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The Imperial Crypt (German: Kaisergruft), also called the Capuchin Crypt (Kapuzinergruft), is a burial chamber beneath the Capuchin Church and monastery in Vienna, Austria. It was founded in 1618 and dedicated in 1632, and located on the Neuer Markt square of the Innere Stadt, near the Hofburg Palace. Since 1633, the Imperial Crypt serves as the principal place of entombment for the members of the House of Habsburg. The bones of 145 Habsburg royalty, plus urns containing the hearts or cremated remains of four others, are here, including 12 emperors and 18 empresses. The visible 107 metal sarcophagi and five heart urns range in style from puritan plain to exuberant rococo. Some of the dozen resident Capuchin friars continue their customary role as the guardians and caretakers of the crypt, along with their other pastoral work in Vienna.[Note 1] The most recent entombment was in 2011.150
Anna of Tyrol1, wife of Emperor Matthias2 conceived the idea of a Capuchin cloister and burial crypt for herself and her husband, to be built in the neighborhood of the Hofburg castle in Vienna. She provided funds for it in the will she made on 10 November 1617, and soon made the funds available by dying just a year later. Her spouse followed a year later.
The foundation stone was laid on 8 September 1622 in the presence of Emperor Ferdinand IIx578 and after slow progress caused by the distractions of the Thirty Years' War the church was dedicated on 25 July 1632. At Easter the following year, the simple sarcophagi containing the remains of Emperor Mathias2 and Empress Anna1 were transferred with great ceremony to what is now called the Founders Vault.
Emperor Leopold I37 enlarged the crypt in 1657 in the area under the nave of the church and his son Emperor Joseph I35 extended it further westward and built another mausoleum chamber and a chapel to the east in 1710, but awkwardly, beginning the vault that his brother Emperor Charles VI40 continued westward in 1720 that extends under the chancel and the apse choir above. For the first time, a well-known architect (Lukas von Hildebrandt) was involved with an enlargement of the crypt.
In 1754, his daughter Empress Maria Theresa56 went even further west, completely past the church above, into the monastery garden with her domed addition that admits natural light. The imposing dome and crypt is the work of architect Jean Jadot de Ville-Issey. During the reign of her grandson Emperor Francis II57 architect Johann Aman turned to the north for his addition in 1824.
The monastery surrounding the church had fallen into disrepair after 200 years of constant use, so during the reign of Emperor Ferdinand62 in 1840 the monastery (but not the church) was torn down and rebuilt. As part of that project, architect Johann Höhne built the Ferdinand Vault and the Tuscan Vault as part of the basement of the new structure.
As part of the jubilee celebrating his 60 years on the throne in 1908, Emperor Franz Joseph142 had architect Cajo Perisic build another mausoleum chamber and a chapel to the east of Franz II57 and Ferdinand's62 vaults. At the same time, new annexes for visitors were created on either side of the church.
By 1960 it was obvious from the deteriorating condition of the tombs that the environment of changing heat and humidity needed to be controlled if the historic sarcophagi were to survive for future generations. The New Vault, north of the Tuscan, Ferdinand's and the Franz Joseph Vault, was built by architect Karl Schwanzer, with metal doors by sculptor Rudolf Hoflehner. It added about 20% to the space of the crypt, and was used as part of a massive rearrangement of the tombs in the vaults.
The original small vault had held, besides the tombs of the two founders, those of a dozen children and had been called the Angel's Vault. Those were moved to open niches newly made in the front wall of the Leopold Vault. Selected tombs from various other vaults were moved to the New Vault and grouped in themes such as Bishops, the direct ancestors of the last reigning emperor, and the immediate family of Archduke Charles122 the victor of Aspern.
Thirty seven other tombs, of some minors and minor members of the ruling family, were walled-up into four piers created in the Ferdinand Vault. Thus about half of all the tombs were moved out of the original vaults to more orderly places as part of that great reorganization.
In 2003 another project made the crypt accessible to disabled visitors, and opened previously unused doors so that the visitor route no longer requires the 100% backtracking that was necessary before. The entire crypt was also air conditioned to prevent deterioration of the tombs.
