House of Luxembourg
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House of Luxembourg

The Limburg-Luxemburg dynasty, one of several families from different periods known as the Luxembourg dynasty (French: Maison de Luxembourg; German: Haus Luxemburg) was a royal family of the Holy Roman Empire in the Late Middle Ages, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as kings of Germany and Holy Roman emperors as well as kings of Bohemia and Hungary. Their rule was twice interrupted by the rival House of Wittelsbach.

History

Limburg Arms
arms of Waleran III, Duke of Limburg
Loon Arms
arms of the Counts of Grandpré and Counts of Loon
Luxemburg Arms
arms of Henry V, Count of Luxembourg, his father's arms of Limburg with addition of azure stripes leaving a barry of argent and azure.

The Luxembourg line was initially a cadet branch of the Lotharingian ducal House of Limburg-Arlon, who were in turn a branch of the Luxembourg branch of the so-called House of Ardenne. In 1247 Henry, younger son of Duke Waleran III of Limburg inherited the County of Luxembourg upon the death of his mother Countess Ermesinde, a scion of the House of Namur. Her father, Count Henry IV of Luxembourg, was related on his mother's side to the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty (also called the elder House of Luxembourg),[] which had ruled the county since the late 10th century.

Holy Roman Empire under Charles IV
  Habsburg
  Luxembourg
  Wittelsbach

Count Henry V's grandson Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg upon the death of his father Henry VI at the 1288 Battle of Worringen, was elected Rex Romanorum in 1308. The election was necessary after the Habsburg king Albert I of Germany had been murdered, and Henry, backed by his brother Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, prevailed against Charles, Count of Valois. Henry arranged the marriage of his son John with the P?emyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia in 1310, through whom the House of Luxembourg acquired the Kingdom of Bohemia, enabling that family to compete more effectively for power with the Habsburg and Wittelsbach dynasties. One year after being crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rome, Henry VII, still on campaign in Italy, died in 1313.

The prince-electors, perturbed by the rise of the Luxembourgs, disregarded the claims raised by Henry's heir King John, and the rule over the Empire was assumed by the Wittelsbach duke Louis of Bavaria. John instead concentrated on securing his rule in Bohemia and gradually vassalized the Piast dukes of adjacent Silesia from 1327 until 1335. His son Charles IV, in 1346 mounted the Imperial throne. His Golden Bull of 1356 served as a constitution of the Empire for centuries. Charles not only acquired the duchies of Brabant and Limburg in the west, but also the former March of Lusatia and even the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1373 under the Kingdom of Bohemia.

The family's decline began under Charles' son King Wenceslaus, deposed by the prince-electors in 1400 who chose the Wittelsbach Elector Palatine Rupert. In 1410 rule was assumed by Wenceslaus' brother Sigismund, who once again stabilized the rule of the Luxembourgs and even contributed to end the Western Schism in 1417; however, with his death in 1437, the senior branch of the dynasty became extinct. He was succeeded by his son-in-law, the Habsburg archduke Albert V of Austria. The Habsburgs finally prevailed as Luxembourg heirs, ruling the Empire until the extinction of their senior branch upon the death of Maria Theresa in 1780.

Notable members

Emperor Charles IV

Genealogy

Staufen dynasty.JPG

House of Limburg-Arlon

Having succeeded to the county of Luxemburg, the younger branch of the House of Limburg-Arlon is the family that succeeded in getting one of its scions elected Holy Roman Emperor. From there descended the Kings of Bohemia, several other Emperors and a King of Hungary as shown below.


House of Limburg-Arlon/the House of Luxemburg
Waleran I
(+ 1082)
Count of Limburg
Henry I
(1059 + 1119)
Count of Limburg
Waleran II
(1085 + 1139)
Duke of Limburg
Henry II
(1111 + 1167)
Duke of Limburg
Henry III
(1140 + 1221)
Limburg Old Arms.svg
Duke of Limburg
Cunigunda of MontjoieWaleran III
(1180 + 1226)
Armoiries Chypre.svgArms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Duke of Limburg
Ermesinde
Countess of Luxembourg
Henry IV
(+ 1247)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Duke of Limburg and Count of Berg
Waleran
(+ 1242)
Armes Limbourg-Fauquemont.svg
Lord of Fauquemont
Henry V
(1217 + 1281)

Count of Luxembourg
Gerard
(+ 1276)
Armoiries Gérard de Durbuy.svg
Count of Durbuy
Adolf IV
(1220 + 1259)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Berg
Waleran IV
(+ 1279)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Duke of Limburg
Henry VI
(1250 + 1288)

