History of the Administrative Division of Russia
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History of the Administrative Division of Russia
The first eight guberniyas established in 1708

The modern administrative-territorial structure of Russia is a system of territorial organization which is a product of a centuries-long evolution and reforms.

Early history

The Kievan Rus' as it formed in the 10th century remained a more or less unified realm under the rule of Yaroslav the Wise (d. 1054), but in the later part of the 11th century, it disintegrated into a number of de facto independent and rivaling principalities, the most important of which were Grand Duchy of Galicia and Volhynia, Novgorod Republic, and Grand Duchy of Vladimir and Suzdal.

With the advance of Mongols and establishing of Golden Horde in 1240, many parts of Kievan Rus came under a direct administration of Sarai, while others became its dependencies. The three previously mentioned main centers were established as successors of the Kievan Rus. Most of Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia however became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later gradually and completely coming under the direct administration of the Crown of Poland. Novgorod Republic was overran by the time well-established Grand Duchy of Moscow. The grand duchies of Lithuania and Moscow practically divided the former territories of Kievan Rus between each other, both struggling to gain the seat of Metropolitan of Kiev.

From the 13th century, the Russian principalities used an administrative subdivision into uyezds, with each such uyezd being subdivided into several volosts, some areas used division of pyatina. Voivodes were the officials appointed to administer and defend the uyezds.

By the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Moscow was recognized as a direct successor of the Grand Duchy of Vladimir. It gradually incorporated all left out adjacent smaller duchies such as the Principality of Yaroslavl, Principality of Rostov and successfully conquered the Principality of Nizhny Novgorod-Suzdal, the Principality of Tver as well as the Novgorod Republic. Near the end of the 15th century the Golden Horde fell apart into several smaller khanates and Muscovy for the first time became a sovereign state.

At the start of the 16th century, the Grand Duchy of Moscow managed to annex the Pskov Republic and conquer the Grand Duchy of Ryazan as well as secure number of territories that belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania such as the Upper Oka Principalities and Sloboda Ukraine, thus extending its territory far south. In 1708, the Oka principalities and Sloboda Ukraine were incorporated into the first Kiev Governorate. During the second half of the 16th century, the Grand Duchy of Moscow managed to conquer number of West-Siberian and Volga duchies and khanates such as Kazan Khanate, Siberia Khanate, Astrakhan Khanate, Great Nogai Horde and many others. Some of the territorial acquisitions, however, were lost during the Time of Troubles.

Soon after the Time of Troubles (Treaty of Polyanovka), the Grand Duchy of Moscow was able to recover the Duchy of Smolensk (Smolensk Voivodeship) and later annex territory of Left-bank Ukraine (Truce of Andrusovo).

Prior to the 18th century, the Tsardom of Russia was divided into a system of territorial units called razryads (literally order of units) as part of military reform of 1680.[1]

During the 1680s, the Tsardom of Russia acquired a substantial expansion in Transbaikal after signing the Treaty of Nerchinsk with China (Qing dynasty). By this time (at the end of the 17th century), an extensive territory from Yenisei to the Sea of Okhotsk was secured through colonization. The discovery of the Bering Strait in 1728 confirmed the eastern borders of modern Russia. The eastward advance through Siberia extended the Tobol Razryad transforming it into overstretched territory that was initially in 1708 included into Siberia Governorate.

Imperial Russia

Administrative reforms by Peter the Great

Technically, the territorial-administrative reform started out in the Tsardom of Russia before the Imperial period. On December 29 [O.S. December 18], 1708, in order to improve the manageability of the vast territory of the state, Tsar Peter the Great issued an ukase (edict) dividing Russia into eight administrative divisions, called governorates (guberniyas), which replaced the 166 uyezds and razryads which existed before the reform:[2]

Governorates of the Russian Empire (1708-1726)
1708-1710 Kazan Ingermanland Azov   Smolensk    
1710-1713 Saint Petersburg
1713-1714 Moscow Riga
1714-1717   N. Novgorod
1717-1719 Astrakhan    
1719-1725   Nizhny Novgorod Reval
1725-1726 Voronezh
1726   Smolensk  
The Governorates of Archangelgorod, Kiev and Siberia remained constant between 1708 and 1726.

