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English sculptor, goldsmith, archaeologist, conservator, author, and authority on ancient metalwork
By his mid-twenties Maryon had attended three art schools, apprenticed in silversmithing with C. R. Ashbee, and worked in Henry Wilson's workshop. From 1900 to 1904, he served as the director of the Keswick School of Industrial Art where he designed and exhibited numerous utilitarian and decorative Arts and Crafts works. A year of teaching metalwork at the Storey Institute preceded a move to Reading University, where he taught sculpture, metalwork, modelling, and casting until 1927; he also designed the school's war memorial, among other commissions. He then worked until 1939 at Durham University as Master of Sculpture and lecturer in anatomy and the history of sculpture. Maryon published two books while teaching, including the standard Metalwork and Enamelling, and published more than a dozen articles about early metalwork and archaeology. Students frequently joined Maryon on archaeological digs, and in 1935 he discovered one of the oldest gold ornaments known in Britain while excavating the Kirkhaugh cairns.
In 1944 Maryon was recruited out of retirement to work on the Sutton Hoo finds. His responsibilities included restoring the shield, the drinking horns, and the iconic Sutton Hoo helmet, which proved academically and culturally influential. Maryon's work, much of which was revised in the 1970s, created credible renderings upon which subsequent research relied. One of his papers during this time coined the term pattern welding to describe a method employed on the Sutton Hoo sword to strengthen and decorate iron and steel. The initial work on the Sutton Hoo finds was brought to a close in 1950, and Maryon turned to other matters. He proposed a widely publicised theory in 1953 on the construction of the Colossus of Rhodes, influencing Salvador Dalí and others, and he restored the Roman Emesa helmet in 1955. Maryon left the museum in 1961, a year after his official retirement, and began an around-the-world trip lecturing and researching Chinese magic mirrors.
Maryon died in 1965. He has been remembered as "[o]ne of the finest exemplars" of a conservator who combined deep technical, artistic, and historical understandings of the objects he worked with. His works remain influential, particularly Metalwork and Enamelling, which remains in print more than a century after its initial publication.
Early life and education
Herbert James Maryon was born in London on 9 March 1874. He was the third of six surviving children born to John Simeon Maryon, a tailor, and Louisa Maryon (née Church). He had both an older brother, John Ernest, and an older sister, Louisa Edith, the latter of whom preceded him in his vocation as a sculptor. One brother and three sisters would follow--in order, George Christian, Flora Mabel, Mildred Jessie, and Violet Mary--although Flora Maryon, born in 1878, would die in her second year. According to a pedigree compiled by John Maryon, the Maryons traced back to the de Marinis family, a branch of which left Normandy for England around the 12th century.
From 1900 until 1939, Maryon held various positions teaching sculpture, design, and metalwork. During this time, and while still in school beforehand, he created and exhibited many of his own works. At the end of 1899 he displayed a silver cup and a shield of arms with silver cloisonné at the sixth exhibition of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, an event held at the New Gallery that also included a work by his sister Edith. The exhibition was reviewed by The International Studio, with Maryon's work singled out as "agreeable".
Keswick School of Industrial Art, 1900-04
In March 1900 Maryon became the first director of the Keswick School of Industrial Art. The school had been opened by Edith and Hardwicke Rawnsley in 1884, amid the emergence of the Arts and Crafts movement. It offered classes in drawing, design, woodcarving, and metalwork, and melded commercial with artistic purposes; the school sold items such as trays, frames, tables, and clock-cases, and developed a reputation for quality. Already by May a reviewer for The Studio of an exhibition at the Royal Albert Hall commented that a group of silver tableware by the school was "a welcome departure towards finer craftsmanship". Two of Maryon's designs, she wrote, "were singularly good--a knocker, executed by Jeremiah Richardson, and a copper casket made by Thomas Spark and ornamented by Thomas Clark and the designer".[note 1] She described the casket's lock as "enamelled in pearly blue and white", and giving "a dainty touch of colour to a form almost bare of ornament, but beautiful in its proportions and lines". At the following year's exhibition three more works by the school were singled out for praise, including a loving cup by Maryon.
Under Maryon's leadership the Keswick School expanded the breadth and range of its designs, and he executed several significant commissions. His best works, wrote a historian of the school, "drew their inspiration from the nature of the material and his deep understanding of its technical limits". They also tended to be in metal. Items like Bryony, a tray centre showing tangled growth concealed within a geometric framework, continued the school's tradition of repoussé work of naturalistic interpretations of flowers, while evoking the vine-like wallpapers of William Morris. These themes were particularly expressed in a 1901 plaque memorialising Bernard Gilpin unveiled in St Cuthbert's Church, Kentmere; described by the art historian Sir Nikolaus Pevsner as "Arts and Crafts, almost Art Nouveau", the bronze tablet on oak is framed by trees with entwined roots and influenced by a Norse and Celtic aesthetic. Three other commissions in silver--a loving cup, a processional cross, and a challenge shield--were completed towards the end of Maryon's tenure and the school and featured in The Studio and its international counterpart. The cup was commissioned by the Cumberland County Council for presentation to HMS Cumberland, and was termed a "tour de force".
Particularly in more utilitarian works, Maryon's designs at the Keswick School tended to emphasise form over design. As he would write a decade later, "[o]ver-insistence on technique, craftsmanship which proclaims 'How clever am I!' quite naturally elbows out artistic feeling. One idea must be the principal one; and if that happens to be technique, the other goes." Design should be determined by intention, he wrote: as an objet or as an object for use. Hot water jugs, tea pots, sugar bowls and other tableware that Maryon designed were frequently raised from a single sheet of metal, retaining the hammer marks and a dull lustre. Many of these were displayed at the 1902 Home Arts and Industries Exhibition, where the school won 65 awards, along with an altar cross designed by Maryon for Hexham Abbey, and were praised for showing "a remarkably good year's work in the finer kinds of craft and decoration". At the same event a year later more than £35 worth of goods were sold, including a copper jug Maryon designed which was acquired by the Manchester School of Art for its Arts and Crafts Museum. On the strength of these and other achievements, Maryon's salary, which in 1902 had amounted in his estimation to between £185 and £200, was raised to £225.
Maryon's four-year tenure at Keswick was assisted by four designers who also taught drawing: G. M. Collinson, Isobel McBean, Maude M. Ackery, and Dorothea Carpenter. