Interstate 44
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Interstate 44

Interstate 44 marker

Interstate 44
I-44 highlighted in red
Route information
Length633.79 mi[1] (1,019.99 km)
Major junctions
West end / / / in Wichita Falls, TX
 
East end in St. Louis, MO
Location
StatesTexas, Oklahoma, Missouri
Highway system

Interstate 44 (I-44) is a major Interstate Highway in the central United States. Although it is nominally an east-west road as it is even-numbered, it follows a more southwest-northeast alignment. Its western terminus is in Wichita Falls, Texas at a concurrency with U.S. Route 277 (US 277), US 281, and U.S. Route 287 in Texas; its eastern terminus is at I-70 in St. Louis, Missouri. I-44 is one of five Interstates built to bypass U.S. Route 66; this highway covers the section between Oklahoma City and St. Louis.

Virtually the entire length of I-44 east of Springfield, Missouri was once US 66, which was upgraded from two to four lanes from 1949 to 1955. The section of I-44 west of Springfield was built farther south than US 66 in order to connect Missouri's section with the already completed Will Rogers Turnpike, which Oklahoma wished to carry their part of I-44.

Route description

Lengths
  mi km
TX 15 24
OK 329 530
MO 293 471
Total 637 1,025

Texas

In the U.S. state of Texas, I-44 has a short, but regionally important, 14.77 miles (23.77 km) stretch, connecting Wichita Falls with Oklahoma. The route runs almost due north to the Texas-Oklahoma state line at the Red River. In Wichita Falls, I-44 runs concurrent with US 277, US 281, and US 287, and is known locally as the "Central Freeway". I-44 provides access to downtown Wichita Falls and Sheppard Air Force Base.

Oklahoma

I-44 in Oklahoma City

I-44 in Oklahoma is mostly three separate toll roads; it is paralleled by former US 66 from Oklahoma City to the Missouri line. In southwestern Oklahoma, I-44 is the H. E. Bailey Turnpike and is mainly south-north. In the Oklahoma City area, I-44 is either six or eight lanes; it runs concurrent with I-35 for about 4 miles (6.4 km) in Oklahoma City. From Oklahoma City, I-44 becomes southwest-northeast as the Turner Turnpike towards Tulsa. After I-44 leaves Tulsa, it becomes the Will Rogers Turnpike to the Missouri state line.

Missouri

I-44 approached by US-71 just south of Joplin, MO. This photo was taken before US-71 was upgraded to I-49

I-44 enters Missouri southwest of Joplin near the tripoint of Oklahoma, Missouri, and Kansas. It misses the Kansas border by less than 200 yards (180 m). The first exit in Missouri is for US-166. I-44 continues through the southern part of Joplin, where it becomes concurrent with the new Missouri segment of I-49. East of Joplin, I-49 splits off on its own alignment to Kansas City.

I-44 then continues east on the former US-166 to Mount Vernon. At the northeast part of Mount Vernon, I-44 heads northeast, while old US-166 continued east on Missouri Route 174. The section of road to Halltown is a completely new road, not bypassing any previous highways. At Halltown, the road follows the general pathway of US-66 all the way to downtown St. Louis.

A nonstandard depiction of I-44/55/64/70 in downtown St. Louis

I-44 passes through Springfield on the north side of the city and continues northeast. At Waynesville, I-44 enters a very hilly and curvy area until it passes Rolla. Although the road still passes through some hilly areas, none are as steep as that particular stretch.

At Pacific, I-44 widens to six lanes, later to eight lanes. The interstate passes through the suburbs of St. Louis and then into downtown St. Louis, passing the Gateway Arch before finally terminating near the Mississippi River, continuing from there as I-70 from the west end of the Stan Musial Veterans Memorial Bridge. Until a future second span of the new bridge is completed, there will be no way for I-44 traffic to utilize the new Stan Musial Veterans Memorial span without first exiting to surface streets. I-44 traffic wishing to continue northeast and east must use the Poplar Street Bridge and I-55/I-64 to cross the Mississippi River.

At some places, an "Alternate I-44" is posted. One such ran between Rolla and Springfield via US-60 and US-63 and another ran via US-63 and US-50 between Rolla and Union. These were completed to provide traffic relief during road work. The latter of these alternate routes detoured traffic around three-hour delays due to road work near Cuba.

History

I-44 was originally signed in 1958 as an Interstate designation of the Turner Turnpike linking Oklahoma City and Tulsa and the Will Rogers Turnpike linking Tulsa and the Missouri state line southwest of Joplin, along with the US-66 bypass in Tulsa that linked that city with the two turnpikes and the continued four-lane highway from the Missouri border to an interchange with US-71 south of Joplin previously designated as US-166.

As US 66 was being bypassed by I-44, the Route 66 Association requested the designation Interstate 66 for I-44 from St. Louis to Oklahoma City. AASHTO rejected the request.[2]

At the time the I-44 designation was assigned in Oklahoma in the 1950s, Oklahoma signed the mile markers west to east starting at Turner Turnpike's Oklahoma City terminus at the I-44/I-35 interchange (near Edmond). I-44 was extended in 1982 southwest of Oklahoma City along the existing H. E. Bailey Turnpike, thus raising the mile markers by about 100. The addition of the new section was unusual in that it is a more south-north segment, and didn't directly connect to the previous western end at I-35. It now extends south of I-40, thus traveling beyond the usual Interstate numbering conventions.

