|Hiniligaynon, Binisayâ nga Hiligaynon, Bisaya nga Ilonggo|
|Region||Western Visayas, SOCCSKSARGEN, western Negros Oriental, southwestern portion of Masbate, coastal Palawan, some parts of Romblon and a few parts of Northern Mindanao|
|9.3 million (2010)|
4th most spoken native language in the Philippines.
|Latin (Hiligaynon alphabet)|
Historically Baybayin (c. 13th-19th centuries)
Official language in
|Regulated by||Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino|
Areas where Hiligaynon is spoken in the Philippines
The Hiligaynon language, also often referred to by most of its speakers simply as Ilonggo, is an Austronesian regional language spoken in the Philippines by about 9.1 million people, mainly in Western Visayas and Soccsksargen, most of whom belong to the Hiligaynon people. It is the second-most widely spoken language in the Visayas and belongs to the Bisayan languages, and is more distantly related to other Philippine languages.
Hiligaynon is mainly concentrated in the regions of Western Visayas (Iloilo, Capiz, Guimaras, and Negros Occidental), as well as in South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, and North Cotabato in Soccsksargen. It is also spoken in other neighboring provinces, such as Antique and Aklan (also in Western Visayas), Negros Oriental in Central Visayas, Masbate in Bicol Region, Romblon and Palawan in Mimaropa. It is also spoken as a second language by Kinaray-a speakers in Antique, Aklanon/Malaynon speakers in Aklan, Capiznon speakers in Capiz and Cebuano speakers in Negros Oriental. There are approximately 9,300,000 people in and out of the Philippines who are native speakers of Hiligaynon and an additional 5,000,000 capable of speaking it with a substantial degree of proficiency.
The language is also often referred to as Ilonggo (Spanish: Ilongo) in Iloilo and Negros Occidental. Many speakers outside Iloilo argue, however, that this is an incorrect usage of the word "Ilonggo". In precise usage, "Ilonggo" should be used only in relation to the ethnolinguistic group of native inhabitants of Iloilo and the culture associated with native Hiligaynon speakers in the place including their language. The disagreement over the usage of "Ilonggo" to refer to the language extends to Philippine language specialists and native laypeople. It also has the one of the largest native language-speaking population of the Philippines despite not being taught and studied formally in schools and universities until 2012. Hiligaynon is given the ISO 639-2 three-letter code hil, but has no ISO 639-1 two-letter code.
Historical evidence from observations of early Spanish explorers in the Archipelago shows that the nomenclature used to refer to this language had its origin among the people of the coasts or people of the Ilawod ("los [naturales] de la playa"), whom Loarca called Yligueynes  (or the more popular term Hiligaynon, also referred to by the Karay-a people as "Siná"). In contrast, the "Kinaray-a" has been used by what the Spanish colonizers called Arayas, which may be a Spanish misconception of the Hiligaynon words Iraya or taga-Iraya, or the current and more popular version Karay-a (highlanders - people of Iraya/highlands).
Similar to many languages in the Philippines, very little research on dialectology has been done on Hiligaynon. Some of the widely recognized varieties of the language are Standard or Urban Hiligaynon (Iloilo provincial and Iloilo City variant), simply called "Ilonggo", Bacolodnon Hiligaynon (Metro Bacolod variant), Negrense Hiligaynon (provincial Negros Occidental variant which is composed of 3 sub-variants: Northern, Central and Southern Negrense Hiligaynon), Guimaras Hiligaynon, and Mindanao Hiligaynon. Some native speakers also consider Kinaray-a (also known as Hiniraya or Antiqueño) and Capiznon as dialects of Hiligaynon; however, these have been classified by linguists as separate (Western) Bisayan languages.
According to H. Otley Beyer and other anthropologists, the term Visayan was first applied only to the people of Panay and to their settlements eastward in the island of Negros (especially its western portion), and northward in the smaller islands, which now compose the province of Romblon. In fact, at the early part of Spanish colonialization of the Philippines, the Spaniards used the term Visayan only for these areas. While the people of Cebu, Bohol and Leyte were for a long time known only as Pintados. The name Visayan was later extended to these other islands because, as several of the early writers state, their languages are closely allied to the Visayan dialect of Panay.
