House of Czartoryski
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House of Czartoryski

Czartoryski (feminine form: Czartoryska, plural: Czartoryscy; Ukrainian: , Chartoryisky; , Chortoryisky; Lithuanian: ?artoriskiai) is a Polish princely family of Lithuanian[3]-Ruthenian[4] origin, also known as the Familia. The family, which derived their kin from the Gediminids dynasty,[5][6] by the mid-17th century had split into two branches, based in the Klevan Castle and the Korets Castle, respectively. They used the Czartoryski coat of arms and were a noble family of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 18th century.

Czartoryski family vault in Sieniawa
Kazimierz Czartoryski, founder of the "Familia"

History

The Czartoryski family is of Lithuanian descent from Ruthenia. Their ancestor, a grandson of Gediminas, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, became known with his baptismal name Constantine (c. 1330-1390) - he became a Prince of Chortoryisk in Volhynia.[7] One of his sons, Vasyli Chortoryiski (Wasyl Czartoryski) (c. 1375-1416), was granted an estate in Volhynia in 1393, and his three sons John, Alexander and Michael (c. 1400-1489) are considered[by whom?] the progenitors of the family.[8] The founding members were culturally Ruthenian and Eastern Orthodox; they converted to Roman Catholicism during the 16th century.[8]

Michael's descendant Prince Kazimierz Czartoryski (1674-1741), Duke of Klewan and Zukow (Klevan and Zhukiv), Castellan of Vilnius, reawakened Czartoryski royal ambitions at the end of the 17th century. He married Isabella Morsztyn, daughter of the Grand Treasurer of Poland, and built "The Familia" with their four children, Micha?, August, Teodor and Konstancja. The family became known and powerful under the lead of brothers Micha? Fryderyk Czartoryski and August Aleksander Czartoryski in the late Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth of the 18th century, during the reigns Augustus II the Strong (King of Poland, 1697-1706 and 1709-1733) and Stanis?aw I Leszczy?ski (King of Poland 1704-1709 and 1733-1736). The family attained the height of its influence from the mid-18th century in the court of King Augustus III (r. 1734-1763. The Czartoryski brothers gained a very powerful ally in their brother-in-law, Stanis?aw Poniatowski, whose son became the last king of the independent Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Stanis?aw August Poniatowski (r. 1764-1795).

The Czartoryski's Familia saw the decline of the Commonwealth and the rise of anarchy and joined the camp which was determined to press ahead with reforms; thus they sought the enactment of such constitutional reforms as the abolition of the liberum veto.

Although the Russian Empire confiscated the family estate at Pu?awy in 1794, during the third partition of Poland, the Familia continued to wield significant cultural and political influence for decades after, notably through the princes Adam Kazimierz (1734-1823), Adam Jerzy (1770-1861) and Konstanty Adam (1777-1866).

The Czartoryski family is renowned for the Czartoryski Museum in Kraków and the Hôtel Lambert in Paris.

Today, the only descendants of Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski are Prince Adam Karol Czartoryski (1940- ) and his daughter Tamara Czartoryska (1978- ), who live in the United Kingdom. The descendants of Prince Konstanty Adam Czartoryski live to this day in Poland and have their representatives in the Confederation of the Polish Nobility.

Coat of arms and motto

The Czartoryski family used the Czartoryski coat of arms and the motto B?d? co b?d? ("Come what may", literally 'let be, that which will be'). The family's arms were a modification of the Pogo? Litewska arms.

Notable members

Notable members include:

In Poland

In Hungary

Palaces

See also

References

  1. ^ The Encyclopedia Americana-A Library of Universal Knowledge, Volume 23. Encyclopedia Americana Corporation. 1919. p. 131.
  2. ^ Lerski, Jerzy Jan (1996). Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 94. ISBN 0313260079.
  3. ^ Bain, R. Nisbet (2013). Slavonic Europe : a political history of Poland and Russia from 1447 to 1796. Cambridge University Press. p. 382. ISBN 9781107636910.
  4. ^ Lerski, Jerzy Jan (1996). Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 94. ISBN 0313260079.
  5. ^ Galkus, Juozas (2009). The Vytis of Lithuania. Vilnius: Vilnius Academy of Arts press. p. 42. ISBN 9789955854449.
  6. ^ ?owmia?ski, Henryk (1998). Zaludnienie pa?stwa litewskiego w wieku XVI : zaludnienie w roku 1528. Pozna?: Wydawn. Pozna?skie. p. 42. ISBN 9788386138371.
  7. ^ T?gowski J. Który Konstanty -- Olgierdowic czy Koriatowic -- by? przodkiem kniaziów Czartoryskich? // Europa Orientalis. -- Toru?, 1996. -- S. 53-59.
  8. ^ a b Jerzy Jan Lerski, Piotr Wróbel, Richard J. Kozicki (1996). Historical dictionary of Poland, 966-1945. Greenwood Publishing. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-313-26007-0.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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