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In the following description, only forms that differ from those of later Greek are discussed. Omitted forms can usually be predicted from patterns seen in Ionic Greek.
Homeric Greek is like Ionic Greek, and unlike Classical Attic, in shifting almost all cases of long ? to ?: thus, Homeric , , for Attic , , /? "Troy", "hour", "gates (dat.)". Exceptions include nouns like ? "goddess", and the genitive plural of first-declension nouns and the genitive singular of masculine first-declension nouns: , "of goddesses, of the son of Atreus".
Interrogative pronoun, singular and plural ("who, what, which")
A note on nouns:
-?- and -- alternate in Homeric Greek. This can be of metrical use. For example, and are equivalent; and ; ? and .
The ending - (-) can be used for the dative singular and plural of nouns and adjectives (occasionally for the genitive singular and plural, as well). For example, (...by force), (...with tears), and ? (...in the mountains).
-? appears rather than -. For example, for ? in the Third-person plural Active.
The third plural middle/passive often ends in -? or -; for example, ? is equivalent to ?.
Future: Generally remains uncontracted. For example, ? appears instead of or instead of .
Present or imperfect: These tenses sometimes take iterative form with the letters -- penultimate with the ending. For example, : 'they kept on running away'
Aorist or imperfect: Both tenses can occasionally drop their augments. For example, may appear instead of , and may appear instead of ?.
Anger be now your song, immortal one,
Akhilleus' anger, doomed and ruinous,
that caused the Akhaians loss on bitter loss
and crowded brave souls into the undergloom,
leaving so many dead men--carrion
for dogs and birds; and the will of Zeus was done.
Begin it when the two men first contending
broke with one another--
the Lord Marshal
Agamemnon, Atreus' son, and Prince Akhilleus.
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