Heth
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Heth
Het
Phonemic representation?, x, ?
Position in alphabet8
Numerical value8
Alphabetic derivatives of the Phoenician

?et or H?et (also spelled Khet, Kheth, Chet, Cheth, .Het, or Heth) is the eighth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician t Phoenician heth.png, Hebrew th ?, Aramaic th Heth.svg, Syriac ?, Arabic ' ?, Maltese ?, ?.

Heth originally represented a voiceless fricative, either pharyngeal /?/, or velar /x/. In Arabic, two corresponding letters were created for both phonemic sounds: unmodified ? represents /?/, while ? represents /x/.

The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek eta ?, Etruscan H, Latin H and Cyrillic ?. While H is a consonant in the Latin alphabet, the Greek and Cyrillic equivalents represent vowel sounds.

Origins

The letter shape ultimately goes back to the Egyptian hieroglyph for "courtyard",

O6

Possibly named ?asir in the Proto-Sinaitic script.

The corresponding South Arabian letters are ? ? and ? ?, corresponding to the Ge'ez letters ?aw? ? and ?arm ?.

This letter is usually transcribed as ?, h with a dot underneath. In some romanization systems, a capital H is also used. The latter method has the advantage of being easy to type on a computer.

Arabic

The letter is named and is the sixth letter of the alphabet. Its shape varies depending on its position in the word:


Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial
Glyph form:
(Help)
?

This form is used to denote two letters, the second being ? .

Pronunciation

In Arabic, is similar to the English , but it is much "raspier",[1] IPA: ~.

In Persian, it is , like ⟨?⟩ and the English h.

Hebrew ?et

Orthographic variants
Various print fonts Cursive
Hebrew
Rashi
script
Serif Sans-serif Monospaced
? ? ? Hebrew letter Het handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Het Rashi.png

Hebrew spelling: ?

Pronunciation

In Modern Israeli Hebrew (and Ashkenazi Hebrew, although not under strict pronunciation), the letter ?et (?) usually has the sound value of a voiceless uvular fricative (/?/), as the historical phonemes of the letters ?et ? (/?/) and Khaf ? (/x/) merged, both becoming the voiceless uvular fricative (/?/).

In more rare phonologies, it is pronounced as a voiceless pharyngeal fricative (/?/) and is still among Mizrahi Jews (especially among the older generation and popular Mizrahi singers, mostly Yemenite Jews), in accordance with oriental Jewish traditions (see, e.g., Mizrahi Hebrew and Yemenite Hebrew).

The ability to pronounce the Arabic letter (?) correctly as a voiceless pharyngeal fricative /?/ is often used as a shibboleth to distinguish Arabic-speakers from non-Arabic-speakers; in particular, pronunciation of the letter as is seen as a hallmark of Ashkenazi Jews and Greek Jews.

?et is one of the few Hebrew consonants that can take a vowel at the end of a word. This occurs when patach gnuva comes under the ?et at the end of the word. The combination is then pronounced /-a?/ rather than /-?a/. For example (/?pa'tua?/), and ? (/?ta'pua?/).

Variations

?et, along with Aleph, Ayin, Resh, and He, cannot receive a dagesh. As pharyngeal fricatives are difficult for most English speakers to pronounce, loanwords are usually Anglicized to have /h/. Thus challah (), pronounced by native Hebrew speakers as /?ala/ or /?ala/ is pronounced /hal?/ by most English speakers, who cannot often perceive the difference between and .

Significance

In gematria, ?et represents the number eight.

In chat rooms, online forums, and social networking the letter ?et repeated (?) denotes laughter, just as in English, in the saying 'Haha'.

Character encodings

Character ח ح ܚ
Unicode name HEBREW LETTER HET ARABIC LETTER HAH SYRIAC LETTER HETH SAMARITAN LETTER HIT
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 1495 U+05D7 1581 U+062D 1818 U+071A 2055 U+0807
UTF-8 215 151 D7 97 216 173 D8 AD 220 154 DC 9A 224 160 135 E0 A0 87
Numeric character reference ח ח ح ح ܚ ܚ ࠇ ࠇ
Character 𐎈 𐡇 𐤇
Unicode name UGARITIC LETTER HOTA IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER HETH PHOENICIAN LETTER HET
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 66440 U+10388 67655 U+10847 67847 U+10907
UTF-8 240 144 142 136 F0 90 8E 88 240 144 161 135 F0 90 A1 87 240 144 164 135 F0 90 A4 87
UTF-16 55296 57224 D800 DF88 55298 56391 D802 DC47 55298 56583 D802 DD07
Numeric character reference 𐎈 𐎈 𐡇 𐡇 𐤇 𐤇

See also

References

  1. ^ Bouchentouf, Amine (2006). Arabic for Dummies. Wiley Publishing, Inc. p. 15.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Heth
 



 



 
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