malaysian headquarters for some foreign multinational companies, including Finisar, Voith, ITL Asia Pacific and Sagami Manufacturers.

Governance

The Ipoh City Council governs the city. Datuk Rumaizi Baharin, appointed in April 2020, is the current mayor of Ipoh.[22]

Ipoh is divided into two parliamentary constituencies: Ipoh Barat (Ipoh West) and Ipoh Timur (Ipoh East). The parliamentary seat for Ipoh Timur is held by Democratic Action Party (DAP) Representative Su Keong Siong. It was formerly held by Lim Kit Siang. The seat for Ipoh Barat is held by fellow DAP leader M. Kulasegaran.[23]

Demographics

Ipoh remains one of Malaysia's largest cities. It is the third largest city in Malaysia.[] As of 2010, the municipal area of Ipoh has a population of 657,892.[24] It ranks as the seventh most populous urban centre in Malaysia (2010).[24]

The following is based on Department of Statistics Malaysia 2010 census.[24]

Ethnic groups in Ipoh, 2010
Ethnicity Population Percentage
Chinese 290,165 44.11%
Bumiputera 253,592 38.55%
Indian 92,587 14.07%
Others 1,559 0.2%
Non-Malaysian 19,989 3.04%

Cityscape

Ipoh Skyline
Jalan Laxamana

The Old Town

The Old Town lies to the west of the Kinta River. It has a commercial district with many historical "shop-houses" centred around Leech Street (Chinese: ; now Jalan Bandar Timah). Other notable features include:

  • Ipoh railway station in neo-classical/Edwardian Baroque style nicknamed the "Taj Mahal of Ipoh".
  • Ipoh Town Hall, an Edwardian Baroque municipal building located across the road from the Railway Station.
  • Padang Ipoh or Ipoh Field, on Jalan S.P. Seenivasagam. The field is surrounded by historic buildings that feature classic colonial architecture, including the mock-Tudor style Ipoh Club, FMS Bar, HSBC Building and the St Michael's Institution secondary school.
  • The Anglo-Chinese School, Ipoh, officially named SMK Methodist (ACS), is located along Lahat Road.
  • Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Anderson is the most well-known secondary school with more than 100 years of history, located beside the General Hospital of Ipoh.
  • St. Michael's Institution, Ipoh is a public secondary school situated on Jalan S. P. Seenivasagam, formerly Clayton Road.
  • Han Chin Pet Soo, the Hakka Tin Miner's Club, located on Jalan Bijeh Timah (formerly Treacher Street) has been restored and turned into Malaysia's First Hakka Tin Mining Museum.
  • Muzium Darul Ridzuan is a historical museum of Perak, in a former tin-mining tycoon's mansion on Jalan Kuala Kangsar.
  • Concubine Lane (Chinese: ), or better known locally as Yi Lai Hong in Cantonese, is a narrow and small lane located off Jalan Bandar Timah (Leech Street) in Old Town. It now has restaurants, souvenir and gift shops and a reputable hotel.
  • Ipoh wall art murals, drawn by talented street art artists, are now a tourist attraction.
One of the 7 wall art murals drawn by Ernest Zacharevic in Ipoh old town.

The New Town

D.R. Seenivasagam Park, formerly Coronation Park

The so-called New Town, to the east of the Kinta River, was developed by Yau Tet Shin around 1908.[15] The New Town houses the Perak Medical University and Ipoh City Hall building. There are numerous shops, shopping malls, and hotels.

D. R. Seenivasagam Park (Coronation Park), located in the heart of Ipoh's New Town, is known for its scenery and recreational facilities.[] It comprises recreational fields, an artificial lake filled with fish, a nursery for potted plants and a children's traffic playground. The latest addition is the newly landscaped Japanese garden featuring a Japanese carp pond.