What was once I-244 around St. Louis is currently part of that city's I-270/I-255 beltway.

During the historic 1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak, an F5 tornado crossed I-44. This particular tornado had the fastest tornado wind speeds on record. The interstate was severely damaged where the tornado crossed it. In the end, this tornado was blamed for 36 deaths.

A section of I-44 was moved slightly north between Powellville, Missouri and Doolittle. The old road is highly visible for eastbound traffic near Powellville. As of April 2006, the rocks carved away for the new roadbed have virtually no lichen, reflecting that this construction occurred rather recently.[3]

The original eastern terminus of I-44 was at the intersection with I-55, I-64, I-70, and US-40, by the Poplar Street Bridge. However, when I-70 was rerouted to cross the Mississippi River at the newly constructed Stan Musial Veteran's Memorial Bridge, I-44 was extended about a mile and a half north to end at I-70 at the bridge.


Interstate 44 Relationship with Railroads

Interstate 44 has since its construction had access to railroads and railroading in general. The dominate rail company along I-44's path is Burlington Northern & Santa Fe. Other railroads along its path also includes Union Pacific and Kansas City Southern, and many shortlines. Major subdivisions include the following; (from Wichita Falls Texas to St. Louis Missouri)

  • Wichita Falls TX [BNSF Wichita Falls Subdivision; from Wichita Falls Texas to Fort Worth Texas] [BNSF Subdivision; from Wichita Fall Texas to Amarillo Texas]
  • Lawton Oklahoma [Stillwater Central Railroad Lawton Subdivision from Lawton Oklahoma to Oklahoma City Oklahoma] [Union Pacific Lawton Subdivision; from Lawton Oklahoma to Chickasha Oklahoma]
  • Chickasha Oklahoma [Union Pacific Enid Subdivision; from Chickasha Oklahoma to Wichita Kansas] [Union Pacific Duncan Subdivision; from Chickasha Oklahoma to Fort Worth Texas]
  • Oklahoma City Oklahoma [BNSF Red Rock Subdivision; from Winfield Kansas to Gainesville Texas] [Stillwater Central Railroad Sooner Subdivision; from Oklahoma City Oklahoma to Sapulpa Oklahoma]
  • Tulsa Oklahoma [BNSF Creek Subdivision; from Tulsa Oklahoma to Madill Oklahoma] [BNSF Avard Subdivision; from Tulsa Oklahoma to Avard Oklahoma] [South Kansas & Oklahoma Line Tulsa Subdivision; from Tulsa Oklahoma to Independence Kansas] [BNSF Cherokee Subdivision; from Tulsa Oklahoma to Springfield Missouri] [BNSF Cherokee Yard is located west of downtown Tulsa Oklahoma]
  • Claremore Oklahoma [Union Pacific Wagoner Subdivision; (overpass is west of Exit 2550 from Coffeyville Kansas to Van Buren Arkansas]
  • Vinita Oklahoma [Union Pacific Cherokee Subdivision (west of Exit 289) from Parsons Kansas to McAlester Oklahoma]
  • Afton Oklahoma [BNSF Afton Subdivision (west of Exit 302) from Afton Oklahoma to Fort Scott Kansas]
  • Joplin Missouri [Kansas City Southern Heavener Subdivision (east of Exit 8) from Pittsburg Kansas to Heavener Oklahoma]
  • Springfield Missouri [BNSF Fort Scott Subdivision; from Springfield Missouri to Fort Scott Kansas] [BNSF Thayer North Subdivision; from Springfield Missouri to Thayer Missouri] [BNSF Cuba Subdivision; from Springfield Missouri to St. Louis Missouri]
  • St. Louis Missouri Metropolitan Area [BNSF Hannibal Subdivision; from St. Louis Missouri to Fort Madison Iowa] [Union Pacific Jefferson City Subdivision; from St. Louis Missouri to Jefferson City Missouri] [Union Pacific De Soto subdivision; from St. Louis Missouri to Poplar Bluff Missouri] [BNSF River Subdivision; from St. Louis Missouri to Turrell Arkansas]

[Subdivision information in brackets]


Arkansas River Watershed and the Port of Catoosa

The Arkansas River begins near the town of Leadville Colorado and has its confluence with the Mississippi River near the town of Beulah Mississippi. It flows into Tulsa Oklahoma from Sand Springs Oklahoma. It crosses Interstate 44 east of the I-44/US-75 interchange. Many rivers and tributaries flow into the Arkansas River along its path. Interstate 44 along with the McClellan-Kerr Navigation System provides northeast Oklahoma, southeast Kansas, and southwest Missouri with access to international markets. In northeast Oklahoma where I-44 runs through, the Port of Catoosa has its start point near the Verdigris River.