Count of Luxembourg
Waleran I
(1252 + 1288)
Armoiries Waléran I de Ligny.svg
Lord of Ligny
Ermengarde
(+ 1283)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Reginald I
Blason ville fr Avanne-Aveney (Doubs).svg
Count of Guelders
Henry VII
(1275 + 1313)
Arms of Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor.svg
Holy Roman Emperor
Waleran II
(1275 + 1354)
Blason de Luxembourg-Ligny.svgArms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Lord of Ligny
Adolf V
(+ 1296)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Berg
William I
(+ 1308)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Berg
Henry of Windeck
(+ 1292)
Adolf VI
(+ 1348)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Berg
John the Blind
(1296 + 1346)
Coat of Arms of John of Bohemia (the Blind) as King of Bohemia and Count of Luxembourg.svg
King of Bohemia
John I
(1300 + 1364)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Lord of Ligny
Charles IV
(1316 + 1378)
Coat of arms of the House of Luxembourg-Bohemia.svg Arms of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor.svg
Holy Roman Emperor
King of Bohemia
John Henry
(1322 + 1372)
Armoiries Jean-Henri de Luxembourg.svg
Margrave
of Moravia
Wenceslaus I
(1337 + 1383)
Armoiries Wenceslas de Luxembourg.png
Duke of
Luxembourg
Guy
(1340 + 1371)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Ligny
Count of Saint-Pol
Wenceslaus IV
(1361 + 1419)
Coat of arms of the House of Luxembourg-Bohemia.svg Arms of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor.svg
King of the Romans
King of Bohemia
Sigismund
(1368 + 1437)
Sigismund Arms Hungarian Czech per pale.svg Armoiries empereur Sigismond Ier.svg
Holy Roman Emperor
King of Bohemia and Hungary
John
(1370 + 1396)
Armoiries Luxembourg-Goerlitz.svg
Duke of Görlitz
Jobst
(1351 + 1411)
Armoiries Josse de Luxembourg.svg
King of the Romans
Margrave
of Moravia and
Brandenburg
Waleran III
(1356 + 1415)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Ligny
and of Saint-Pol
John
(1370 + 1397)
Armoiries Jean de Luxembourg-Ligny.svg
Lord of Beauvoir
Count of Brienne
Albert II of HabsburgElizabeth of Luxembourg
(1409 + 1442)
Elisabeth
(1390 + 1453)
Armoiries Luxembourg-Goerlitz.svg
Duchess of Luxembourg, sold duchy to the Dukes of Burgundy
Peter
(1390 + 1433)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Saint-Pol
and Ligny
m. Margaret of Baux Arms of the Lords of Baux.svg
John II
(1392 + 1441)
Armoiries Jean de Luxembourg-Ligny.svg
Count of Ligny
Ladislaus the Posthumous
(1440 + 1457)
Arms of Albert II of Habsbourg (Variant).svg
King of Hungary and Bohemia,
Archduke of Austria and
Elizabeth of Austria
(1436 + 1505)
Queen consort of Poland, Grand Duchess consort of Lithuania,
from her descends the Kings of Bohemia and Hungary to 1918 and
Kings of Poland, 1458-1668
Louis
(1418 + 1475)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Saint-Pol
and Ligny
Thibaud
(+ 1477)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Lord of Fiennes, Count of Brienne, Bishop of Le Mans
Jacqueline "Jacquetta" of Luxembourg
(1415/1416 - 1472)
1m. John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford
2m. Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers,
one daughter was
Peter II
(c. 1440 + 1482)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Saint-Pol
Anthony I
(1450-1519)
Count of Ligny
Blason de Luxembourg-Ligny.svg
from here descends
the Dukes of Piney-Luxembourg
in France
Jacques
(+ 1487)
Arms of the House of Baux-Luxembourg.svg
Lord of Fiennes and Gavre
Elizabeth Woodville
(c. 1437[1] - 1492)
Queen consort of
Edward IV of England
from here descends the Houses of
Tudor, Stuart,
and the Royal Family of England
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg

Early Luxembourg counts

The House of Luxemburg stemmed from the House of Ardenne (or Ardennes, French Maison d'Ardenne) which was an important medieval noble family from Lotharingia, known from at least the tenth century. They had several important branches, descended from several brothers:[2]

Two houses descended from the women of the counts of Luxembourg, the counts of Loon and the Counts of Grandpré, which wear a shield barry. Both families had a place in relation to the succession of the House of Ardennes. Indeed, the count of Grandpré was the next heir of Conrad II of Luxembourg, the last representative of the Ardennes dynasty, but Emperor Frederick Barbarossa preferred that Luxembourg was held by a lord Germanic rather than French and attributed the county to Henry, son of Conrad's aunt Ermesinde and Count Godfrey I of Namur. The counts of Loon were also in position to claim the inheritance Luxembourg, albeit weaker position:

Ancestors of the House of Luxembourg
Conrad I

Count of Luxembourg
Henry III
(+ 1086)
Count of Luxembourg
William

Count of Luxembourg
NortheimAlbert II, Count of DagsburgErmesinde
Godfrey I, Count of Namur
Conrad II
(+ 1136)
Count of Luxembourg
s.p.
Hugh VII1
(+ 1137)
Count of Dagsburg
Mathilde1Henri IV²

Count of Namur and of Luxembourg
Counts of Grandpré
Loon Arms.svg
three children
died without issue
two sons
died without issue
AgnèsTheobald I, Count of BarWaleran III, Duke of Limburg
Counts of Loon
Loon Arms.svg
three
children

See also

References

  1. ^ "Sigismund (Holy Roman emperor)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved .
  2. ^ Parisse, 'Généalogie de la Maison d'Ardenne', La maison d'Ardenne Xe-XIe siècles. Actes des Journées Lotharingiennes, 24 - 26 oct. 1980, Centre Univ., Luxembourg, (1981) 9-41

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