Hungarian Alphabet
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Hungarian Alphabet

The Hungarian alphabet (Hungarian: magyar ábécé) is an extension of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Hungarian language.

The alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet, with a couple added variations of letters.

One sometimes speaks of the smaller (or basic) and greater (or extended) Hungarian alphabets, depending on whether or not the letters Q, W, X, Y are listed, which can only be found in foreign words and traditional orthography of names.[1]

The 44 letters of the extended Hungarian alphabet are:

Majuscule forms (also called uppercase or capital letters)
A Á B C Cs D Dz Dzs E É F G Gy H I Í J K L Ly M N Ny O Ó Ö ? P Q R S Sz T Ty U Ú Ü ? V W X Y Z Zs
Minuscule forms (also called lowercase or small letters)
a á b c cs d dz dzs e é f g gy h i í j k l ly m n ny o ó ö ? p q r s sz t ty u ú ü ? v w x y z zs


Each sign shown above counts as a letter in its own right in Hungarian. Some, such as the letter ?ó? and , are inter-filed with the letter preceding it when sorting words alphabetically, whereas others, such as ?ö?, have their own place in collation rather than also being inter-filed with ?o?.

While long vowels count as different letters, long (or geminate) consonants do not. Long consonants are marked by duplication: e.g. ?tt?, ?gg?, ?zz? (ette 'he ate' (det.obj.), függ 'it hangs', azzal 'with that'). For the di- and tri-graphs a simplification rule normally applies (but not when the compound is split at the end of a line of text due to hyphenation): only the first letter is duplicated: e.g. ?sz? + ?sz? -> ?ssz? (asszony 'woman'), ?ty? + ?ty? -> ?tty? (hattyú 'swan'), ?dzs? + ?dzs? -> ?ddzs? (briddzsel 'with bridge (playing game)').
An exception is made at the joining points of compound words, for example: jegygy?r? 'engagement ring' (jegy + gy?r?) not jeggy?r?.

?Dz? and ?dzs? were recognized as individual letters in the 11th edition of Hungarian orthography (1984).[2] Prior to that, they were analyzed as two-letter combinations ?d?+?z? and ?d?+?zs?.


The pronunciation given for the following Hungarian letters is that of standard Hungarian.

Letter Name Phoneme (IPA) Complementary allophones (IPA)[3] Close to Notes
A a /?/About this sound   similar to British English cot [] might describe it better (raised, more rounded; sign rendered probably incorrectly, containing two diacritical marks below). Still definitely not [?], but more like [?] (the o in traditional Received Pronunciation hot)
Á á /a:/About this sound   an extended father Not nearly as open as the a in American English hat, but closer to it than Hungarian a (without the accent mark)
B /b/About this sound   as by, absence etc.
C /ts/About this sound   like pots
Cs csé /t?/ as check, cheek, etching etc.
D /d/About this sound   deck, wide etc.
Dz dzé /dz/About this sound   like in kids rare. does not occur at the beginning of words. When neither post- nor preconsonantic, always realised as a geminate.
Dzs dzsé /d?/ jam, George, bridge, edge, fridge rare, mostly in loanwords. when final or intervocalic, usually realised as a geminate: maharadzsa /m?h?r?d/ [m?h?r?d:?] 'maharajah', bridzs /brid?/ [brid:] 'bridge (card game)', but dzsungel /d?ul/ [dul] 'jungle', fridzsider /frid?id?r/ [fridid?r] coll. 'refrigerator'
E e /?/About this sound   like less, cheque, edge, bed about 40-50% of speakers also have a phoneme /e/ (see below at Ë). /e/ is not considered part of standard Hungarian, wherein /?/ takes the place of /e/.
É é /e:/About this sound   café
F ef /f/About this sound   find, euphoria
G /?/About this sound   get, leg, go etc.
Gy gyé /?/About this sound   (not used in English; soft form of /d/. Mostly similar to during, as pronounced in Received Pronunciation) denoting /?/ by <gy> is a remnant of (probably) Italian scribes who tried to render the Hungarian sound. <dy> would be a more consistent notation in scope of <ty>, <ny>, <ly> (see there), as the <y> part of digraphs show palatalisation in the Hungarian writing system.
H /h/ 1. [?]About this sound  