The free-standing tombs are usually variations of either a flat-topped storage chest, or a tub with sloping sides and a convex lid of tapered decks. Ornamentation ranges from simple to elaborate. Until far in the 18th century, the most common material for a sarcophagus here was a bronze-like alloy of tin, coated with shellac. The splendid tombs of the baroque and rococo eras are made of true bronze, a nobler and therefore more expensive material. Reforming Emperor Joseph II42 decreed simplified burial customs for the people, and introduced the use of lighter and cheaper copper into the Imperial Crypt, where it was then used into the 19th century. In the later 19th century a mixture of cast brass and bronze as well as silver-bronzed copper was adopted. Other metals were used only rarely, except for silver and gold plating on decorations.
Various techniques of metalworking were used: full casting for the sarcophagus; hollow casting for decorative sculpture; carving, engraving, and hammered relief for surface decoration. The parts for chests and covers are riveted together, ornaments and decorative figures are screwed on. The sculptor responsible for the most elaborate tombs is Balthasar Ferdinand Moll.
In order to guarantee the stability of the enormous display tombs, they have iron bracings and wood lining inside. This avoids both cave-ins and a buckling of the side walls from the weight of the cover. The cover of the double tomb of Empress Maria Theresa56 and her husband55 alone weighs approximately 1700 kg (3800 lb).
Within the outer case lies a wooden coffin that is wrapped in silk (black with gold trim for rulers, red with silver trim for others). The coffin usually has two locks, the key to one is kept by the Capuchin Guardian of the crypt, the other is kept in the Schatzkammer of the Hofburg palace in Vienna.
Within the coffin, the body usually has had the organs removed as a necessary part of the embalming process for its display before the funeral. For about one-third of the bodies, the heart has been placed into a silver urn and sent elsewhere (usually the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche), and for some the intestines and other organs have been put into a copper urn and deposited in the Dukes Crypt in the catacombs of Vienna's cathedral, the Stephansdom.
Conservation of the tombs
Over the centuries, constant humidity, variations in temperature, and the host of visitors had taken a great toll on the sarcophagi. Corrosion craters, holes and tears had developed. Layers of the horizontal surfaces had peeled, base plates had broken through, decorative fixtures had been broken or stolen by visitors, the cast metal absorbed too much humidity and puffed up, and heavy covers had caused some sidewalls to bend or cave.
The first major restoration effort was undertaken in 1852, but further work was needed by 1956 when the Gesellschaft zur Rettung der Kapuzinergruft (Association for Saving the Capuchin Crypt) came into being to inform the public of the problem, raise funds, and preserve and restore the tombs.
It was first necessary to create additional space and to dehumidify the crypt. After completion of the New Vault in 1960 and the transfer of 26 tombs from the overflowing Tuscan Vault, the work of dehumidification could begin. Also, a workshop was created in the south end of the Tuscan Vault where highly skilled artisans could work on selected tombs temporarily moved there for restoration.
In 2003 remodelling of the ground-level visitor facilities took place to create a new visitor entrance and make the crypt accessible to disabled visitors. The visitor route was also changed so that visitors now see the tombs in historical sequence by entering at one end and leaving at the other, instead of both entering and leaving via a single stairway that is in the middle of the route. Most importantly, the entire crypt was air conditioned so that humidity can be controlled.
The repair and conservation of the artistic work takes place in close cooperation with the monks, the Association, the Austrian Monument Office and the Vienna Old City Preservation Fund.
Persons buried here
The bodies of 145 persons (mainly members of the ruling line of the House of Habsburg and the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine), plus urns containing the hearts or cremated remains of four others, are deposited in one of the ten interconnected Vaults of the Imperial Crypt.
They include 12 Emperors and 18 Empresses. The most recent entombment, that of Otto von Habsburg,150 and his wife Regina von Habsburg, was on 16 July 2011.
From other families there are 32 spouses, plus four others,154147117 who have found their resting place here.
The oldest person entombed here is Otto von Habsburg150, aged 98 years and 7 months. The next oldest is his mother, Zita of Bourbon-Parma147, the last Austrian empress, at 97 years. Several died at birth and over 25% of those entombed here were five years of age or younger when they died.
Maria Anna,63 consort of Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria62
Elisabeth,143 consort of Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria142
Zita,147 consort of Emperor Charles of Austriax887
(Also, the hearts of Empresses Claudia Felicitas24 and Amalie Wilhelmine34 are here, but their bodies are buried elsewhere.)
