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ISO/IEC 8859-15:1999
MIME / IANAISO-8859-15
Alias(es)latin-9, latin-0
StandardISO/IEC 8859
Based onISO-8859-1

ISO/IEC 8859-15:1999, Information technology -- 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets -- Part 15: Latin alphabet No. 9, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1999. It is informally referred to as Latin-9 (and for a while Latin-0). It is similar to ISO 8859-1, and thus also intended for "Western European" languages, but replaces some less common symbols with the euro sign and some letters that were deemed necessary:[1]

A4 A6 A8 B4 B8 BC BD BE
8859-1 ¤ ¦ ¨ ´ ¸ ¼ ½ ¾
8859-15 EUR ? ? ? ? OE oe ?

ISO-8859-15 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429.

Microsoft has assigned code page 28605 a.k.a. Windows-28605 to ISO-8859-15. IBM has assigned code page 923 to ISO 8859-15.

All the printable characters from both ISO/IEC 8859-1 and ISO/IEC 8859-15 are also found in Windows-1252. Since October 2016 0.1% of all web sites use ISO-8859-15.[2][3]


The identifier ISO 8859-15 was proposed for the Sami languages in 1996, which was eventually rejected, but was passed as ISO-IR 197.[4][5][6][4]

ISO 8859-15 was originally proposed as ISO 8859-0, made from ISO 8859-1 to replace 4 unused or rarely used characters (¤, ¨, ´, and ¸) with other characters missing from ISO 8859-1 (and not in any other ISO 8859 standard at the time), and 6 more characters (¢,¦,±,¼,½,¾) were proposed to possibly be dropped.[7] EUR became necessary when the euro was introduced. OE and oe are French ligatures, and ? is needed in French all-caps text, as it is present in a few proper names such as the city of l'Haÿ-les-Roses or the poet and writer Pierre Louÿs. EUR was at 0xA4, OE and oe were at 0xB4 and 0xB8 in the proposal, and ? was at 0xA8. Later, four of the six characters proposed for deletion were deleted, and four more new characters were added. These characters, however, were in many other ISO standards. ?, ?, ?, and ? are used in some loanwords and transliteration of Russian names in Finnish and Estonian typography. It had been proposed to put the Euro Sign in place of the plus-minus sign instead of the currency sign (used in some applications as a FIELD SEPARATOR and by some other applications for SUBTOTAL accounting function; ¢ was proposed to remain to avoid confusion; +- would be a fallback). There was strong opposition on this. One said "The proposed «+-» is not an adequate fall-back, as this sequence, though rarely used, has already a fixed mathematical meaning, quite different from «±»; and even, if a reader would deduce the intended meaning, «±», from the context, «+-» in lieu of «±» will hurt a physicist's æsthetic feelings at least as much as «oe» in lieu of an o-e ligature a Francophone's." As a result of the opposition, ISO 8859-15 kept the plus-minus sign and removed the currency sign instead. As diacritics are frequently dropped in all-caps text in French (even though the Académie française discourages this practice[8]), a code point for ? wasn't deemed necessary for ISO-8859-1, even though one was given for its lower-case equivalent ÿ (at 0xFF).

Ironically, the last three characters (OE, oe, ?) had already been present in DEC's Multinational Character Set (MCS) in 1983, a character set from which ECMA-94 (1985) and ISO-8859-1 (1987) were derived. Since their original codepoints were now occupied by other characters, less logical codepoints had to be chosen for their reintroduction.

There were attempts to make ISO-8859-15 the default character set for 8-bit communication, but it was never able to supplant the popular ISO-8859-1. It did see some use as the default character set for the text console and terminal programs under Linux when the Euro sign was needed, but the use of full Unicode was not practical, but this has since been replaced with UTF-8.


ISO 8859-15 encodes what it refers to as "Latin alphabet no. 9". This character set is used throughout the Americas, Western Europe, Oceania, and much of Africa. It is also commonly used in most standard romanizations of East-Asian languages.

Each character is encoded as a single eight-bit code value. These code values can be used in almost any data interchange system to communicate in the following languages:

Modern languages with complete coverage of their alphabet
  1. ^ Complete support except for ?/? which are missing. ?/? can be replaced with Ø/ø at the cost of increased ambiguity.
  2. ^ Commonly supported with nearly complete coverage of the Dutch alphabet, as the missing IJ, ij should always be represented as two-character IJ or ij in electronic form.
  3. ^ US and modern British.
  4. ^ New orthography.
  5. ^ Kurdish Unified Alphabet, based on the Latin character set.
  6. ^ Basic classical orthography.
  7. ^ Basic classical orthography.
  8. ^ Rumi script.
  9. ^ Bokmål and Nynorsk.
  10. ^ European and Brazilian.

Coverage of punctuation signs and apostrophes

For some languages listed above, the correct typographical quotation marks are missing, since only «, », ", and ' are included.

Also, this encoding does not provide the correct character for the apostrophe, and oriented single high quotation marks, although some texts use the spacing grave accent and spacing acute accent, which are both part of ISO 8859-1, instead of the 6-shaped/9-shaped quotations marks or apostrophes (and this works reliably with some font styles, where all these characters are displayed as slanted wedge glyphs).

Codepage layout

  Letter   Number   Punctuation   Symbol   Other  Undefined   Differences from ISO-8859-1


ISO 8859-15 also has the following, vendor-specific aliases:

See also


  1. ^ "ISO-8859-15". IANA. Retrieved 2016.
  2. ^ "Historical trends in the usage of character encodings, November 2018".
  3. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions".
  4. ^ a b "Sami supplementary Latin set no 2" (PDF). Retrieved .
  5. ^ Everson, Michael. "Proposed ISO 8859-15". Retrieved 2017.
  6. ^ Everson, Michael. "Proposed ISO 8859-14 (later 15)". Retrieved 2017.
  7. ^ Everson, Michael. "Proposed ISO 8859-0 (later 15)". Retrieved 2017.
  8. ^ "Accentuation des majuscules" [Accenting of capitals] (in French). Académie française. Retrieved 2015. On veille donc, en bonne typographie, à utiliser systématiquement les capitales accentuées ... [One takes care then, in good typography, to use accented capitals systematically ...]
  9. ^ Baird, Cathy; Chiba, Dan; Chu, Winson; Fan, Jessica; Ho, Claire; Law, Simon; Lee, Geoff; Linsley, Peter; Matsuda, Keni; Oscroft, Tamzin; Takeda, Shige; Tanaka, Linus; Tozawa, Makoto; Trute, Barry; Tsujimoto, Mayumi; Wu, Ying; Yau, Michael; Yu, Tim; Wang, Chao; Wong, Simon; Zhang, Weiran; Zheng, Lei; Zhu, Yan; Moore, Valarie (2002) [1996]. "Appendix A: Locale Data". Oracle9i Database Globalization Support Guide (PDF) (Release 2 (9.2) ed.). Oracle Corporation. Oracle A96529-01. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-14. Retrieved .

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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