Culture

Cuisine

Ipoh has a significant food scene with many hawker centres and restaurants. It has dishes derived from Malay, Chinese and Indian cuisine. Ipoh is well known Sar Hor Fun (Chinese: ), a complete one-dish rice noodle meal with prawn, meat, fish, vegetables and a savoury sauce. Other well-known dishes from Ipoh include Hor Hee (Chinese: ), flat white rice noodles served with fish cakes and/or fish balls; Nga Choi Kai (Chinese: ), chicken with soy sauce and beansprouts topped with pepper; Kai Shi Hor Fun (Chinese: ?), rice noodles with chicken; Hakka Mee (Chinese: ), yellow rice noodles served with mincemeat (pork) sauce; Tau Fu Fa (Chinese: ), soybean pudding; and Ipoh's well-known pastry Heong Peng (Chinese: ), literally translated to "fragrant biscuit". The city is known in Malaysia for its Ipoh white coffee, in which the coffee beans are roasted with palm-oil margarine and the resulting coffee is served with condensed milk. Ipoh is also known for its fresh fruits such as pomelo, durian and seedless guava. Ipoh is the home of Ipoh nasi kandar or Nasi Vanggey.

In recent years, Ipoh has seen an increase in international restaurants, bars and gastropubs which have become popular with locals and tourists.[25]

Film and television

Movies filmed in Ipoh include:

Theme parks

There are several theme parks in Ipoh, including the Sunway Lost World of Tambun[26] and Movies Animated Park Studios (MAPS) temporarily closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[27]

Transport

  • Trunk roads: The old interstate Route Jkr-ft1.png connects Ipoh with other major towns and cities in peninsular Malaysia, for example to Alor Setar, Taiping and Penang to the north and Tapah, Kuala Lumpur, Seremban and even Johor Bahru in the south. Motorists from the east coast can use Highway Jkr-ft4.png (from Gerik) in northern Perak or Jkr-ft185.png (from Cameron Highlands).
  • Highway: The new North-South Expressway E1 is a faster and more efficient alternative to Route 1. However, some towns such as Kampar can only be accessible via Route 1.
  • Train: Ipoh's railway station is operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) and is in the Old Town. However, it does not have intra-city travel like there is in Kuala Lumpur; the railway only connects Ipoh with neighbouring towns and cities. The station is a stately building, referred to by locals as the "Taj Mahal of Ipoh". KTM Intercity began the Shuttle Train Service between Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh from 1 December 2008 while the modern Electric Train System (ETS) shuttle began from 12 August 2010, with an average speed of 145 km/h (90 mph), plying the Ipoh-Seremban route, which cut the travelling distance between Ipoh and Kuala Lumpur to 120 minutes. There are 10 dedicated shuttle train services between these two cities daily, beginning at 5 am from both of the stations. Travel time between the cities was expected to be reduced from three hours to two hours and fifteen minutes when the new set of EMU trains arrived in mid-2009.[28]
  • Bus: The inter-city bus terminal is located at Amanjaya Integrated Bus Terminal in Bandar Meru Raya, just north of the city.
  • Air: the Sultan Azlan Shah Airport is the only airport in Ipoh, located near Gunung Rapat. Domestic and international flights are available. Scoot and AirAsia provide daily flights from Ipoh to Singapore Changi Airport while Batik Air Malaysia provides daily flights to Senai International Airport, serving as a link to the city of Johor Bahru. There are also planned flights to Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand and China, with talks of a new airport soon.

Education

This is a list of schools in Ipoh, Perak.