All 146 persons buried here (in whole or in part) are shown on the directory charts below, together with links to a detailed text listing.
For ease of use, they show the Habsburg family buried here as family trees based upon lines of descent.
Plan of the Imperial Crypt A. Founders Vault B. Children's Columbarium C. Leopold Vault D. Charles Vault E. Maria Theresa Vault F. Franz Vault G. Ferdinand Vault H. New Vault I. Franz Joseph Vault J. Crypt Chapel K. Tuscan Vault
The vaults consist of an interconnected series of ten subterranean vaulted rooms, built at various times as more space was needed.
The visible 107 metal sarcophagi and five heart urns range in style from puritan plain to exuberant rococo.
The bodies of 145 nobles, plus urns containing the hearts or cremated remains of four others, are deposited here. There is only one space left.
They include 12 Emperors and 18 Empresses. The most recent entombment150 was in 2011.
From other families there are 32 spouses, plus four others,154147117 who have found their resting place here. Everyone else in the Imperial Crypt was born with the Habsburgs-only title of Archduke or Archduchess.
In 1960, with the various vaults overcrowded, a major rearrangement project began which resulted in the construction of the Children's Columbarium and the New Vault. At the same time many bodies were moved to those new areas, others were moved from the Tuscan Vault and the Ferdinand Vault and walled up into the corner piers of the Ferdinand Vault.
The Gründergruft is the oldest part of the Kaisergruft, dating from the original construction of the church (completed in 1632), and lies under the Emperor Chapel at the left of the nave of the church above. The room is low, plain, and windowless, and visible through baroque gates from the Leopold Vault. Here stand the two plain sarcophagi of the founding couple.
Daughter of Ferdinand II, Duke of Tyrol and wife of her cousin Emperor Matthias2 who was 28 years older than she was. She provided in her will of 1617 for the establishment of a crypt for her and her husband in a Capuchin's Church to be built in Vienna, and died only one year later, at age 33 after seven years of a childless marriage. Her heart is buried in urn 1 in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche. Her intestines are buried in urn 17 in the Ducal Crypt of the Stephansdom.
The Leopoldsgruft was built under the nave of the church above, beginning in 1657 by Emperor Leopold I of Austria,37 following the edict of his father Emperor Ferdinand III27 that the hereditary burial place of the imperial family would be in this church. Considering that Leopold contributed his three wives and 16 of his children--plus himself--to the population of the crypt, it was inevitable that other vaults would be needed soon.
Turning to the left of the gates to the Founders Vault, in the thick east foundation wall of the church are twelve longitudinal recessed niches built in the 1960s containing sarcophagi of 12 children. The coffins had previously been in either the Founders Vault or the main hall of this vault, but were generally in poor condition and have now been placed into identical cases. No markings or documentation identifies which child lies in which coffin, but those buried in these niches are:
Infant daughter of Emperor Leopold I37 and Empress Claudia Felicitas.24 Her heart is in a gold and silver urn atop her mother's sarcophagus in the Dominican Church. Her viscera are buried in urn 32 in the Ducal Crypt of the Stephansdom.
Niece and first wife of Emperor Leopold I37 at age 15. She is the blonde princess depicted in the Spanish painter Diego Velázquez' masterpiece Las Meninas ("The Maids of Honor", 1656), where she is surrounded by her ladies-in-waiting and other persons of the Spanish court. Her 21-year-old heart is buried in urn 6 the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche and her viscera are buried in urn 29 in the Ducal Crypt of the Stephansdom.
Second wife of Emperor Leopold I.37 Her body, by her own request, is dressed in the habit of a Dominican nun and is entombed beside her mother in the Dominican Church. Her viscera are buried in urn 31 in the Ducal Crypt of the Stephansdom.
Eldest son of Emperor Ferdinand III.27 His heart is buried in urn 4 in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche and his viscera are buried in urn 20 in the Ducal Crypt of the Stephansdom. He established the tradition of burial of different parts in three separate Vienna churches.