The Fall River in Neodesha Kansas flows into the Verdigris, and the Caney River west of the city of Claremore Oklahoma actually is a part of two rivers that has its sources in southern Kansas, the Caney that flows into Hulah Lake and Dam near the town of Bowring Oklahoma in northern Osage County Oklahoma, and the Little Caney River that flows into Copan Lake and Dam near the town of Copan Oklahoma in northern Washington County Oklahoma. As it comes into the Port of Catoosa between the towns of Verdigris and Catoosa Oklahoma, it forms the main shipping channel. The Verdigris River will flow under I-44 under the Will Rogers Turnpike west of Exit 248. The Verdigris River will have its confluence with the Arkansas River north of the city of Muskogee Oklahoma.

As I-44 continues northeast toward the Oklahoma/Missouri state line, south of Miami Oklahoma, the interstate will cross over the Neosho River to the southwest of Exit 313. The Neosho River has its source in northeast Kansas. The Spring River will cross under the interstate 7.7 miles (12.39 km) east of Exit 313. The Spring River will have its confluence 1.7 miles (2.74 km) west of the town of Wyandotte Oklahoma, where the two rivers and the Elk River coming from Missouri will form the Grand Lake 'O Cherokees. Past the Pensacola Dam between the towns of Langley and Disney Oklahoma, the Neosho River will flow into Lake Hudson near the town of Salina Oklahoma. Past Hudson Dam, the Neosho River will flow into Fort Gibson Lake east of the city of Wagoner Oklahoma. The Neosho River will have its confluence with the Arkansas River north of the city of Muskogee Oklahoma.

Airport Access Near Interstate 44

  • Lawton Oklahoma [Lawton-Fort Sill Regional Airport]
  • Oklahoma City Oklahoma [Will Rogers World Airport]
  • Tulsa Oklahoma [Tulsa International Airport]
  • Vinita Oklahoma [Vinita Municipal Airport]
  • Miami Oklahoma [Miami Regional Airport]
  • Joplin Missouri [Joplin Regional Airport]
  • Springfield Missouri [Springfield-Branson Regional Airport]
  • Sullivan Missouri [Sullivan Regional Airport]
  • St. Louis Missouri Metropolitan Area [St. Louis Lambert International Airport] [Spirit of St. Louis Airport] [St. Louis Downtown Airport, East St. Louis Illinois] [Mid America St. Louis Airport in nearby Mascoutah Illinois]

[Airport information in brackets]


United States Armed Forces Bases Near Interstate 44

  • Wichita Falls Texas [Sheppard Air Force Base]
  • Lawton Oklahoma [Fort Sill Army Base]
  • Oklahoma City Oklahoma [Tinker Air Force Base in nearby Midwest City Oklahoma]
  • St. Robert Missouri [Fort Leonard Wood Army Base]
  • St. Louis Missouri Metropolitan Area [Scott Air Force Base in nearby Shiloh Valley Township Illinois]


Junction list

Texas
/ / in Wichita Falls. I-44/US 287 travels concurrently through Wichita Falls. I-44/US 277/US 281 travels concurrently to west-southwest of Randlett, Oklahoma.
Oklahoma
/ / west of Randlett
/ in Walters
/ northwest of Geronimo. The highways travel concurrently to east of Medicine Park.
in Lawton. The highways travel concurrently to east of Medicine Park.
in Elgin
/ in Chickasha
/ in Chickasha
in Newcastle. I-44/US 62 travels concurrently to Oklahoma City.
/ in Oklahoma City
/ in Oklahoma City
/ in Oklahoma City
in Oklahoma City. The highways travel concurrently through northeast Oklahoma City.
in Stroud
on the Sapulpa-Oakhurst line
in Tulsa
in Tulsa
in Tulsa
/ in Tulsa. I-44/US 412 travels concurrently to the Tulsa-Fair Oaks line
in Big Cabin
/ in Vinita
/ / northeast of Afton
Missouri
/ west-northwest of Loma Linda
/ south-southwest of Duenweg. The highways travel concurrently to Fidelity.
in Springfield
in Springfield
in Rolla
south-southwest of Villa Ridge. The highways travel concurrently to the Sunset Hills-Kirkwood city line.
in Sunset Hills
/ / on the Sunset Hills-Kirkwood city line
in St. Louis. The highways travel concurrently through St. Louis
/ / in St. Louis
in St. Louis

Auxiliary routes

Business routes

All business loops of I-44 are located in Missouri. They serve Joplin, Sarcoxie, Mount Vernon, Springfield, Lebanon, Waynesville-St. Robert, Rolla, and Pacific. A business spur links I-44 with Fort Leonard Wood.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Route Log - Main Routes of the Eisenhower National System Of Interstate and Defense Highways - Table 1". Retrieved 2014.
  2. ^ McNichol, Dan. The Roads that Built America: The Incredible Story of the U.S. Interstate System. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc, 2006.
  3. ^ "Aerial photo". Retrieved 2014.

External links

Route map:

KML is from Wikidata

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Interstate_44
 



 



 
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