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Hungarian Invasions of Europe
Series of conflicts between Hungary and other European powers
The first supposed reference to the Hungarians in war is in the 9th century: in 811, the Hungarians (Magyars) were in alliance with Krum of Bulgaria against Emperor Nikephoros I possibly at the Battle of Pliska in the Haemus Mountains (Balkan Mountains).Georgius Monachus' work mentions that around 837 the Bulgarian Empire sought an alliance with the Hungarians.Constantine Porphyrogenitus wrote in his work On Administering the Empire that the Khagan and the Bek of the Khazars asked the Emperor Teophilos to have the fortress of Sarkel built for them. This record is thought to refer to the Hungarians on the basis that the new fortress must have become necessary because of the appearance of a new enemy of the Khazars, and no other people could have been the Khazars' enemy at that time. In the 10th century, Ahmad ibn Rustah wrote that "earlier, the Khazars entrenched themselves against the attacks of the Magyars and other peoples".
In 860-861, Hungarian soldiers attacked Saint Cyril's convoy but the meeting is said to have ended peacefully. Saint Cyril was traveling to the Khagan at (or near) Chersonesos Taurica, which had been captured by the Khazars.
Muslim geographers recorded that the Magyars regularly attacked the neighboring East Slavic tribes, and took captives to sell to the Byzantine Empire at Kerch.
There is some information about Hungarian raids into the eastern Carolingian Empire in 862.
The Battle of Lechfeld in 955, in which the Magyars lost approximately 5,000 warriors, finally checked their expansion, although raids on the Byzantine Empire continued until 970. Lechfeld is south of Augsburg in present-day southern Germany.
According to the contemporary sources, the researchers count 45 (according to Nagy Kálmán) or 47 (According to Szabados György) raids in different parts of Europe. From these campaigns only 8 (17,5 %) were unsuccessful (901, 913, 933, 943, 948, 951, 955, 970) and 37 ended with success (82,5 %).
Timeline of the Hungarian invasions
Before the Hungarian Conquest
839 – The Hungarians, who then lived East to the Carpathians, in Etelköz, fight at Lower Danube at the request of the First Bulgarian Empire against the Byzantine insurgents.
861 – Saint Cyril is attacked in Crimea by Hungarians "screaming like wolves", but seeing him praying, they became peaceful.
c. 870 – al-Djayhani and Ahmad ibn Rustah writes that the Hungarian tribes attack the Slavs and the Russians who live near their borders, defeat them continuously, forcing them to pay tribute, and drive many of them to Kerch in Crimea, selling them to the Byzantines as slaves.
881 – The Hungarian troops, helping the Moravians, fight two battles against the Germans.
895 – Simeon allies with the Pechenegs, and attacks in alliance with them the Hungarians, forcing them to retreat towards West and enter in the Carpathian Basin. The Hungarians conquer the eastern parts of the Carpathian Basin (until the river Danube). Here the Hungarians defeat the Bulgarians in Southern Transylvania and Tiszántúl, and end their power in the Carpathian Basin, starting with this the Hungarian Conquest.
April 11 or 18 – The Magyar army from Carinthia is defeated by Margrave Ratold at Laibach.
902 – The Hungarians conquer the eastern parts of Great Moravia, ending with this the Hungarian Conquest of the Carpathian Basin, while the Slavs from West and North to this region, start to pay tribute to them.
903 – A Hungarian unit raiding in Bavaria, is defeated near the river Fischa.
The Hungarian political and military leader Kurszán (kende, gyula or horka) is invited to a feast and then assassinated by the Bavarians.
906 – Two Hungarian armies devastate, one after the other, the Duchy of Saxony. The Magyars were asked to come by the Slavic tribe of Dalamancians, threatened by the Saxon attacks.
July 4-6 – An East Francian army led by Luitpold, Margrave of Bavaria, which entered the Hungarian territory in order to expel the Hungarians from the Carpathian Basin, is annihilated by the Hungarian army in the Battle of Pressburg. Luitpold, Dietmar I, Archbishop of Salzburg, Prince Sieghard, 19 counts, 2 bishops and 3 abbots are killed in the battle, together with the majority of the soldiers. This battle is considered the conclusion of the Hungarian Conquest.
July-August – The Hungarians assault Bavaria, making great destructions, and occupying many towns, in their way home, defeating a Bavarian army at Lengenfeld. The Hungarian-Bavarian border is fixed on the Enns river.
