Imperfect
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Imperfect

The imperfect (abbreviated IMPERF) is a verb form which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state). It can have meanings similar to the English "was walking" or "used to walk." It contrasts with preterite forms, which refer to a single completed event in the past.

Traditionally, the imperfect of languages such as Latin and French is referred to as one of the tenses, although it actually encodes aspectual information in addition to tense (time reference). It may be more precisely called past imperfective.[1]'

English has no general imperfective and expresses it in different ways. The term "imperfect" in English refers to forms much more commonly called past progressive or past continuous (like was doing or were doing). These are combinations of past tense with specifically continuous or progressive aspect. In German, Imperfekt formerly referred to the simply conjugated past tense (to contrast with the Perfekt or compound past form), but the term Präteritum (preterite) is now preferred, since the form does not carry any implication of imperfective aspect.

"Imperfect" comes from the Latin imperfectus "unfinished",[2] because the imperfect expresses an ongoing, uncompleted action. The equivalent Ancient Greek term was paratatikós "prolonged".[3]

Indo-European languages

English

Imperfect meanings in English are expressed in different ways depending on whether the event is continuous or habitual.

For a continuous action (one that was in progress at a particular time in the past), the past progressive (past continuous) form is used, as in "I was eating"; "They were running fast." However certain verbs that express state rather than action do not mark the progressive aspect (see Uses of English verb forms § Progressive); in these cases the simple past tense is used instead: "He was hungry"; "We knew what to do next."

Habitual (repeated) action in the past can be marked by used to, as in "I used to eat a lot", or by the auxiliary verb would, as in "Back then, I would eat early and would walk to school." (The auxiliary would also has other uses, such as expressing conditional mood.)[4] However, in many cases the habitual nature of the action does not need to be explicitly marked on the verb, and the simple past is used: "We always ate dinner at six o'clock."

Romance languages

Latin

Conjugation of the imperfect indicative:

  par?re doc?re legere capere sc?re esse
ego par?bam doc?bam leg?bam capi?bam sci?bam eram
t? par?b?s doc?bas leg?b?s capi?b?s sci?b?s er?s
is par?bat doc?bat leg?bat capi?bat sci?bat erat
n?s par?b?mus doc?b?mus leg?b?mus capi?b?mus sci?b?mus er?mus
v?s par?b?tis doc?b?tis leg?b?tis capi?b?tis sci?b?tis er?tis
e? par?bant doc?bant leg?bant capi?bant sci?bant erant

Notes:

  • The imperfect is signified by the signs ba and eb?.
  • The imperfect forms of esse are used as auxiliary verbs in the pluperfect of the passive voice along with perfect passive participles.

In Romance languages, the imperfect is generally a past tense. Its uses include representing:

  • Repetition and continuity: an action that was happening, used to happen, or happened regularly in the past, as it was ongoing
  • A description of people, things, or conditions of the past
  • A time in the past
  • A relation between past happenings: a situation that was in progress in the past or a condition originated in a previous time, when another isolated and important event occurred (the first verb, indicating the status in progress or condition from the past using the imperfect, while the latter uses the preterite).
  • A physical or mental state or condition in progress in the past. Often used with verbs of being, emotion, capability, or conscience. The following verbs are often used in the imperfect in several Romance languages:
English equivalent French Spanish Italian Portuguese Romanian
to love aimer amar amare amar a iubi
to desire désirer desear desiderare desejar a dori
to want vouloir querer volere querer a vrea
to prefer préférer preferir preferire preferir a prefera
to hope espérer esperar sperare esperar a spera
to feel sentir sentir sentire sentir a sim?i
to regret/lament regretter lamentar rimpiangere lamentar a regreta
to be être ser/estar essere/stare ser/estar a fi
to be able to pouvoir poder potere poder a putea
to be familiar with connaître conocer conoscere conhecer a cunoa?te
to know (as a fact) savoir saber sapere saber a ?ti
to believe croire creer credere acreditar a crede
to think penser pensar pensare pensar a gândi
to imagine imaginer imaginar immaginare imaginar a imagina
to stand/stay rester quedar stare ficar/estar a sta

A common mistake of beginners learning a Romance language is putting too much emphasis on whether the time the action occurred is known. This generally does not affect how the imperfect is used. For example, the sentence "Someone ate all of my cookies." (when translated) is not a good candidate for the imperfect. Fundamentally, it is no different from the sentence "We ate all the cookies." Note this fails the repeatability requirement of the imperfect, as it is only known to have happened once. On the other hand, the sentence "I used to have fun in the 1960s." is a good candidate for the imperfect, even though its period is known. In short, knowing when an action occurred is not nearly as important as how long it occurred (or was and still is occurring).