30 Archduke Leopold Johann (13 April 1716 - 4 November 1716) ->Family Tree
The first part of the Charles Vault (Karlsgruft) was built in 1710 by Emperor Joseph I.35 In 1720 it was extended by Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt on the orders of Emperor Charles VI40 and shelters 8 containers:
Proceeding along the south wall, from left to right:
Second son of Emperor Ferdinand III27 and father of Emperors Joseph I35 and Charles VI.40 He repelled an effort by the Muslims to conquer Europe at the Second Siege of Vienna. He built the Leopold's Wing of the Hofburg, used today as the offices of the president of Austria. He can be seen sculpted, kneeling prayer for the end of the plague epidemic, on the plague column(Pestsäule) in Vienna. Died at age 65 after a reign of 48 years. His three wives and 16 of his children are buried here. His heart is buried in urn 11 the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche and his viscera are in urn 41 in the Ducal Crypt of the Stephansdom.
Daughter of Emperor Leopold I.37 Unmarried, she was appointed governor of the Austrian Netherlands in her own right and when she died at age 69, was originally buried in Brussels but was transferred here 8 years later. Her heart is buried in urn 14 in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche and her viscera are in urn 51 in the Ducal Crypt of the Stephansdom.
Younger son of Emperor Leopold I.37 Raised in Spain in preparation to inherit the Spanish throne upon the death of his childless cousin, the War of the Spanish Succession ended when Charles unexpectedly inherited the Empire upon his brother Joseph's35 early death and no one wanted to allow the dominance that would come from empowering Charles with both realms. Moving to Vienna, he brought the Spanish Riding School with him and built the magnificent hall it uses today. Because he had no surviving male heirs,30 he negotiated the Pragmatic Sanction to assure that his daughter Maria Theresa56 would succeed him, going so far as to pre-bribe the nine Electors but, of course, once he died they ignored their promises but kept the money, resulting in the War of the Austrian Succession. He died after a reign of 29 years, at age 55 after catching a cold while hunting. His heart is buried in urn 13 the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche and his viscera are in urn 48 in the Ducal Crypt of the Stephansdom.
His tomb is one of the most remarkable, with a death's head at each corner wearing one of the distinctive crowns of his major realms (the Empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and Austria).
The empty plaza at the west third of this vault was used as the area for reception ceremonies when new bodies were brought in after the funeral ceremonies upstairs.
Returning along the north wall, from left to right:
Wife (1699) of Emperor Joseph I.35 The wing of the Hofburg in which she had living space during her widowhood is named after her, but she founded the Salesian Cloister in Vienna 1712 to educate young women and spent much of her time there. She died of edema at age 69. Her body lies dressed in a nun's habit entombed in a simple stone sarcophagus below the high altar in the Salesian Cloister in Vienna.
The three vaults of the Imperial Crypt held 44 bodies plus urns containing the hearts of two other persons when Empress Maria Theresa56 started construction of the Maria Theresien Gruft in 1754. It is behind the church above, with its dome rising into the monastery courtyard and contains the tombs of 16 persons:
Son of Empress Maria Theresa.56 A populist who became known as "the people's emperor," he initiated many reforms (including a prohibition on embalming and elaborate burials), many of which he repudiated in disillusionment shortly before his death. In keeping with his edict, his body is unembalmed and intact within a simple copper tomb. He died shortly before his 49th birthday after an official reign of 10 years. His equestrian statue in the Josefsplatz of the Hofburg palace is where Harry Lime's auto accident occurs in The Third Man. His two wives and two children are buried in this vault.
In the small chamber immediately north of Emperor Joseph II42:
Long-time family retainer and governess to Empress Maria Theresia,56 her sisters2339 and her children. The inscription of gratitude on the lid of her sarcophagus is signed by Empress Maria Theresa,56 who ordered her burial with the imperial family (although she had no direct blood or matrimonial connection to the Habsburgs) when she died at age 73.
Eldest surviving descendant of Emperor Charles VI,40->Family Tree her ascension was contested and officially the crown of the Empire went to her husband (1736) Emperor Franz I Stephen.55 Dying at age 63, her forty years' reign is thought of by the Austrians as the British think of Queen Victoria: the golden years of power, prestige and empire. A prominent statue of her enthroned and surrounded by her ministers is a landmark at the entrance to the Museumsplatz. Her heart is buried in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche.