The Hungarian campaign of 910, which resulted the Hungarian victories from Augsburg and Rednitz.
June 12 – The Hungarians crush the army of the German king Louis the Child in the first Battle of Augsburg, led by Count Gozbert of Alemannia. The commander and Managolt, count of Alemannia are killed in the battle.
915 – A Hungarian army devastates Swabia then Franconia. One of their plundering units attack the Fulda monastery, but they are repelled, they burn the Abbey of Corvey, plunder the monastery St. Ida in Herzfeld. In Saxony the Hungarians plunder Valun, then they burn Bremen, and after defeating a Saxon army at Eresburg, they arrive to the Danish border.
In 921 a Hungarian army led by Dursac and Bogát, enters Northern Italy, then annihilates, between Brescia and Verona ,the forces of the Italian supporters of Rudolf II of Burgundy, killing the palatine Odelrik, and taking as captive Gislebert, the count of Bergamo.
This army goes towards southern Italy, where it winters, and in January 922 plunders the regions between Rome and Naples.
February 4 – The Magyar army attacks Apulia in Southern Italy, ruled by the Byzantines.
The Hungarians campaigns of 924 in Italy, Burgundy, Southern France and Saxony
Campaign in Italy and Southern France
Spring – Rudolf II of Burgundy is elected by the Italian insurgents as king of Italy in Pavia. Emperor Berengar I of Italy asks the Hungarians for help, whom then send an army led by Szalárd, who burns Pavia and the war galleys on the shores of the Ticino river.
April 7 – When emperor Berengar is assassinated in Verona, the Hungarians go towards Burgundy. Rudolf II of Burgundy and Hugh of Arles try to encircle them in the passes of the Alps, but the Hungarians escape from the ambush, and attack Gothia and the outskirts of Nîmes. They return home because a plague breaks out among them.
Campaign in Saxony
Another Hungarian army plunders Saxony. The German king Henry the Fowler retreats to the castle of Werla. A Hungarian noble falls by accident in the hands of the Germans. King Henry uses this opportunity to negotiate with the Hungarians, asking for peace, and accepting to pay a tribute to the Principality of Hungary.
The Hungarian campaign in Europe in 926
May 1-8 – Hungarian troops enter Swabia, as allies of the new Italian king, Hugh of Italy, besiege Augsburg, and then occupy the Abbey of Sankt Gallen, where they spare the life of the monk Heribald, whose accounts give a detailed description about their traditions and way of life. From the abbey they send minor units to reconnoitre and plunder the surroundings. One of their units kills Saint Wiborada who lived as anchoress in a wood nearby.
After May 8 – The Magyars besiege Konstanz, burning its suburbs, then head towards West in the direction of Schaffhausen and Basel. One of their units is defeated by the locals at Säckingen on the shores of the Rhine. The Hungarian army cross the Rhine with some captured ships into Alsace, and defeat the troops of count Liutfred. Then, following the Rhine they went towards North, sack the surroundings of Voncq, arrive to the Atlantic Ocean's shores, then head towards home via Reims. On their way home, they renew the alliance with Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria.
The Hungarian campaigns of 927 in Italy and the Balkans
927 – Hungarian troops are called by King Hugh of Italy to help margrave Peter regain his power in Rome, against Pope John X, which they succeed. During and after these events, they plunder Tuscany and Apulia, taking many prisoners, and occupying the cities of Oria and Taranto.
931 – A Hungarian army burns the Italian city of Piacenza.
Beginning of March – Because the German king Henry the Fowler refused to continue to pay tribute to the Principality of Hungary, a Magyar army enters Saxony. They enter from the lands of the Slavic tribe of Dalamancians, who refuse their alliance proposal, then the Hungarians split in two, but soon the army which tries to outflank Saxony from west, is defeated by the combined forces of Saxony and Thuringia near Gotha.
The Hungarian campaign of 934 against Bulgaria and the Byzantine empire, which resulted the start of the Byzantine tribute towards the Hungarians.
A Hungarian army raids in the environs of Metz in Lothariniga.
War breaks out between the Hungarians and the Pechenegs, but a peace is concluded after the news of a Bulgarian attack against their territories, coming from the town of W.l.n.d.r (probably Belgrade). The Hungarians and the Pechenegs decide to attack this town.