Hiligaynon is written using the Latin script. Until the second half of the 20th century, Hiligaynon was widely written largely following Spanish orthographic conventions. Nowadays there is no officially recognized standard orthography for the language and different writers may follow different conventions. It is common for the newer generation, however, to write the language based on the current orthographic rules of Filipino which is more or less phonemic. A noticeable feature of the Spanish-influenced orthography absent in those writing following Filipino's orthography is the use of "c" and "qu" in representing /k/ (now replaced with "k" in all instances) and the absence of the letter "w" (formerly used "u" in certain instances).
The core alphabet consists of 20 letters used for expressing consonants and vowels in Hiligaynon, each of which comes in an upper case and lower case variety.
|The 1st to 10th letters|
|Symbol||A a||B b||K k||D d||E e||G g||H h||I i||L l||M m|
|The 11th to 20th letters|
|Symbol||N n||Ng ng||O o||P p||R r||S s||T t||U u||W w||Y y|
The apostrophe ⟨'⟩ and hyphen ⟨-⟩ also appear in Hiligaynon writing, and might be considered separate letters.
The hyphen, in particular, is used medially to indicate the glottal stop san-o 'when' gab-e 'evening; night'. It is also used to in reduplicated words: adlaw-adlaw 'daily, every day', from adlaw 'day, sun'. This marking is not used in reduplicated words whose base is not also used independently, as in pispis 'bird'.
Hyphens are also used in words with successive sounds of /g/ and /?/, to separate the letters with the digraph NG. Like in the word gin-gaan 'was given'; without the hyphen, it would be read as gingaan /gi.?a?an/ as opposed to /gin.ga?an/.
In addition, some English letters may be used in borrowed words.
Hiligaynon has three types of case markers: absolutive, ergative, and oblique. These types in turn are divided into personal, that have to do with names of people, and impersonal, that deal with everything else, and further into singular and plural types, though the plural impersonal case markers are just the singular impersonal case markers + mga (a contracted spelling for /ma?a/), a particle used to denote plurality in Hiligaynon.
|singular impersonal||ang||sang, sing*||sa|
|plural impersonal||ang mga||sang mga, sing mga*||sa mga|
(*)The articles sing and sing mga means the following noun is indefinite, while sang tells of a definite noun, like the use of a in English as opposed to the, however, it is not as common in modern speech, being replaced by sang. It appears in conservative translations of the Bible into Hiligaynon and in traditional or formal speech
(**)The plural personal case markers are not used very often and not even by all speakers. Again, this is an example of a case marker that has fallen largely into disuse, but is still occasionally used when speaking a more traditional form of Hiligaynon, using less Spanish loan words.[clarification needed]
|Ang lalaki nagkaon sang tinapay.||?||Ang tinapay ginkaon sang lalaki.|
|"The man ate the bread"||"The bread was eaten by the man" (literal)|
|1st person singular||ako, ko||nakon, ko||akon||sa akon|
|2nd person singular||ikaw, ka||nimo, mo||imo||sa imo|
|3rd person singular||siya||niya||iya||sa iya|
|1st person plural inclusive||kita||naton, ta||aton||sa aton|
|1st person plural exclusive||kami||namon||amon||sa amon|
|2nd person plural||kamo||ninyo||inyo||sa inyo|
|3rd person plural||sila||nila||ila||sa ila|
|Nearest to speaker (this, here) *||iní||siní||dirí||(y)ári|
|Near to addressee or closely removed from speaker and addressee (that, there)||inâ||sinâ||dirâ||(y)ára'|
|Remote (yon, yonder)||ató||sadtó||didtó||(y)á(d)to|
In addition to this, there are two verbal deictics, karí, meaning come to speaker, and kadto, meaning to go yonder.
Hiligaynon lacks the marker of sentence inversion "ay" of Tagalog/Filipino or "hay" of Akeanon. Instead sentences in SV form (Filipino: Di karaniwang anyo) are written without any marker or copula.
"Si Maria ay maganda" (Tagalog)
"Si Maria matahum/ Gwapa si Maria" (Hiligaynon) = "Maria is beautiful."
"Maria is beautiful" (English)
There is no direct translation for the English copula "to be" in Hiligaynon. However, the prefixes mangin- and nangin- may be used to mean will be and became, respectively.
Manamì mangín manggaránon.
"It is nice to become rich."
The Spanish copula "estar" (to be) has also become a part of the Hiligaynon lexicon. Its meaning and pronunciation have changed compared to its Spanish meaning, however. In Hiligaynon it is pronounced as "istar" and means "to live (in)/location"(Compare with the Hiligaynon word "puyô").
