|Country||Republic of China (Taiwan)|
|o Magistrate||Yang Wen-ke (KMT)|
|o Total||1,427.59 km2 (551.20 sq mi)|
|Area rank||12 of 22|
|o Rank||10 of 22|
|o Density||390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (National Standard Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||TW-HSQ|
Hsinchu County,[I]Wade-Giles: Hsin¹-chu², is a county in north-western Taiwan. The population of the county is mainly Hakka; there is a Taiwanese aboriginal minority in the southeastern part of the county. Zhubei is the county capital, where the government office and county office is located. A portion of the Hsinchu Science Park is located in Hsinchu County.
Before the arrival of the Han Chinese, the Hsinchu area was home to the indigenous Taokas, Saisiyat, and Atayal. After the Spanish occupied northern Taiwan, Catholic missionaries arrived at Tek-kham in 1626. Minnanese (Hoklo) and Hakka came and began to cultivate the land from the plains near the sea towards the river valleys and hills.
In 1684, Zhuluo County was established during Qing dynasty rule and more Han settled near Tek-kham. A Chinese city was established there in 1711 and renamed Hsinchu in 1875. It became part of Taipeh Prefecture. In the late 19th century, Hoklo people dominated the coastal plain area, forcing the Saisiyat and Atayal tribes to move to areas around Jianshi and Wufeng, while the Hakka and Taokas settled together in the river valleys and hills area.
Japanese occupation of Taiwan began after the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. Hsinchu became known as Shinchiku and, by 1920, its prefecture covered the areas of modern-day Hsinchu County and City, Miaoli, and Taoyuan.
After the handover of Taiwan from Japan to the Republic of China in 1945, Hsinchu County was established on 25 December 1945. In August 1950, Miaoli and Taoyuan were taken out from the county area to form Miaoli County and Taoyuan County respectively. On 16 August 1950, Hsinchu City was incorporated to the county as county-administered city. However, the city was then upgraded again to become a provincial city on 1 July 1982 and was taken out from Hsinchu County area. The county's Xiangshan Township was incorporated into Hsinchu City on 1 July 1982.
Hsinchu County is located at the northwest part of Taiwan Island. It borders Taoyuan City to the north, Miaoli County to the south, the Taiwan Strait to the west, and Xueshan and Dabajian Mountain to the east. With an area spanning up to 1,427.59 km2 (551.20 sq mi), Hsinchu County area composed mainly of uplands, tablelands and mountains, except for the alluvial plains of the Fengshan River and Touqian River mouth area and some ancient river land.
The average climate in Hsinchu County is mild.
Hsinchu County controls 1 city, 3 urban townships, 6 rural townships and 2 mountain indigenous townships.Zhubei City is the seat of Hsinchu County which houses the Hsinchu County Government and Hsinchu County Council. The incumbent Magistrate of Hsinchu County is Yang Wen-ke of the Kuomintang. The administrative division of the county are:
The population of the county consists of Hakka, Hoklo, aborigines and new immigrants. The Hakka people constituted around 84% of the total population in 2014, while the aborigines consisted mainly of Atayal and Saisiyat people. As of January 2017, the total population was 547,794, with 267,599 females and 280,195 males in 187,644 households.
After the founding of Hsinchu Science Park in 1980, a high number of high-tech industries began to grow and expand outside the park, attracting workers coming to work and settle in the county.
Education in Hsinchu County is administered by the Education Department of Hsinchu County Government. The county is home to the Minghsin University of Science and Technology and Ta Hwa University of Science and Technology.
Hsinchu County houses the Baoshan Dam, supplying cooling water for factories in the Hsinchu Science Park and neighboring Hsinchu City. The dam can contain water up to 5,470,000 m3 with a catchment area of 3.2 km2 (1.2 sq mi).
The Hsinchu Station of the Taiwan High Speed Rail is located in the county at Zhubei City. Hsinchu County is crossed by three Taiwan Railways Administration lines, which are the Liujia Line, Neiwan Line and Western Line.
Hsinchu County's administrative area is divided into 1 county-administered city, 3 towns and 9 townships, namely: Zhubei City, Zhudong Town, Xinpu Town, Guanxi Town, Xinfeng Township, Emei Township, Baoshan Township, Wufeng Township, Hengshan Township, Beipu Township, Jianshi Township, Qionglin Township and Hukou Township.