April – The Hungarian-Pecheneg army defeats, in the Battle of W.l.n.d.r, the relieving Byzantine-Bulgarian forces then conquer the city, and plunder it for three days.
935 – Hungarian raid to Aquitaine and Bourges. They return towards home in Burgundy and Northern Italy, where they plunder the environs of Brescia.
The Hungarian campaign in Europe from 936-937
End of 936 – The Hungarians, with the aim to force the new German king, Otto I, to pay them tribute, attack Swabia and Franconia, and burn the Fulda monastery. They then enter Saxony, but the new king's forces repel them towards Lotharingia and West Francia.
February 21, 937 – They enter Lotharingia, crossing the Rhine at Worms, and advance towards Namur.
The Hungarians occupy the Abbey of Saint Basolus from Verzy, which they use as headquarters. They then send plundering units to attack the abbeys from Orbay, Saint Macra from Fîmes, the city of Bouvancourt.
March 24 – They reach the city of Sens, where they burn the Abbey of Saint Peter.
At Orléans they fight a French army led by count Ebbes de Déols, who is wounded in the battle and dies afterwards. After this, the Hungarians, following the course of the Loire, cross the whole of France until the Atlantic Ocean, then return through the South-East, and on their way to Burgundy, they plunder the surroundings of Bourges.
After July 11 – The Hungarians enter Burgundy near Dijon, harrying the Monastery of Luxeuil, then they plunder the valley of the Rhône, burn the city of Tournus, occupy the monasteries of Saint Deicolus and Saint Marcell, but fail at the Monastery of Saint Appollinaris.
August – Continuing their campaign, the Hungarians enter Lombardy from the West, where Hugh of Italy asks them to go to Southern Italy to help the Byzantines. The Hungarians plunder the surroundings of Capua, and install their camp on the meadows of Galliano, and send small units to plunder the regions of Naples, Benevento, Sarno, Nola and Montecassino. The Abbey of Montecassino gives them valuable objects valuing 200 Byzantine hyperpyrons in order to ranslome the captives.
Autumn – One Hungarian unit returning home is ambushed in the Abruzzo Mountains by local forces, and loses its plunder.
End of July – The Hungarians attack Thuringia and Saxony, and set camp at the Bode, north to the Harz mountains, and send its raiding units in every direction. One of these units is defeated at Wolfenbüttel, and its leader killed. Another unit is misled by its Slavic guides on the marshes of Drömling, ambushed, and massacred by the Germans at Belxa. The Hungarians ransom the captured leader of this unit.
After 31 August – Hearing about these defeats, the main Hungarian army, camped at the Bode river, withdraws to Hungary.
940 April – The Hungarian auxiliary troops helping Hugh of Italy in his campaign against Rome are victorious at Lateran against the Roman nobles, but are then defeated by the Longobards.
The Hungarian campaign in Italy, Burgundy, Southern France and Spain in 942.
Spring – A Hungarian army enters Italy, where king Hugh, giving them 10 bushels of gold, persuades them to attack the Caliphate of Córdoba.
Middle of June – They arrive in Catalonia, plunder the region, then enter the northern territories of the Caliphate of Córdoba.
June 26 – The Hungarians capture Yahya ibn Muhammad ibn al Tawil, the ruler of Barbastro, and hold him captive 33 days, until he is ransomed.
July – The Hungarians find themselves on desert territory and run out of food and water. They kill their Italian guide and return home. Five Hungarian soldiers are taken prisoner by the Cordobans and become bodyguards of the caliph.
947 – A Hungarian army, led by prince Taksony, campaigns in Italy, heading southwards on the Eastern shore of the peninsula. It besieges Larino, and reaches Otranto, plundering Apulia for 3 months.
Spring – Hungarians, crossing through Lombardia, attack Aquitania.
November 20 – The returning Hungarians are defeated by the Germans, who in the meanwhile had conquered the Kingdom of Italy.
The Hungarian campaign in Europe of 954
The German princes rebel against Otto I, and ally with the Hungarians, who in February sends an army led by Bulcsú to help them. The Magyar army plunders the domains of Otto's allies in Bavaria, Swabia and Frankonia.
The Hungarians plunder the regions of Hesbaye and Carbonaria in today's Belgium, plunder and burn the Monastery of Saint Lambert from Hainaut, plunder the monastery of Moorsel, and sack the cities of Gembloux and Tournai.