Duke of Lorraine and Grand Duke of Tuscany. Husband of Empress Maria Theresa,56 he died at age 56 after nominally being Emperor for 25 years. His heart is buried in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche.
This double tomb of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I Stephen, sculpted by Balthasar Ferdinand Moll is of particular artistic merit and is probably the most glorious in terms of design.
In the small chamber immediately south of Emperor Joseph II42:
43 Archduchess Maria Karolina (17 September 1748 - 17 September 1748) ->Family Tree
Still-born daughter of Emperor Franz I Stephen55 and Empress Maria Theresa.
Along the south wall, young children of Emperor Franz I Stephen55 and Empress Maria Theresa.56 From left to right:
Second wife (1765) of Emperor Joseph II.42 She was the daughter of the only non-Habsburg Emperor since 1438, Karl VII of Bavaria and his wife, a daughter of Emperor Joseph I.35 Especially because of the unusually potent form of smallpox of which she died at age 28, her body was not embalmed but immediately placed intact into her coffin. Her husband of 2 years had not developed a regard for her, and did not attend her funeral.
Eldest daughter of Emperor Joseph II42 and his first wife Archduchess Isabella.50 Died at almost 8 years of age.
53 Archduchess Marie Caroline Ernestine Antonie Johanna Josephe (12 January 1740 - 25 January 1741) ->Family Tree
Third daughter of Emperor Franz I Stephen55 and Empress Maria Theresa.56 Died at age 1-year. Her intestines are buried separately in the Ducal Crypt of the Stephansdom.
Beside the entrance to the Franz Vault on the north wall:
54 Duchess Christina of Saxony-Teschen (16 May 1767 - 17 May 1767) ->Family Tree
Infant, only child of Duke Albert of Saxony-Teschen111 and Archduchess Maria Christina.112
In 1824 the four vaults of the Imperial Crypt held 78 bodies and urns containing the hearts of three other persons. In that year Emperor Franz II57 built the octagonal Franzensgruft, attaching it to the right wing of the Maria Theresa Vault. It is in the Biedermeier style, as are the five tombs within it.
Second wife (1790) at age 18 of Emperor Franz II.57 Mother of Empress Maria Louise127 (second wife of Napoleon), Emperor Ferdinand,62 and all subsequent children of her husband. Because her mother107 was a sister of her husband's father113 the couple were first cousins. ->Family Tree (ancestors) She died at age 34 of tubercular pleurisy just days after giving premature birth to Amalia Therese.96 Her heart is buried in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche.
Third wife (1808) at age 20 of 40-year-old cousin Emperor Franz II,57 she contracted tuberculosis shortly after their wedding, suffering from it for the eight years of marriage before dying at age 28. Her heart is buried in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche.
The Ferdinandsgruft was built in 1842, along with the Tuscan Vault, in conjunction with the reconstruction of the monastery above. Although the visitor sees an almost-empty room with only two sarcophagi, this vault actually contains one-fourth of the Imperial Crypt's entire population, walled-up into the corner piers.
Son of Grand Duke Leopold II of Tuscany.109 Among his sons was Franz Salvator, who married Marie Valerie, a daughter of Emperor Franz Joseph.142 Died at 52.
91(Urn containing the cremated remains of) Archduke Leopold Maria Alphons Blanka Karl Anton Beatrix Michael Joseph Peter Ignatz (Agram 30 January 1897 - Mansfield, Connecticut 14 March 1958) ->Family Tree
Second son of Archduke Leopold Salvator.132 Naturalized in the USA as Leopold Lorraine in 1953. Died at 61. Married morganatically.
92 Archduchess Maria Antonia Immakulata Josepha Ferdinanda Theresia Leopoldine Franziska Karoline Isabella Januaria Luise Christine Appolonie (Vienna 18 April 1874 - Arco 14 January 1891) ->Family Tree
Daughter of Archduke Karl Salvator90 and Maria Immakulata.89
At age 18 she became the third wife (1873) of the twice-widowed Archduke Karl Ludwig138 who was 22 years older, and she survived him by 48 years. For the seven years after the death of Crown Prince Rudolf144 her husband was the heir-apparent and she undertook many of the representational duties neglected by the ever-travelling Empress Elisabeth ("Sissi")143 until her married stepson Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Estex863 became the heir-apparent. During World War I she worked as a nurse, and accompanied the last emperor, Karl Ix887 into exile on Madeira but returned to spend her old age in Vienna.