French

To form the imperfect for French regular verbs, take the first person plural present tense, the "nous" (we) form, subtract the -ons suffix, and add the appropriate ending (the forms for être (we), whose "nous" form does not end in -ons, are irregular; they start with ét- but have the same endings):

je -ais
tu -ais
il -ait
nous -ions
vous -iez
ils -aient

Examples:

  parler choisir vendre être commencer manger étudier
je parlais choisissais vendais étais commençais mangeais étudiais
tu parlais choisissais vendais étais commençais mangeais étudiais
il parlait choisissait vendait était commençait mangeait étudiait
nous parlions choisissions vendions étions commencions mangions étudiions
vous parliez choisissiez vendiez étiez commenciez mangiez étudiiez
ils parlaient choisissaient vendaient étaient commençaient mangeaient étudiaient

Usage:

1. Habitual actions or states of being

2. Physical and emotional descriptions: time, weather, age, feelings

3. Actions or states of an unspecified duration

4. Background information in conjunction with the passé composé

5. Wishes or suggestions

6. Conditions in "si" clauses

7. The expressions être en train de and venir de in the past

Notes:

  • Verbs that terminate in a stem of -cer and -ger undergo minor orthographic changes to preserve the phonetic sound or allophone. Verbs whose root terminates in the letter "i" maintain the letter despite the consecutiveness in the "nous" and "vous" forms.

Italian

Conjugation of the imperfect indicative:

  avere essere parlare credere finire dire opporre
io avevo ero parlavo credevo finivo dicevo opponevo
tu avevi eri parlavi credevi finivi dicevi opponevi
lui aveva era parlava credeva finiva diceva opponeva
noi avevamo eravamo parlavamo credevamo finivamo dicevamo opponevamo
voi avevate eravate parlavate credevate finivate dicevate opponevate
loro avevano erano parlavano credevano finivano dicevano opponevano

Notes:

  • Dropping the -re suffix and adding -vo, -vi, -va, -vamo, -vate, and -vano form verbs.
  • Although dire and opporre (as all the composite forms of verb porre and dire) may seem irregular, they are a part of a verb family that has stronger roots to Latin equivalents (lat. p?nere/p?n?bam and d?cere/d?c?bam). Other verbs include fare(infinitive)/faccio(present tense)/facevo(imperfect) (lat.facere/facio/faci?bam), bere/bevo/bevevo (bibere/bibo/bib?bam), trarre/traggo/traevo (trahere/traho/trah?bam), durre/duco/ducevo[obs.] (d?cere/d?co/d?c?bam) and all their composite forms..
  • There is another imperfect in Italian formed by combining the imperfect of the verb stare (stavo, stavi, stava, stavamo, stavate, stavano) with the gerund. For example, "parlavo" could be said as "stavo parlando". The difference is similar to the difference between "I eat" and "I am eating" in English. However, English does not make this distinction in the imperfect.

Romanian

Conjugation of the imperfect indicative:

  cânta(re) crede(re) pl?cea (pl?cere) dormi(re) fi(re)
eu cântam credeam pl?ceam dormeam eram
tu cântai credeai pl?ceai dormeai erai
el/ea cânta credea pl?cea dormea era
noi cântam credeam pl?ceam dormeam eram
voi cânta?i credea?i pl?cea?i dormea?i era?i
ei cântau credeau pl?ceau dormeau erau

Notes:

  • The imperfect is formed from the short infinitive form of the verbs (without the -re suffix) combined with the -am, -ai, -a, -am, -a?i, and -au endings.
  • Short infinitives ending in ,,-a" (1st conjugation) don't double this letter: e.g. "pleca" in the first person singular is "plecam" and not "plecaam").
  • Short infinitives ending in "-i" take the pattern of those ending in "-e" (e.g. dormi becomes dormeam in 1st person imperfect), while short infinitives ending in "-î" take the pattern of those ending in "-a" (e.g. hot?rî becomes hot?ram in 1st person imperfect).
  • There is only one irregular verb in the imperfect: a fi, that is created from the radical era-, instead of fi-.