The reform of 1708 established neither the borders of the governorates nor their internal divisions.[2] The governorates were defined as the sets of cities and the lands adjacent to those cities.[2] Some older subdivision types also continued to be used.[2] Between 1710 and 1713, all governorates were subdivided into lots (Russian: ?), each governed by a landrat (?).[2] Every governorate was administered by an appointed governor, who also headed a board of landrats. The lots' primary purpose was fiscal, and each one was supposed to cover 5,536 homesteads.[3]

In 1719, Peter enacted another administrative reform to fix the deficiencies of the original system, as the governorates were too big and unmanageable. This reform abolished the system of lots, dividing most of the governorates into provinces (), which were further divided into districts (Russian: ).

During this time, territories were frequently reshuffled between the governorates, and new governorates were added to accommodate population growth and territorial expansion.

Russia in 1682-1762

Subsequent reforms

In 1727, soon after Peter the Great's death, Catherine I enacted another reform, which rolled back many of the previous reform's developments. The system of districts was abolished, and the old system of uyezds was restored. A total of 166 uyezds was re-established; together with the newly created uyezds, the Russian Empire had approximately 250.

The reform also reshuffled some territories. Narva Province was transferred from Saint Petersburg Governorate to Revel Governorate; Solikamsk and Vyatka Provinces were transferred from Siberia Governorate to Kazan Governorate; and Uglich and Yaroslavl Provinces were transferred from Saint Petersburg Governorate to Moscow Governorate. In addition, Belgorod, Oryol, and Sevsk Provinces of Kiev Governorate were reconstituted as Belgorod Governorate; and Belozersk, Novgorod, Pskov, Tver, and Velikiye Luki Provinces of Saint Petersburg Governorate were reconstituted as Novgorod Governorate.

The following years saw few changes. In 1728, Ufa Province was transferred from Kazan Governorate to Siberia Governorate, and in 1737, Simbirsk Province was created within Kazan Governorate.

Administrative reforms by Catherine the Great

By 1775, the existing system of administrative divisions proved inefficient, which was further underlined by Pugachev's Rebellion, and Catherine the Great issued a document known as Decree on the Governorates (Russian: ? ? ).[4] The second part of the same decree was issued in 1780, which, however, contained very few significant changes with respect to the first part.[5]

A major administrative territorial restructuring of the Russian Empire after vast land acquisition from the Ottoman Empire and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the late 18th century. The reform saw introduction of the office of viceroy (gosudarev namestnik) which later were transformed into a general governor. Gosudarev namestnik literally means an imperial representative to the land. During the reform several already existing governments (guberniya) were combined together under the office of the Russian viceroy and were called namestnichestvo. Those namestnichestvo were introduced onto the expanded territory as well, the only exclusion were the governments of Moscow and Saint Petersburg. In 1796 all namestnichetvo were officially renamed into general governments. General governments exercised a small degree of autonomy as certain laws varied from general government to another.[6]

Reforms in the 19th century

Governorates of the Russian Empire on the eve of the Russian Revolution

After the abolition of Russian serfdom in 1861, volosts became a unit of peasant's local self-rule. A number of mirs were united into a typical volost, which had an assembly consisting of elected delegates from the mirs. The self-government of the mirs and volosts was tempered by the authority of the police commissaries (stanovoy) and by the power of general oversight given to the nominated "district committees for the affairs of the peasants".

Reforms in the 20th century

By the 1910s, 104 administrative governorate units existed.