Nagaistar ako sa tabuc suba
"I live in tabuc suba" "tabuc suba" translates to "other side of the river" and is also a barangay in Jaro, Iloilo.
To indicate the existence of an object, the word may is used.
May idô (a)ko
"I have a dog"
When an adjective modifies a noun, the linker nga links the two.
Ido nga itom = Black dog
Sometimes, if the linker is preceded by a word that ends in a vowel, glottal stop or the letter N, it becomes acceptable to contract it into -ng, as in Filipino. This is often used to make the words sound more poetic or to reduce the number of syllables. Sometimes the meaning may change as in maayo nga aga and maayong aga. The first meaning: (the) good morning; while the other is the greeting for 'good morning'.
The linker ka is used if a number modifies a noun.
Anum ka ido
The interrogative words of Hiligaynon are as follows: diin, san-o, sin-o, nga-a, kamusta, ano, and pila
Diin means where.
Diin ka na subong?
"Where are you now?"
A derivation of diin, tagadiin, is used to inquire the birthplace or hometown of the listener.
"Where are you from?"
San-o means when
"When is that?"
Sin-o means who
Sin-o imo abyan?
"Who is your friend?"
Nga-a means why
Nga-a indi ka magkadto?
"Why won't you go?"
Kamusta means how, as in "How are you?"
Kamusta ang tindahan?
"How is the store?"
Ano means what
Ano ang imo ginabasa?
"What are you reading?"
A derivative of ano, paano, means how, as in "How do I do that?"
Paano ko makapulî?
"How can I get home?"
A derivative of paano is paanoano an archaic phrase which can be compared with kamusta
"How art thou?"
Pila means how much/how many
Pila ang gaupod sa imo?
"How many are with you?"
A derivative of pila, ikapila, asks the numerical order of the person, as in, "What place were you born in your family?"(first-born, second-born, etc.) This word is notoriously difficult to translate into English, as English has no equivalent.
Ikapila ka sa inyo pamilya?
"What place were you born into your family?"
A derivative of pila, tagpila, asks the monetary value of something, as in, "How much is this beef?"
Tagpila ini nga karne sang baka?
"How much is this beef?"
As it is essential for sentence structure and meaning, focus is a key concept in Hiligaynon and other Philippine languages. In English, in order to emphasize a part of a sentence, variation in intonation is usually employed - the voice is stronger or louder on the part emphasized. For example:
Furthermore, active and passive grammatical constructions can be used in English to place focus on the actor or object as the subject:
In contrast, sentence focus in Philippine languages is built into the construction by grammatical elements. Focus is marked by verbal affixes and a special particle prior to the noun in focus. Consider the following Hiligaynon translations of the above sentences:
Hiligaynon, like other Philippine languages, employs reduplication, the repetition of a root or stem of a word or part of a word for grammatical or semantic purposes. Reduplication in Hiligaynon tends to be limited to roots instead of affixes, as the only inflectional or derivational morpheme that seems to reduplicate is -pa-. Root reduplication suggests 'non-perfectiveness' or 'non-telicity'. Used with nouns, reduplication of roots indicate particulars which are not fully actualized members of their class. Note the following examples.
Reduplication of verbal roots suggests a process lacking a focus or decisive goal. The following examples describe events which have no apparent end, in the sense of lacking purpose or completion. A lack of seriousness may also be implied. Similarly, reduplication can suggest a background process in the midst of a foreground activity, as shown in (5).
|The child has been crying and crying.|
|I'm just cleaning off the table (casually).|
|They were just eating when their visitor arrived.|
When used with adjectival roots, non-telicity may suggest a gradualness of the quality, such as the comparison in (6). In comparative constructions the final syllables of each occurrence of the reduplicated root are accented. If the stress of the second occurrence is shifted to the first syllable, then the reduplicated root suggests a superlative degree, as in (7). Note that superlatives can also be created through prefixation of pinaka- to the root, as in pinaka-dakô. While non-telicity can suggest augmentation, as shown in (7), it can also indicate diminishment as in shown in (9), in contrast with (8) (note the stress contrast). In (8b), maàyoáyo, accented in the superlative pattern, suggests a trajectory of improvement that has not been fully achieved. In (9b), maàyoayó suggests a trajectory of decline when accented in the comparative pattern. The reduplicated áyo implies sub-optimal situations in both cases; full goodness/wellness is not achieved.
|This room is darker than that one.|
|The watch is good/functional.|
|The watch is semi-fixed.|
|I'm so so.|
Consonants [d] and [?] were once allophones but cannot interchange as in other Philippine languages: patawaron (to forgive) [from patawad, forgiveness] but not patawadon, and tagadiín (from where) [from diín, where] but not tagariín.