  • Sekolah Izzuddin Shah
  • Sekolah Tuanku Abdul Rahman
  • Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Tanjung Rambutan
  • Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Seri Puteri
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (T) St. Philomena Convent, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan Dato Panglima'Kinta, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (C) Yuk Choy, Ipoh (Chinese: )
  • SMJK Yuk Choy, Ipoh (Chinese: )
  • Tarcisian Convent School, Ipoh (TCS)
  • Anderson School, Ipoh
  • Anglo-Chinese School, Ipoh
  • St. Michael's Institution, Ipoh
  • SMK Jalan Tasek, Ipoh
  • Methodist Girls Secondary School (MGS), Ipoh
  • Perak Girls Secondary School (PGS), Ipoh
  • SMK Main Convent, Ipoh
  • Wesley Methodist School, Ipoh
  • Ipoh International School (Private)
  • Fairview International School, Ipoh
  • Perak Yuk Choy High School (Private), Ipoh
  • Poi Lam High School (Private), Ipoh (Chinese: )
  • Shen Jai High School (Private), Ipoh (Chinese: )
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (TAMIL) Kerajaan, Sungai Pari, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (TAMIL) Gunung Rapat, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (TAMIL) Perak Sangeetha Sabha, Ipoh
  • SMK Rapat Setia, Ipoh
  • SMK Jalan Pasir Puteh, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (C) Poi Lam, Ipoh
  • SMK Seri Keledang, Ipoh
  • SMK Menglembu, Ipoh
  • SMJK Poi Lam, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (C) Sam Tet, Ipoh (Chinese: )
  • SMJK Sam Tet, Ipoh (Chinese: )
  • SMK Dato Ahmad Said
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan Ave Maria Convent, Ipoh (Chinese: )
  • SMJK Ave Maria Convent, Ipoh (Chinese: )
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (C) Gunung Rapat, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (C) Wan Hwa (1) (Chinese: )
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (C) Wan Hwa (2) (Chinese: )
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan (ACS), Ipoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan (P) Methodist, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan Haji Mahmud Chemor, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan Kuala Pari, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan Jalan Pegoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan Jelapang
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan Marian Convent,Ipoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan Raja Ekram, Ipoh
  • SMK Raja Perempuan, Ipoh (RPS) Royal Princess School "Cluster School"
  • SRK Raja Perempuan, Ipoh (RPS)
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan Seri Ampang, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan St. Michael's Institution (1), Ipoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan St. Michael's Institution (2), Ipoh
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (C) Chung Shan

Sports

Ipoh has a sports complex known as Kompleks Sukan MBI or MBI Sports Complex.[] Among the facilities located within the complex is the Perak Stadium (Malay: Stadium Perak), the home of Perak Football Association who play in the Malaysia Super League.[]

Golf courses in Ipoh include the Royal Perak Golf Club off Jalan Sultan Azlan Shah (Tiger Lane), the Meru Golf Club in Jelapang, and Clearwater Sanctuary Golf Club en route to Batu Gajah.

Other sports venues include the Kilat Club in Pasir Pinji, Ipoh Field (Padang Ipoh) in the Old Town, the Polo Grounds, and the Iskandar Polo Club in Ampang Baru.[]

The Sultan Azlan Shah Cup is an annual international men's field hockey tournament held in Ipoh.[]

Notable people

Film and television

Music

Sports (badminton)

Sports (football)

Sports (others)

Business

Politics

Other

Media

Nationwide daily newspapers

Malay

Chinese

Tamil

Ipoh terrestrial channels

Ipoh free-to-air stations include:

Television station Channel (via myFreeview) Network Broadcast area Broadcast hour
TV1 HD 101 RTM National 24/7
TV2 HD 102
TV3 HD 103 Media Prima
CJ WOW Shop Malay 104
CJ WOW Shop Chinese 106
NTV7 107 06:00-02:00 MST (21-Hours)
8TV 108
TV9 109 24/7
TV Okey HD 110 RTM
RTM HD Sports 111
TV Alhijrah 114 Alhijrah Media
Astro GO Shop Malay HD 120 Astro
Bernama News Channel 121 Bernama
RTM BES HD 123 RTM

Astro Ipoh

Malaysian satellite television provider Astro provides the following channels in Ipoh:

Radio

The available FM radio stations in Ipoh, both public (including Ipoh-based Perak FM) and commercial, are as listed below.

