Iotated A
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Iotated A
Cyrillic letter
Cyrylicka ligatura ia.PNG
Cyrillic letter Initial Ya.png
Handwritten IA.jpg
Cyrillic letter Iotated A.svg
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
Non-Slavic letters
Archaic letters

Iotated A (?, ?) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, used today only in Church Slavonic. It is unusual among early Cyrillic letters in having no direct counterpart in Glagolitic (jat') is used for both /?/ and /ja/. Accordingly, many early Cyrillic texts (particularly those with Glagolitic antecedents) may use ? for both these purposes; this practice continues into the fourteenth century, but is much more common in the South Slavonic than the East Slavonic area. Nevertheless, ? is attested in the earliest extant Cyrillic writings, including for example the Codex Suprasliensis and Savvina Kniga.

It continued in use in Serbian until the orthographical reforms of Vuk Karad?i?, and in Bulgarian (where it also acquired a civil script glyph variant) until the late nineteenth century.[1] Among the Eastern Slavs, the denasalisation of [?], probably to [æ], and the subsequent coalescence of this sound with the /a/ phoneme meant that the letter ? acquired the same function as ?, and the two came to be regarded as variants of the same letter. This is still the case in modern Church Slavonic, where, broadly speaking, ? is used initially and ? elsewhere, though exceptionally they may be used to make other distinctions, such as that between ?҆́ 'tongue' and ?҆́ 'people'.[2]

Computing codes

Character information
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 42582 U+A656 42583 U+A657
UTF-8 234 153 150 EA 99 96 234 153 151 EA 99 97
Numeric character reference Ꙗ Ꙗ ꙗ ꙗ


  1. ^ ? , ? , , 1977, p.157ff.
  2. ^ (), ? - , ?-, 1997, p.18

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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