2. ?
3. [x]About this sound  
4. [ç]About this sound  

Basic: hi
1. behind
2. honest
3. Loch, Chanukah
4. human
1. when in intervocalic position.
2. not rendered usually when in final position méh /me:/ 'bee', cseh /t/ 'Czech'
3. seldom, in final position, such as in doh 'dampness', MÉH 'metal recycling facility'
4. seldom, such as in ihlet 'inspiration'
I i /i/ sea, key, tree Pronounced the same as Í, only shorter
Í í /i:/About this sound   leek, leave, seed, sea Vowel length is phonemically distinctive in Hungarian: irt = 'to exterminate' and írt = 'to write (past tense)'
J /j/About this sound   [ç], [?] you, yes, faith allophones occur when /j/ occurs after a consonant; (voiceless after voiceless, voiced after voiced consonants). e.g. férj 'husband', kapj 'get! (imperative)'
K /k/About this sound   key, kiss, weak
L el /l/About this sound   leave, list
Ly elly, el-ipszilon /j/About this sound   / /?/About this sound   play, pray
M em /m/About this sound   mind, assume, might,
N en /n/ [?]About this sound  

[n]About this sound  

thing, lying (before k, g),
need, bone (anywhere else)
allophone before /k/, /?/
Ny eny /?/About this sound   canyon
O o /o/ force, sorcerer A shorter, more open variant of Ó. Unlike with short e, which is opened to /?/ in standard speech, short o remains /o/, rather than opening to /?/ where it would come close to clashing with short a.
Ó ó /o:/About this sound   Not in standard English. go, snow are approximations, but are diphthongs, unlike the Hungarian Same as /o/ except longer. It is important to pay attention to. (eg.: kor = 'age' and kór = 'disease')
Ö ö /ø/About this sound   (Not used in English; corresponds to (short) German Ö); similar to shwa /?/ (e.g. cola) except with rounded lips. A shorter, more open variant of ?
? ? /ø:/ (Not used in English; a longer, more closed variant of Ö, similar to non-rhotic murder.) Minimal pair to /ø/: öt = 'five' and ?t = 'him/her (Hungarian pronouns do not specify gender)'
P /p/About this sound   peas, apricot, hope
(Q) Q occurs only as part of the digraph qu in foreign words, realised as /kv/: Aquincum [?kvi?kum] (name of an old Roman settlement on the area of present-day Óbuda). Words originally spelled with qu are today usually spelled with kv, as in akvarell 'watercolor painting'.
R er /r/About this sound   The closest equivalent is r also called apical trill as pronounced by trilling the tip of your tongue (the apex) and not the uvula.
S es /?/About this sound   share, wish, shout This notation is unusual for European writing systems where <s> usually stands for /s/. In Hungarian, /s/ is represented by <sz>.
Sz esz /s/About this sound   say, estimate
T /t/About this sound   tell, least, feast
Ty tyé /c/About this sound   tube
U u /u/ rude
Ú ú /u:/About this sound   do, fool minimal pair to /u/: hurok 'loop' ~ húrok 'cords'
Ü ü /y/ (not used in English, corresponds to German Ü) A shorter, more open variant of ?
? ? /y:/About this sound   (not used in English)
V /v/About this sound   very, every
(W) dupla vé /v/About this sound   view, evolve, vacuum only occurs in foreign words and in Hungarian aristocratic surnames
(X) iksz occurs only in loanwords, and there only when denoting /ks/; [?z] is transcribed: extra, Alexandra, but egzakt 'exact'.
(Y) ipszilon /i/ happy Usually combined with another letter to form a new sound (see ly, ny, gy, ty). In loanwords, usually rendered as /i/ or /j/. Occurs very often in old Hungarian aristocratic surnames where it stands for /i/ or /?i/: 'Báthory' [ba:tori], 'Batthyány' [b?c:a:?i] or [b?c:a:ni] (<n>+<y> ~ /?i/)
Z /z/About this sound   desert, roses
Zs zsé /?/About this sound   pleasure, leisure

The letter ë is not part of the Hungarian alphabet; however, linguists use this letter to distinguish between the two kinds of short e sounds of some dialects. This letter was first used in 1770 by György Kalmár, but has never officially been part of the Hungarian alphabet, as the standard Hungarian language does not distinguish between these two sounds. However, the ë sound is pronounced differently from the e sound in 6 out of the 10 Hungarian dialects and the sound is pronounced as ö in 1 dialect. It is also used in names.

The digraph ch also exists in some words (technika, monarchia) and is pronounced the same as h. In names, it is pronounced like cs as well as like h or k (as in German) (see below).

Historic spellings used in names and historical documents

Old spellings (sometimes similar to German orthography) used in some Hungarian names and their corresponding pronunciation according to modern spelling include the following:

Historic spelling Pronounced like modern spelling
bb b
cz c
tz c
z c
ch cs
cz cs
? cs
? cs
ts cs
csh cs
tsch cs
tzsch cs
chs cs
cy cs
? cs
dd d
dsz dz
ds dzs
ff f
ph f
gh g
dgy ggy
dy gy
g gy
gi gy
gj gy
g?~g? gy
? gy
? gy
j gy
jj j
l j
y j
ck k
kh k
x ks
xy ksz
xz ksz
qu kv
ll l
l ll
w lv
j ly
l ly
li ly
ry ly
lly ly
?l(?l)~l?(l?)~? ly
n ny
ni ny
n?~n? ny
? ny
? ny
my ny
ph p
pp p
rh r
rr r
? r
sch s
ss s
ss ssz
s sz
sc sz
sy sz
z sz
th t
tt t
ti ty
t?~t? ty
? ty
ky ty
u v
w v
s z
s zs
ss zs
zy zs
['s] zs


Historic spelling Pronounced like modern spelling
a á
aa á
áá á
áh á
ä e
ae e
ai e
ay e
áe é
ái é
áy é
e é
ee é
éh é
i í
íh í
ii í
å o
o ó
óh ó
oo ó
ua ó
â ö
åe ö
åi ö
åy ö
ew ö
oe ö
oi ö
oy ö
e? ?
ew ?
ia ?
ö ?
?h ?
öö ?
ö? ?
óe ?
ói ?
óy ?
üa ?
u ú
úh ú
uu ú
ue ü
ui ü
uy ü
ü ?
?h ?
ü? ?
üü ?
ü? ?
úe ?
úi ?
úy ?
aÿ aj
ei aj
áë áj
áï áj
áÿ áj
åë oj
åï oj
åÿ oj
eu oj
oÿ oj
óë ój
óï ój
óÿ ój
au uj
uÿ uj
úë új
úï új
úÿ új
(g)y ~ gÿ gi
y ji
(l)y ~ lÿ (l)i
(n)y ~ nÿ (ny)i or (n)i
(t)y ~ tÿ ti

On áá: [5]

Generally, y in historic spellings of names formed with the -i affix (not to be confused with a possessive -i- of plural objects, as in szavai!) can exist after many other letters (e.g.: Teleky, Rákóczy, zsy). Here are listed only examples which can be easily misread because of such spelling.


Name Pronounced as if spelled
Madách Madács
Széchenyi Szécsényi or Szécsenyi
Batthyány Battyányi
Gajdátsy Gajdácsi
Thököly Tököli
Weöres Vörös
Eötvös Ötvös
Kassay Kassai
Debr?dy Debr?di
Karczagy Karcagi
Vörösmarty Vörösmarti
Cházár Császár
Czukor Cukor
Balogh Balog
Vargha Varga
Paal Pál
Gaál Gál
Veér Vér
Rédey Rédei
Soós Sós
Thewrewk rök
Dessewffy Dezs?fi

Historic spellings of article and conjunctions

In early editions the article a/az was written according to the following rules:

  • before vowels and h -- az: az ember, az híd
  • before consonants -- a': a' csillag.