Spanish

In Spanish, the imperfect can be called the imperfecto or the copretérito. Conjugation of the imperfect indicative:

  hablar comer insistir ir ser ver
yo hablaba comía insistía iba era veía
hablabas comías insistías ibas eras veías
él hablaba comía insistía iba era veía
nosotros hablábamos comíamos insistíamos íbamos éramos veíamos
vosotros hablabais comíais insistíais ibais erais veíais
ellos hablaban comían insistían iban eran veían
  • There are only three irregular verbs in the imperfect: ir, ser, and ver. Historically, ir -- unlike other Spanish "-ir verbs" -- failed to drop the -b- of the Latin imperfect. The imperfect of ser is likewise a continuation of the Latin imperfect (of esse), with the same stem appearing in eres (thanks to pre-classical Latin rhotacism). And the imperfect of ver (veía etc.) was regular in Old Spanish, where the infinitive veer provided the stem ve-. In formal language, pronouns "tú" and "vosotros" are replaced by "usted" and "ustedes" (sometimes abbreviated as Ud./Vd. and Uds./Vds.), with the verb conjugated in third person. American Spanish always replaces "vosotros" with "ustedes", switching the verb accordingly. The countries that show the kind of voseo in which "tú" is replaced by "vos" use the same forms as for "tú" in this tense.
  • The first person singular and third person singular forms are the same for all verbs; thus, in cases of ambiguity where context is insufficient, a pronoun or subject noun is included for the sake of clarification.

Portuguese

In Portuguese, the imperfect indicative, called "pretérito imperfeito", is quite similar to Spanish. However, it is important to remember that in the formal Portuguese (as spoken in Portugal and many former colonies in Africa), the pronouns "tu" and "vós" are often replaced respectively by "você" and "vocês", and then the verb is conjugated like the third person.

  cantar bater partir pôr
eu cantava batia partia punha
tu cantavas batias partias punhas
ele/ela/você cantava batia partia punha
nós cantávamos batíamos partíamos púnhamos
vós cantáveis batíeis partíeis púnheis
eles/elas/vocês cantavam batiam partiam punham

Galician

Similar to the closely related Portuguese, as well as to Spanish, but often called "copretérito" (from co-, same particle found in English "collaboration" and "coexistence", plus "pretérito", which is "past tense", in reference of it being a second past tense that exists along the regular one). Same as with them, in formal usage "ti" and "vós/vosoutros" change to "vostede" and "vostedes" and are followed by the third person. In verbs ended in -aer, -oer, -aír and -oír, the first and second person of the plural show the presence of a diaeresis.

  cantar bater partir pór moer
eu cantaba batía partía puña moía
ti cantabas batias partías puñas moías
el/ela/vostede cantaba batía partía puña moía
nós/nosoutros cantábamos batíamos partíamos puñamos moïamos
vós/vosoutros cantábades batíades partíades puñades moïades
eles/elas/vostedes cantaban batían partían puñan moía

Persian

Like all other past tenses, imperfect is conjugated regularly for all verbs. Formation: [preverb] + mi- + past stem + past ending

Conjugation of the imperfect indicative
  raftan (to go) kâr kardan (to work)
1st sg. miraftam kâr mikardam

Slavic languages

Most Slavic languages have lost the imperfect but it is preserved in Bulgarian and Macedonian. It is also officially retained in Serbian and Croatian but is considered old-fashioned and restricted to literature for poetic and stylistic reasons.