Sister cities

Ipoh currently has two sister cities:

See also

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2012. Retrieved 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Population Distribution by Local Authority Areas and Mukims, 2010 (page 1 & 8)" (PDF). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d "The History of Ipoh" (PDF).
  4. ^ a b "Info Ipoh: Halaman 2 dari 2 | Portal Rasmi Majlis Bandaraya Ipoh (MBI)". mbi.gov.my. Retrieved 2017.
  5. ^ Tam, Susan. "Ipoh - Malaysia | The Star Online". Retrieved 2017.
  6. ^ Tan, Peter (21 February 2015). "The city that tin built". BorneoPost Online | Borneo, Malaysia, Sarawak Daily News. Retrieved 2017.
  7. ^ a b hermes (22 March 2016). "Sleepy Ipoh awakens". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2017.
  8. ^ a b "Old Town restored to rightful place in history of Ipoh". theedgeproperty.com.my. Retrieved 2017.
  9. ^ net, powered by iosc dot. "Ipoh Echo | Caves of the Kinta Valley". IpohEcho.com.my. Retrieved 2017.
  10. ^ "Ipoh is Malaysia's cleanest city - Nation | The Star Online". thestar.com.my. Retrieved 2017.
  11. ^ "Malay Mail - Ipoh Hipster Town Image". The Malay Mail.
  12. ^ "SAYS". SAYS DOT COM.
  13. ^ "The Star Malaysia". The Star Malaysia.
  14. ^ "Time Travel Turtle". Time Travel Turtle.
  15. ^ a b Ipohworld's World » Yau Tet Shin's New Town Under Construction 1908. Ipohworld.org. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
  16. ^ Khoo Salma Nasution & Abdur-Razzaq Lubis, Kinta Valley: Pioneering Malaysia's Modern Development, Ipoh: Perak Academy, 2005. pp. 273-292
  17. ^ "Ipoh History Facts and Timeline: Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia". world-guides.com. Retrieved 2017.
  18. ^ "Limestone Hills (Bukit Batu Kapur), Ipoh, PERAK - Malaysia Travel Review". Malaysiahotelreview.com. Retrieved 2013.
  19. ^ Jacq-Hergoualc'h, Michel; Victoria Hobson (September 2002). The Malay Peninsula: Crossroads of the Maritime Silk Road (100 BC - 1300 AD). BRILL. ISBN 90-04-11973-6.
  20. ^ "World Weather Information Service - Ipoh". World Meteorological Organisation. Retrieved 2014.
  21. ^ "Home". Cavesofmalaysia.com. Archived from the original on 6 July 2006. Retrieved 2013.
  22. ^ "Rumaizi Baharin appointed new Ipoh mayor | The Star Online". The Star. Malaysia. Retrieved 2020.
  23. ^ "M. Kulasegaran | Malaysia Parliament Portal". The Official Portal, Parliament of Malaysia Website. Malaysia. Retrieved 2020.
  24. ^ a b c "Population Distribution by Local Authority Areas and Mukims, 2010" (PDF). Department of Statistics Malaysia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2012.
  25. ^ "Ipoh's bars, gastropubs and nightlife". Travel-Tourist-Information-Guide.com. Retrieved 2016.
  26. ^ "Lost World of Tambun Ipoh".
  27. ^ "Movies Animation Park, Ipoh Official Website". Archived from the original on 7 February 2018.
  28. ^ "Malaysia / Perak / The Ipoh Railway Station". Cockatoo.com. 14 November 2011. Archived from the original on 19 January 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  29. ^ "Guangxi signed cooperation project of US$400 million with Malaysia". Ministry of Commerce, People's Republic of China. 6 April 2005. Archived from the original on 20 December 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  30. ^ "Exchange with sister cities". Fukuoka City. 23 April 2009. Archived from the original on 20 December 2015. Retrieved 2015.

External links


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Ipoh
 



 



 
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