The abbreviated form of the conjunction és (and), which is always written today as s, was likely to be written with an apostrophe before -- 's (e.g. föld 's nép).


The di- and the trigraphs are capitalised in names and at the beginning of sentences by capitalising the first glyph of them only.

  • Csak jót mondhatunk Székely Csabáról.

In abbreviations and when writing with all capital letters, however, one capitalises the second (and third) character as well.

Thus ("The Rules of Hungarian Orthography", a book edited by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences):

  • A magyar helyesírás szabályai
  • MHSZ (not MHSz)

Alphabetical ordering (collation)

While the characters with diacritical marks are considered separate letters, vowels that differ only in length are treated the same when ordering words. Therefore, for example, the pairs O/Ó and Ö/? are not distinguished in ordering, but Ö follows O. In cases where two words are differentiated solely by the presence of an accent, the one without the accent is put before the other one. (The situation is the same for lower and upper-case letters: in alphabetical ordering, varga is followed by Varga.)

The polygraphic consonant signs are treated as single letters.

csak <cs> comes after <c>
folyó <ó> is sorted as <o>
f? and <?> is sorted as <ö>,
födém but <ö> comes after <o>

The simplified geminates of multigraphs (see above) such as <nny>, <ssz> are collated as <ny>+<ny>, <sz>+<sz> etc., if they are double geminates, rather than co-occurrences of a single letter and a geminate.

könny? is collated as <k><ö><ny><ny><?>. tizennyolc of course as <t><i><z><e><n><ny><o><l><c>, as this is a compound: tizen+nyolc ('above ten' + 'eight' = 'eighteen').

Similar 'ambiguities', which can occur with compounds (which are highly common in Hungarian) are dissolved and collated by sense.

e.g. házszám 'house number (address)' = ház + szám and of course not *házs + *zám.

These rules make Hungarian alphabetic ordering algorithmically difficult (one has to know the correct segmentation of a word to sort it correctly), which was a problem for computer software development.

Keyboard layout

The standard Hungarian keyboard layout is German-based (QWERTZ). This layout allows direct access to every character in the Hungarian alphabet.

Hungarian keyboard layout

The letter "Í" is often placed left of the space key, leaving the width of the left Shift key intact. "?" may be located to the left of Backspace, making that key smaller, but allowing for a larger Enter key. ? being close to Enter often leads to it being typed instead of hitting Enter, especially when one has just switched from a keyboard that has ? next to backspace. The German "ß" and the Polish "?" are also present.

Letter frequencies

The most common letters in Hungarian are e and a.[6]

The list below shows the letter frequencies for the smaller Hungarian alphabet in descending order.

Letter Frequency
e 12.256%
a 9.428%
t 7.380%
n 6.445%
l 6.383%
s 5.322%
k 4.522%
é 4.511%
i 4.200%
m 4.054%
o 3.867%
á 3.649%
g 2.838%
r 2.807%
z 2.734%
v 2.453%
b 2.058%
d 2.037%
sz 1.809%
j 1.570%
h 1.341%
gy 1.185%
? 0.884%
ö 0.821%
ny 0.790%
ly 0.738%
ü 0.655%
ó 0.634%
f 0.582%
p 0.509%
í 0.499%
u 0.416%
cs 0.260%
? 0.125%
c 0.114%
ú 0.104%
zs 0.021%
dz <0.010%
dzs <0.010%
ty <0.010%

See also


  1. ^ In Northern Hungary, Ä was traditionally used instead of Á because of the accent.[]
  2. ^ p. 399
  3. ^ List of complementary allophone variants possibly not complete.
  4. ^ Benk? Loránd et al.: Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Ungarischen; Band I; PP. XVII-XVIII. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1993.
  5. ^ Benk? Loránd et al.: Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Ungarischen; Band II; P. 1000. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1993.
  6. ^ Campie, Trishia. "Letter Frequency Statistics". American Cryptogram Association. Retrieved .

External links

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