Subdivisions of the Russian Empire, c. 1914
Russian Cyrillic Romanisation Anglicisation Alternative Name(s)
European Russia or Ruthenia
Great Russia
Central or Muscovite Russia
? Moskovskaya guberniya Moscow Governorate
Kaluzhskaya guberniya Kaluga Governorate
? Smolenskaya guberniya Smolensk Governorate
Tverskaya guberniya Tver Governorate
Yaroslavskaya guberniya Yaroslavl Governorate
Kostromskaya guberniya Kostroma Governorate
? Nizhegovodskaya guberniya Nizhny Novgorod Governorate
Vladimirskaya guberniya Vladimir Governorate
Ryazanskaya guberniya Ryazan Governorate
Tul'skaya guberniya Tula Governorate
Orlovskaya guberniya Oryol Governorate
? Kurskaya guberniya Kursk Governorate
Voronezhskaya guberniya Voronezh Governorate
? Tambovskaya guberniya Tambov Governorate
Far North or Novgorodian Russia
? Arkhangel'skaya guberniya Arkhangelsk Governorate
Olonetskaya guberniya Olonets Governorate
-? Santk-Peterburgskaya guberniya Saint Petersburg Governorate Petrograd; formerly Swedish Ingria
Pskovskaya guberniya Pskov Governorate
Novgorodskaya guberniya Novgorod Governorate Veliky Novgorod
Vologdskaya guberniya Vologda Governorate
Little Russia or the Zaporizhian Host
Chernigovskaya guberniya Chernigov Governorate
? Poltavskaya guberniya Poltava Governorate
Khar'kovskaya guberniya Kharkov Governorate
Northwestern Krai
Kovenskaya guberniya Kovno Governorate Kaunas, Kowno
Vilenskaya guberniya Vilna Governorate Vilnius, Wilno
White Russia
Vitebskaya guberniya Vitebsk Governorate Vitebskas, Witebsk
Mogilevskaya guberniya Mogilev Governorate Mogiliauas, Mohylaw
Black Russia
? Minskaya guberniya Minsk Governorate Minskas, Mi?sk
Grodnenskaya guberniya Grodno Governorate Gardinas
Southwestern Krai (Right-Bank Ukraine)
Kholmskaya guberniya Kholm Governorate Chelmas, Che?m
Red Russia
Volynskaya guberniya Volhynian Governorate Volyn, Voluin?, Wo?y?
Kiyevskaya guberniya Kiev Governorate (Kyiv) Kyiev, Kijevas, Kijów
? Podol'skaya guberniya Podolian Governorate Podolya, Podolien, Padole
Volga Tartary
Permskay guberniyaa Perm Governorate
? Vyatkskaya guberniya Vyatka Governorate
Kazanskaya guberniya Kazan Governorate
Ufimskaya guberniya Ufa Governorate
Orenburgskaya guberniya Orenburg Governorate
Samarskaya guberniya Samara Governorate
? Simbirskaya guberniya Simbirsk Governorate
? Penzenskaya guberniya Penza Governorate
Saratovskaya guberniya Saratov Governorate
Astrakhanskaya guberniya Astrakhan Governorate
New Russia or Little Tartary
? Oblast' Voiska Donskogo Don Cossack Host
Yekaterinoslavskaya guberniya Ekaterinoslav Governorate
? Khersonskaya guberniya Kherson Governorate Yedisan
Tavricheskaya guberniya Taurida Governorate
Bessarabskaya guberniya Bessarabian Governorate Moldavia
Grand Principality of Finland (Swedish Österland)
Uleaborgskaya guberniya Uleaborg Governorate Uleåborg, Oulu
Vázaskaya guberniya Vaasa Governorate Vaasa
- Abo-Byerneborgskaya guberniya Abo-Byerneborg Governorate Åbo och Björneborg, Turku ja Pori
? Nyulyandskaya guberniya Nyland Governorate Uusimaa
? Tavastgusskaya guberniya Tavastehus Governorate Häme
-? Sankt-Mikhelskaya guberniya Saint Michel Governorate Mikkeli
? Vyborgskaya guberniya Vyborg Governorate Viipuri
? Kuopioskaya guberniya Kuopio Governorate
Baltic Governorates
Estlyandskaya guberniya Estonia Governorate Eestimaa, Estland; formerly Swedish Estonia
Liflyandskaya guberniya Livonia Governorate Liivimaa, Livland; formerly Swedish Livonia
Kurlyandskaya guberniya Courland Governorate Kur?o, Kurzemes; formerly the Duchy of Courland
Vistula Krai or Congress Poland
Kalishskaya guberniya Kalisz Governorate Kalisz
Keletskaya guberniya Kelets Governorate Kielce
? Lomzhskaya guberniya Lomzh Governorate ?om?a
? Lublinskaya guberniya Lublin Governorate
Petrokovskaya guberniya Petrokov Governorate Piotrków
? Plotskaya guberniya Plotsk Governorate P?ock
Radomskaya guberniya Radom Governorate
? Suvalkskaya guberniya Suvalki Governorate Suwa?ki
? Varshavskaya guberniya Warsaw Governorate Warszaw
Asian Russia or Great Tartary
Caucasus Viceroyalty
North Caucasus
Kubanskaya oblast Kuban Oblast
Chernomorskaya guberniya Black Sea Governorate Circassia
? Terskaya oblast Terek Oblast
Stavropol'skaya guberniya Stavropol Governorate
Dagestanskaya oblast Dagestan Oblast
South Caucasus
Sukhumskaya okrug Sukhum Okrug Abkhazia
? Kutaisskaya guberniya Kutais Governorate formerly the Kingdom of Imereti
Batumskaya oblast Batum Oblast
? Tiflisskaya guberniya Tiflis Governorate Tbilisi; formerly the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti
Zakatal'skaya okrug Zakatal Okrug Zaqatala
Bakinskaya guberniya Baku Governorate Shirvan
? Yelizavetpol'skaya guberniya Elisavetpol Governorate Ganja
Karsskaya oblast Kars Oblast Erzurum
? Erivanskaya guberniya Erivan Governorate Yerevan
Steppes Krai (Kazakh Khanate)
Ural'skaya oblast Ural Oblast formerly the Nogai Horde
? Turgayskaya oblast Turgay Oblast
Akmolinskaya oblast Akmolinsk Oblast Akmola
Semipalatinskaya oblast Semipalatinsk Oblast
Russian Turkestan
Zakaspiyskaya oblast Transcaspian Oblast Transoxiana
? Khivinskoye khanstvo Khanate of Khiva
Bukharskiy Emirat Emirate of Bukhara
? Samarkandskaya oblast Samarkand Oblast
? Ferganskaya oblast Fergana Oblast
? Semirechenskaya oblast Semirechye Oblast "Seven Rivers"
? Syrdar'inskaya oblast Syr-Darya Oblast
? Tobol'skaya guberniya Tobolsk Governorate
? Tomskaya guberniya Tomsk Governorate
? Yeniseyskaya guberniya Yeniseysk Governorate
Irkutskaya guberniya Irkutsk Governorate
? Zabaykal'skaya oblast Transbaikal Oblast Transbaikalia, Dauria
Yakutskaya oblast Yakutsk Oblast Yakutia, Sakha
? Uryankhayskaya krai Uryankhay Krai Tuva
Russian Far East
Amurskaya oblast Amur Oblast Priamurye, Outer Manchuria
? Primorskaya oblast Primorskaya Oblast "Maritime"
? Kamchatskaya oblast Kamchatka Oblast
Sakhalinskaya oblast Sakhalin Oblast