There are three main vowels: /a/, /? ~ i/, and /o ~ ?/. [i] and [?] (both spelled i) are allophones, with [i] in the beginning and middle and sometimes final syllables and [?] in final syllables. The vowels [?] and [o] are also allophones, with [?] always being used when it is the beginning of a syllable, and [o] always used when it ends a syllable.
Hiligaynon has a large number of words derived from Spanish including nouns (e.g., santo from santo, "saint"), adjectives (e.g., berde from verde, "green"), prepositions (e.g., antes from antes, "before"), and conjunctions (e.g., pero from pero, "but").
Nouns denoting material items and abstract concepts invented or introduced during the early modern era include barko (barco, "ship"), sapatos (zapatos, "shoes"), kutsilyo (cuchillo, "knife"), kutsara (cuchara, "spoon"), tenedor ("fork"), plato ("plate"), kamiseta (camiseta, "shirt"), and kambiyo (cambio, "change", as in money). Spanish verbs are incorporated into Hiligaynon in their infinitive forms: edukar, kantar, mandar, pasar. The same holds true for other languages such as Cebuano. In contrast, incorporations of Spanish verbs into Tagalog for the most part resemble, though are not necessarily derived from, the vos forms in the imperative: eduká, kantá, mandá, pasá. Notable exceptions include andar, pasyal (from pasear) and sugal (from jugar).
|10||pulò / napulò|
|1,000,000||hámbad / ramák|
|First||tig-una / panguná|
|Third||ikatlo / ikatátlo|
|Fourth||ikap-at / ikaápat|
|Sixth||ikán-um / ikaánum|
The names of the days of the week are derived from their Spanish equivalents.
|Day||Native Names||Meaning||Castilian Derived|
|Sunday||Tigburukad||root word: Bukad, open; Starting Day||Domingo|
|Monday||Dumasaon||root word: Dason, next; Next Day||Lunes|
|Tuesday||Dukot-dukot||literal meaning: Busy Day; Busiest Day||Martes|
|Wednesday||Baylo-baylo||root word: Baylo, exchange; Barter or Market Day||Miyerkoles|
|Thursday||Danghos||literal meaning: rush; Rushing of the Work Day||Huwebes|
|Friday||Hingot-hingot||literal meaning: Completing of the Work Day||Biyernes|
|Saturday||Ligid-ligid||root word: Ligid, lay-down to rest; Rest Day||Sábado|
|Month||Native Name||Castilian Derived|
|Thank you very much!||Salamat gid./ Madamò gid nga salamat!|
|I'm sorry.||Patawaron mo ako. / Pasayloha 'ko. / Pasensyahon mo ako. / Pasensya na.|
|Help me!||Buligi (a)ko! / Tabangi (a)ko!|
|Take care(Also used to signify Goodbye)||Halong.|
|Are you angry/scared?||Akig/hadlok ka?|
|Do you feel happy/sad?||Nalipay/Nasubo-an ka?|
|I don't know/I didn't know||Ambot / Wala ko kabalo / Wala ko nabal-an|
|I don't care||Wa-ay ko labot!|
|That's wonderful/marvelous!||Námì-námì ba! / Nami ah!|
|I like this/that!||Nanámìan ko sini/sina!|
|I love you.||Palangga ta ka./Ginahigugma ko ikaw.|
|Hello!||Kamusta/Maayong adlaw (lit. Good day)|
|Good morning.||Maayong aga.|
|Good noon.||Maayong ugto/Maayong udto|
|Good afternoon.||Maayong hapon.|
|Good evening.||Maayong gab-i.|
|How are you?||Kamusta ka?/Kamusta ikaw?/Musta na? (Informal)|
|I'm fine.||Maayo man.|
|I am fine, how about you?||Maayo man, ikaw ya?|
|How old are you?||Pila na ang edad (ni)mo? / Ano ang edad mo? / Pila ka tuig ka na?|