Turkish

Turkish has separate tenses for past continuous and imperfect. To form the past continuous tense for Turkish verbs, after removing the infinitive suffix (-mek or -mak), take the present continuous tense suffix "-yor" without personal suffixes, and add the ending for the simple past plus the appropriate personal suffix

  • As -du(which has a rounded back vowel) succeeds -lar(which has an unrounded back vowel), instead of -yor(which has a rounded back vowel) when the subject is the third person plural onlar, it becomes -d?(which has an unrounded back vowel).
  • If a verb ends in t, it may change into d. (Especially gitmek and etmek)
  • If a verb ends in open vowels (a or e), the open vowels become closed while adding -yor (because of the closed auxiliary vowel -i-.)
    a becomes ? if the preceding vowel is unrounded, u if it is rounded (a?la -> a?l?yor, topla -> topluyor)
    e becomes i if the preceding vowel is unrounded, ü if it is rounded (bekle -> bekliyor, söyle -> söylüyor)
  • If the verb ends in a consonant, the auxiliary vowel -i- must be added before -yor. It becomes -?-, -u- or -ü- depending on the frontness and roundedness of the preceding vowel, because of the vowel harmony:
    -i if the preceding vowel is e or i(front unrounded): gel -> geliyor
    -? if the preceding vowel is a or ?(back unrounded): bak -> bak?yor
    -u if the preceding vowel is o or u(back rounded): kork -> korkuyor
    if the preceding vowel is ö or ü(front rounded): gör -> görüyor
  • r of -yor may be dropped in colloquial speech.

To form the negative of the past continuous tense, the negation suffix "-ma/-me", which becomes -mi, -m?, -mu, or -mü because of the closed auxiliary vowel and the vowel harmony, must be added before -yor.

Examples:

  gelmek gitmek a?lamak beklemek toplamak söylemek satmak
ben gelmiyordum gitmiyordum a?lam?yordum beklemiyordum toplam?yordum söylemiyordum satm?yordum
sen gelmiyordun gitmiyordun a?lam?yordun beklemiyordun toplam?yordun söylemiyordun satm?yordun
o gelmiyordu gitmiyordu a?lam?yordu beklemiyordu toplam?yordu söylemiyordu satm?yordu
biz gelmiyorduk gitmiyorduk a?lam?yorduk beklemiyorduk toplam?yorduk söylemiyorduk satm?yorduk
siz gelmiyordunuz gitmiyordunuz a?lam?yordunuz beklemiyordunuz toplam?yordunuz söylemiyordunuz satm?yordunuz
onlar gelmiyorlard? gitmiyorlard? a?lam?yorlard? beklemiyorlard? toplam?yorlard? söylemiyorlard? satm?yorlard?
  • The epenthetic consonant y is inserted between -mu and -du.
  • As -mu and -du (which have a rounded back vowel) succeeds -lar (which has an unrounded back vowel) instead of -yor (which has a rounded back vowel) when the subject is the third person plural, onlar, they become -m? and -d? (which have an unrounded back vowel).

Semitic languages

Semitic languages, especially the ancient forms, do not make use of the imperfect (or perfect) tense with verbs. Instead, they use the imperfective and perfective aspects, respectively. Aspects are similar to tenses, but differ by requiring contextual comprehension in order to arrive at whether or not the verb indicates a completed or non-completed action.

Dravidian languages

Malayalam

In Malayalam (verbs are never conjugated for grammatical person, which is indicated by a pronoun), there are two indicative imperfects, corresponding exactly with English:

1 - (ukay?yirunnu) endings (... was...), for example:
(ukay?yirunnu) ... was running
2 - (um?yirunnu) endings (... used to ...), for example:
? (um?yirunnu) ... used to run
  • To form the "was doing" imperfect, take the infinitive ending in (uka), for example ? (uka) - to run - and add the ending - ? (y?yirunnu).
  • To form the "used to do" imperfect, take off the ? (ka) from the end of the "uka" form and add ? (m?yirunnu) in its stead.

To make a verb in the imperfect negative, add (all) after the (ukaya) part of the ending for the "was doing" imperfect. For example, (ukayall?yirunnu) (...was not running). To do the same for the "used to do" imperfect, take off the (uma) from the ending and add (attilla) instead. For example, (attill?yirunnu) (...didn't use to run)

References

  1. ^ Bernard Comrie, Tense, 1985, pp. 6-7.
  2. ^ imperfectus. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  3. ^ . Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek-English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  4. ^ "UltraLingua Online Dictionary & Grammar, "Conditional tense"". Archived from the original on 2009-10-11.

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Imperfect
 



 



 
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