Soviet Russia

The Russian SFSR comprised 16 autonomous republics, 5 autonomous oblasts, 10 autonomous okrugs, 6 krais, and 40 oblasts.[when?]

Uyezds and volosts were abolished by the Soviet administrative reform of 1923-1929. Raions may be roughly called a modern equivalent of the uyezds, and selsoviets may be considered a modern equivalent of the volosts.

Russian Federation

The subdivision type of Federal District was created in May 2000 by Vladimir Putin as a part of a wider program designed to reassert federal authority. The original division was into seven federal districts, but in 2010 the North Caucasian Federal District was split off from the Southern Federal District, bringing the number to eight. In 2014, the annexation of Crimea resulted in the creation of a new Crimean Federal District, bringing the number to nine, but it was later merged into the Southern Federal District.



  1. ^ Reforms of armed forces of 1680s
  2. ^ a b c d e Tarkhov, p. 65
  3. ^ Pushkarev, p. 13
  4. ^ ? ? 1775. Great Soviet Encyclopedia.
  5. ^ ?, ?. ? (1875). ? (in Russian). Saint Petersburg.
  6. ^ Tarkhov, S.A. Changes to the administrative-territorial division of Russia in the past 300 years. "Pervoye sentyabrya". 2001.


  • . " -? ? ? XIII-XX .". "", 2005, No.1. ISSN 0869-5377 (Sergey Tarkhov. Changes of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Russia in the 13th-20th centuries).
  • Sergei G. Pushkarev. Dictionary of Russian Historical Terms from the Eleventh Century to 1917. New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1970.

External links

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