|I am 24 years old.||Beinte kwatro anyos na (a)ko./ Duha ka pulo kag apat ka tuig na (a)ko.|
|My name is...||Ang ngalan ko...|
|I am Erman.||Ako si Erman./Si Erman ako.|
|What is your name?||Ano imo ngalan?/ Ano ngalan (ni)mo?|
|Until next time.||Asta sa liwat.|
|What is this/that?||Ano (i)ni/(i)nâ?|
|This is a sheet of paper.||Isa ni ka panid sang papel./Isa ka panid ka papel ini.|
|That is a book.||Libro (i)nâ.|
|What will you do?/What are you going to do?||Ano ang himu-on (ni)mo? / Ano ang buhaton (ni)mo? / Maano ka?|
|What are you doing?||Ano ang ginahimo (ni)mo? / Gaano ka?|
|My female friend||Ang akon babaye nga abyan/miga|
|My male friend||Ang akon lalake nga abyan/migo|
|My girlfriend/boyfriend||Ang akon nubya/nubyo|
|Where are you now?||Diin ka (na) subong?|
|Where shall we go?||Diin (ki)ta makadto?|
|Where are we going?||Diin (ki)ta pakadto?|
|Where are you going?||(Sa) diin ka makadto?|
|We shall go to Iloilo.||Makadto (ki)ta sa Iloilo.|
|We're going to Bacolod.||Makadto kami sa Bacolod.|
|I am going home.||Mapa-uli na ko (sa balay). / (Ma)puli na ko.|
|Where do you live?||Diin ka naga-istar?/Diin ka naga-puyô?|
|Where did you come from? (Where have you just been?)||Diin ka (nag)-halin?|
|Have you been here long?||Dugay ka na di(ri)?|
|(To the) left.||(Sa) wala.|
|(To the) right.||(Sa) tuo.|
|What time is it?||Ano('ng) takna na?/Ano('ng) oras na?|
|It's ten o'clock.||Alas diyes na.|
|What time is it now?||Ano ang oras subong?/Ano oras na?|
|06:00 AM||Butlak Adlaw||Day Break|
|10:00 AM||Tig-ilitlog or Tig-iritlog||Time for chickens to lay eggs|
|12:00 noon||Udto Adlaw or Ugto Adlaw||Noon Time or midday|
|02:00 PM||Huyog Adlaw||Early afternoon|
|04:00 PM||Tigbarahog||Time for feeding the swine|
|08:00 PM||Tingpanyapon or Tig-inyapon||Supper time|
|10:00 PM||Tigbaranig||Time to lay the banig or sleeping mat|
|11:00 PM||Unang Pamalò||First cockerel's crow|
|12:00 midnight||Tungang Gab-i||Midnight|
|02:00 AM||Ikaduhang Pamalò||Second cockerel's crow|
|04:00 AM||Ikatatlong Pamalò||Third cockerel's crow|
|05:00 AM||Tigbulugtaw or Tigburugtaw||Waking up time|
|May/Can I buy?||Pwede ko ma(g)-bakal?|
|How much is this/that?||Tag-pilá iní/inâ?|
|I'll buy the...||Baklon ko ang...|
|Is this expensive?||Mahal ba (i)ni?|
|Is that cheap?||Barato ba (i)na?|
Amay namon, nga yara ka sa mga langit
Pagdayawon ang imo ngalan
Umabot sa amon ang imo ginharian
Matuman ang imo boot
Diri sa duta siling sang sa langit
Hatagan mo kami niyan sing kan-on namon
Kag patawaron mo kami sa mga sala namon
Siling nga ginapatawad namon ang nakasala sa amon
Kag dili mo kami ipagpadaog sa mga panulay
Hinunuo luwason mo kami sa kalaot
Literal translation as per photo:
Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Ang Kalibutánon nga Pahayag sang mga Kinamaatárung sang Katáwhan)
|"||Ang tanán nga táwo ginbún-ag nga hílway kag may pag-alalangay sa dungóg kag kinamatárong. Silá ginhatágan sang pagpamat-ud kag balatyágon kag nagakadápat nga magbinuligáy sa kahulugan sang pag-inuturáy.||"|
|"||Every person is born free and equal with honor and rights. They are given reason and conscience and they must always trust each other for the spirit of brotherhood.||"|
Writing System (Baybayin)