April 2 – They besiege the Lobbes Abbey, but the monks defend the monastery. However the Hungarians burn the church of Saint Paul, and take with them the treasures of the abbey.
April 6-10 – The Hungarians besiege the city of Cambrai, burn its suburbs, but are unable to conquer the city. One of Bulcsú's relatives is killed by the defenders. They refuse to return his body to the Hungarians, who in return kill all their captives and burn the monastery of Saint Géry near Cambrai.
After April 6 – the Hungarians cross the French border, plundering the surroundings of Laon, Reims, Chalon, Metz, Gorze. After that, they return home via Burgundy and Northern Italy.
The Hungarian campaign in the German kingdom from 955
Middle of July – Called by the Bavarian and Saxonian insurgents, a Hungarian army led by Bulcsú, Lehel, Sur, and Taksony breaks into Germany, plundering Bavaria, then enters Swabia and burns many monasteries.
Beginning of August – The Hungarians start besieging Augsburg.
August 10 – The German army of Otto I defeats the Hungarian army and puts it to flight, in the Battle of Lechfeld. Despite the victory, the German losses were heavy, among them many nobles: Conrad, Duke of Lorraine, Count Dietpald, Ulrich count of Aargau, the Bavarian count Berthold, etc.
August 10-11 – The Germans capture Bulcsú, Lehel, and Sur. Many Hungarians die during the flight, killed by the Germans.
August 15 – Bulcsú, Lehel, and Sur are hanged in Regensburg. End of the Hungarian invasions towards the West.
The Hungarian campaign in the Balcans from 968
959 April-May – Because in 957 the Byzantines ceased the payment of tribute, a Hungarian army, led by Apor, attacks the empire, plunders its territories up to Constantinople, but on its way back, it is defeated by the Byzantines in a night attack.
961 – A Hungarian army attacks Thrace and Macedonia, but it is defeated, in a night attack, by the Byzantine army.
968 – A Hungarian army attacks the Byzantine Empire, and splits into two groups. Near Thessaloniki, one army group of 300 men takes 500 Greek captives, and takes them to Hungary. The other army group of 200 men is ambushed by the Byzantines who take 40 of them as captives. They become bodyguards of emperor Nikephoros II Phokas.
Their army had mostly light cavalry and were highly mobile. Attacking without warning, they quickly plundered the countryside and departed before any defensive force could be organized. If forced to fight, they would harass their enemies with arrows, then suddenly retreat, tempting their opponents to break ranks and pursue, after which the Hungarians would turn to fight them singly. This tactic is formally known as a feigned retreat.
The Hungarians were the last invading people to establish a permanent presence in Central Europe.Paul K. Davis writes, the "Magyar defeat (at the Battle of Lechfeld) ended more than 90 years of their pillaging western Europe and convinced survivors to settle down, creating the basis for the state of Hungary." In the following centuries, the Hungarians adopted western European forms of feudal military organization, including the predominant use of heavily armored cavalry.
^Barbara H. Rosenwein, A short history of the Middle Ages, University of Toronto Press, 2009, p. 152 
^Jean-Baptiste Duroselle, Europe: a history of its peoples, Viking, 1990, p. 124 
^Elter, I. (1981) Remarks on Ibn Hayyan's report on the Magyar raids on Spain, Magyar Nyelv 77, p. 413-419
^The Hungarians' Prehistory, their Conquest of Hungary, and their Raids to the West to 955, Laszlo Makkai, A History of Hungary, ed. Peter F. Sugar, Péter Hanák, Tibor Frank, (Indiana University Press, 1990), 13.
^Nagy Kálmán: A honfoglalás korának hadtörténete; Heraldika Kiadó, Budapest, 2007, p. 168
^Bóna, István (2000). A magyarok és Európa a 9-10. században ("The Hungarians and Europe in the 9th-10th centuries") (in Hungarian). Budapest: História - MTA Történettudományi Intézete. p. 11. ISBN963-8312-67-X.
^Baják László: A fejedelmek kora. A korai magyar történet id?rendi vázlata. II. rész. 900-1000 ("The Era of the Princes. The chronological sketch of the early Hungarian history. II. part. 900-1000"); ÓMT, Budapest, (2000). p. 8-9