100 Archduke Joseph Ferdinand Salvator Maria Franz Leopold Anton Albert Johann Baptist Karl Ludwig Rupert Maria Auxilatrix (Salzburg 24 May 1872 - Vienna 25 August 1942) ->Family Tree
Second son of Archduke Ferdinand IV of Tuscany.108 Like his cousin Archduke Leopold Salvator132 he had an interest in ballooning, and once flew his balloon from Linz to Dieppe in only 16 hours. His interest in things aeronautical had brought him into contact with the future head of the German air force, Hermann Göring, who later used his influence to free the Archduke from the German concentration camp at Dachau in 1938 after only 80 days there. Had issue from two morganatic marriages.
The Toscanagruft was built in 1842, along with the Ferdinand Vault. At that time there were 85 bodies plus the heart urns of three other persons in the five vaults of the crypt.
The Tuscan Vault once held many more than the present 14 tombs, but most were moved to the New Vault or enclosed within the piers of the Ferdinand Vault during the major rearrangement of 1960. The 5-meter wide vault is very large, being 21 meters long, and extends along the entire western lengths of both the Ferdinand Vault and the Franz Vault, ending only when it meets the outside wall of the west transept of the Maria Theresia Vault.
This vault takes its name from the many descendants of the younger sons of Emperor Leopold II,113 as Grand Duke of Tuscany, who are entombed here.
Note: the arrangement of tombs listed below was accurate before the 2003 renovation, but they have been rearranged since then.
Husband of Archduchess Maria Christina.112 The Albertina museum, in his former palace, is named for him because his collection of paintings formed the nucleus of the museum. After the early death of their only child,54 the couple became the adoptive parents of Archduke Karl,122 the victor of Aspern. His heart is buried in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche.
Favorite daughter of Empress Maria Theresia.56 Her mother stalled arranged marriages until after the death of her father, Emperor Franz I Stephen,55 so that Maria Christina could marry for love instead of reasons of state--the only child allowed to do so. She chose Duke Albert of Teschen.111 The famous and moving monument he erected to her memory is in the Augustinerkirche. She died of Typhus at age 56. Her heart is buried in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche.
Third son of Empress Maria Theresia.56->Family Tree Most of his career was spent in Florence, reforming the governance there as Grand Duke of Tuscany, and only his final two years were as Emperor. His heart is buried in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche.
Originally contracted to marry Empress Maria Theresia's56 second son, Archduke Karl Joseph,44 his early death diverted her instead to the third son, who later became Emperor Leopold II.113 In the course of 21 years, she bore her not-always-faithful husband 16 children, among them Emperor Franz II,57 and Archduke Karl122 the victor of Aspern. Grieving for her husband, she outlived him by only two months leaving many small children. Her heart is buried in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche.
Son of Archduke Leopold II,109 Grand Duke of Tuscany. Married (1856) Anne of Saxony (Dresden 4 January 1836 - Naples 10 February 1859), then (1868) Alicia of Bourbon-Parma (Parma 27 December 1849 - Schwertberg 16 January 1935). Lost his throne, nine months after his father109 had abdicated it to him, when Tuscany was annexed to Italy in 1860.
Eighth son of Emperor Leopold II.113 Last Grand Master of the Order of Teutonic Knights before Napoleon suppressed it outside of the Habsburg lands. It still functions today, as a religious order operating charitable hospitals in Europe. His heart is buried in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche.
Eleventh son of Emperor Leopold II.113 Promoter of industrialization in Austria after studying its success in England. Member of the Council of State that exercised power during the reign of the feeble-minded Emperor Ferdinand62 of Austria. His heart is buried in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche.
Son of Franz IV of Austria-Este.x779 After the death of his mother Maria Beatrice of Savoy in 1840, he was considered the legitimate heir to the British throne by Jacobites. He was the last reigning Duke of Modena, which was forcibly incorporated into the new Kingdom of Italy in 1860. Having no surviving descendant, he left most of his huge estate to his ill-fated cousin Archduke Franz Ferdinand,x863 who subsequently used the title Archduke of Austria-Este. The art collection of his now-extinct branch, accumulated over centuries, is now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum.
