International Phonetic Alphabet Chart
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International Phonetic Alphabet Chart

The following is the chart of the International Phonetic Alphabet, a standardized system of phonetic symbols devised and maintained by the International Phonetic Association.

Official chart

The official IPA chart, revised to 2018.

Vowels

Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded

Consonants

Pulmonic consonants

Symbols to the right in a cell are voiced, to the left are voiceless. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.

Non-pulmonic consonants

Co-articulated consonants

Auxiliary symbols

Level tones
? Extra-high (top)
? High
? Mid
? Low
? Extra-low (bottom)
Downstep
Upstep
Tone contours
Rising
Falling
High rising
Low rising
High falling
Low falling
Rising-falling
Falling-rising
?︎ Global rise
?︎ Global fall
Transcription
[ ] Phonetic transcription
/ / Phonemic transcription
( ) Indistinguishable utterance
? ? Sound obscured
{ } Prosodic notation

See also

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

International_Phonetic_Alphabet_chart
 



 



 
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