|Created by||William Shakespeare|
Horatio is a character in the tragedy Hamlet, written by William Shakespeare. Horatio's origins are unknown, although he was present on the battlefield when Hamlet's father defeated Fortinbras (the king of Norway), and attended Wittenberg University with Prince Hamlet. He is often not identified with any specific court position, but simply as "Hamlet's friend". Because Horatio is not directly involved in the intrigue at the Danish court, he makes a good foil or sounding board for Prince Hamlet. Given his involvement in Wittenberg, a university that defined the institutional switch from theology to humanism, Horatio epitomizes the early modern fusion of Stoic and Protestant rationality.
Horatio is a variation on the Latin name Horatius. Many commentators have pointed out that the name is reminiscent of the Latin words rati? ("reason") and ?r?tor ("speaker"), reminding us of his roles as a reasoner with Prince Hamlet, and of his role at the end of the play, surviving to tell Hamlet's tale.
Horatio makes his first appearance in Act I, Scene 1, when he, Bernardo, and Marcellus encounter the ghost of the deceased King Hamlet. He, having attended a university, is called upon as a scholar and is told to communicate with the ghost by Marcellus, and unsuccessfully attempts to do so. It is he who then explains the conditions surrounding King Hamlet's death. Later, in act two, Horatio is revealed to be Hamlet's most trusted friend, to whom Hamlet reveals all his plans. Horatio symbolizes the ultimate faithful friend. Horatio swears himself to secrecy about the ghost and Hamlet's pre-tense of madness, and conspires with Hamlet to prove Claudius' guilt through the travelling players' production of The Murder of Gonzago. He only questions Hamlet's judgement once, when the latter reveals the fates of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Otherwise, Horatio supports every decision Hamlet makes, no matter how impetuous. He is also the first to know of Hamlet's return from England, and is with him when he learns of Ophelia's death.
-- Hamlet to Horatio
At the end of the play, Horatio intends to finish off the poisoned drink that was intended for Hamlet, saying that he is "more an antique Roman than a Dane" (reminiscent of Brutus and Cassius), but the dying prince implores Horatio not to drink from the cup and bids his friend to live and help put things right in Denmark; "If thou didst ever hold me in thy heart, / Absent thee from felicity a while, / And in this harsh world draw thy breath in pain / To tell my story." Hamlet's last request creates a parallel between the name Horatio and the Latin orator, meaning "speaker".
Horatio is present through most of the major scenes of the play, but Hamlet is usually the only person to acknowledge that he is present; when other characters address him (except in Act I Scene 1), they are almost always telling him to leave. He is often in scenes that are usually remembered as soliloquies, such as Hamlet's famous scene with the skull of Yorick. Horatio is also present during the mousetrap play, the discovery of Ophelia's madness (though the role of an anonymous gentleman-courtier has been substituted in this scene), Hamlet's display at Ophelia's grave, and the final scene. He is the only major character to survive the action of the play.
Horatio's role, although secondary, is central to the drama. Through his role of 'outside observer' that Horatio makes the audience believe Hamlet's actions, no matter how incredible they may look to readers at first sight. For example, Horatio sees the Ghost, so the audience is led to believe that the Ghost is real. "Horatio is our harbinger of truth."