The Neue Gruft was built between 1960 and 1962 under the monastery grounds as a 280 square meter enlargement to eliminate the overcrowded jumble of 140 bodies (plus cremation and heart urns of four other persons) in the other nine vaults, and to provide a climate-controlled environment to protect the metal sarcophagi from further deterioration. Its stark concrete walls evoke the solemnity of death. The New Vault is entered from the Ferdinand Vault, and exits into the back of the Franz Joseph Vault. It contains 26 sarcophagi:
Son of Emperor Ferdinand II.x578 Named at age 13 to take over his uncle Leopold's renounced see at Halberstaedt (when he became 22, this was confirmed by the Pope) and later became also Bishop of Olomouc, Bishop of Breslau, and Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. His heart is buried in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche and his intestines are buried separately in the Ducal Crypt of the Stephansdom.
Son of Emperor Ferdinand III27 and Empress Maria Leopoldina,21 who died during his birth. Bishop of Olomouc and Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights at age 13 as heir to his uncle, Archduke Leopold Wilhelm.115 The art collection he inherited from Archduke Leopold Wilhelm115 became the foundation of the Kunsthistorisches Museum. Died at age 15. His intestines are buried separately in the Ducal Crypt of the Stephansdom.
Son of Archduchess Eleonora Maria18 and Charles V, Duke of Lorraine. Archbishop of Trier. Uncle of Emperor Franz I Stephen,55 the husband of Empress Maria Theresia.56 He died unexpectedly of smallpox while visiting Vienna and, not being a Habsburg in the male line nor married to one, was originally buried in the Minoritenkirche but was brought here the next year.
Urn containing heart of Archbishop Karl Joseph of Lorraine,117 placed atop his sarcophagus.
Youngest son of Emperor Leopold II.113 Cardinal and Archbishop of Olomouc. A piano pupil of Ludwig van Beethoven, Beethoven dedicated 14 compositions to him, including the Archduke Trio and his great Missa Solemnis. He, in turn, dedicated one of his own compositions to Beethoven.
Duke of Teschen, third son of Emperor Leopold II.113 He was adopted by the childless Albert of Saxony-Teschen111 and Archduchess Maria Christina.112 A statue of him on horseback, holding the regimental colors aloft to rally his troops against Napoleon, stands in the Heldenplatz in Vienna. His heart is buried in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche.
Second son of Archduke Franz Karl135 and brother of Emperor Franz Joseph.142 Created Emperor of Mexico by France and the Mexican Conservative rival Government, he was overthrown and executed by forces of the warring Mexican Liberals, who would go on to found the Republic.
The next ledge along the north wall, from left to right, mostly contains the family of Archduke Albrecht128 a great military commander of the following generation:
Daughter of Archduke Albrecht.128 At age 18, trying to hide a burning cigarette behind her back, she set her clothes afire and died from her injuries. Her heart is buried in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche.
131 Archduke Karl Albert of Austria-Teschen (1847-1848) ->Family Tree
132 Archduke Leopold Salvator Maria Joseph Ferdinand Franz von Assisi Karl Anton von Padua Johann Baptist Januarius Aloys Gonzaga Ranier Wenzel Gallus (Alt-Bunzlau, Bohemia 15 October 1863 - Vienna 4 September 1931) ->Family Tree
Eldest son of Archduke Karl Salvator.90 During a brilliant military career, he reorganized and modernized the Austrian artillery, becoming Inspector General in 1908. He flew hot air balloons and work on the development of airships. He grew rich from his inventions such as all-wheel drive and half-track trucks for the army. Married (1889) Blanca Infanta of Spain (Graz 7 Sep 1868-Viareggio 25 Oct 1949).
133 Archduke Rainer Karl Leopold Blanka Anton Margarita Beatrix Maria Peter Joseph Raphael Michael Ignatius Stephan (Zagreb 21 November 1895 - Vienna 25 May 1930) ->Family Tree
First son of Archduke Leopold Salvator.132 Unmarried.
First wife (1856) of her mother's nephew, Archduke Karl Ludwig.138 The marriage had not yet produced any children when she fell ill of typhus while on holiday in Monza and died at age 18. Her heart is buried in the Hofkapelle in Innsbruck.
Proceeding along the east wall, from north to south, the direct ancestors of the last emperors:
Third son of Emperor Franz II.57 When his elder brother Emperor Ferdinand62 abdicated in 1848, he stood aside so that his son, Emperor Franz Joseph,142 could succeed to the throne instead. Great grandfather of the last reigning emperor, Emperor Karl I.x887 His heart is buried in the Herzgruft in the Augustinerkirche.
Wife (1824) of Archduke Franz Karl.135 Friendly with Napoleon's sonx811 in her youth. She tried to arrange a marriage between her son Emperor Franz Joseph142 and the eldest daughter of her sister, but he chose the youngest daughter "Sissi"143 instead.
Third son of Archduke Franz Karl.135 Brother of Emperor Franz Joseph,142 father of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Estex863 and Otto140 and grandfather of Emperor Karl I.x887 After the death of Crown Prince Rudolf144 he was the heir-apparent.
Second son of Archduke Karl Ludwig.138 Father of Emperor Karl I.x887 Usually remembered for the widely circulated story that he had been spotted in a hallway at the Hotel Sacher about to enter a lady's room, wearing only a sword.
Wife (1886) of Archduke Otto.140 She strove to keep her children away from the influence of her notorious husband, and her ability to avoid excessive displays of grief when he died was much noted. She would probably wish her tomb was not exactly where it now is. She accompanied the last reigning emperor, Karl Ix887 into exile, and spent the remainder of her life with his family after his death.
By 1908 the seven vaults of the crypt already held 129 bodies, plus the heart urns of another three persons. In that year the Franz Josephs Gruft was built, along with the adjacent Chapel, as part of the celebrations of Emperor Franz Josef's142 60 years on the throne. The vault is usually entered from the north wall in the rear, through the southeast door of the New Vault.
, eldest son of Emperor Karl I of Austriax887 and claimant to the thrones (renounced in 1961) and later (1979) elected by German voters to a seat in the European Parliament, where after many reelections he served longer than any other member.
A specific place remaining in the Crypt Chapel is reserved for Archduchess Yolande (1923-), wife (1950) of Archduke Carl Ludwig148.
There is room for two others along the east wall.
Any other entombments would most easily be located along the south wall in the
There is also room in the
but that would not follow the generally chronological arrangement of the tombs.
Cremated remains can be accommodated within the piers in the corners of the Ferdinand Vault.
Since 1971 members of the family (e.g. Archduke Rudolf (1919-2010)) are mostly entombed in the crypt of the Loretto Chapel of the Benedictine Monastery at Muri, Switzerland, which was founded in 1027 by Count Radebot von Habsburg.
This group covers the founders of the Imperial Crypt (and the first to be buried here), Empress Anna of Tyrol1 and her cousin and husband Emperor Mathias.2 They are shown with their descent from Emperor Friedrich IIIx415 and their relationship to their successor, Emperor Ferdinand II.x578
The male Habsburg line had become extinct upon the death of Emperor Charles VI40, so Empress Maria Theresa's56 marriage to the Duke of Lorraine55 established the House of Habsburg-Lorraine which continues through the following charts and has many living members today.
This group shows offspring of Empress Maria Theresa's56 second son, Emperor Leopold II113 and how they split into two major lines and some minor ones. All of those born Habsburg after the time of Maria Theresa who are buried here are descended from Emperor Leopold II.
When the second son of Empress Maria Theresa56 was called from his post of Grand Duke of Tuscany to become Emperor, he separated the Grand Duchy from the inheritance that goes with the imperial crown, installing his second son, Ferdinandx769 and his heirs as successors to those lands and that title. This group shows that line until the absorption of Tuscany into the Kingdom of Italy.
^Subscript numbers behind the names of most persons listed in this article are used to avoid confusion in cross-references due to the similarity or duplication of names over the many generations. A unique small index number appears with the name of every person buried in the Imperial Crypt. The number corresponds with that person's entry in the detailed listing of occupants of each Vault, to which it is hyperlinked. When necessary to establish continuity, a person buried elsewhere is assigned a number preceded by an "x" and then listed in the Selected other Habsburgs section.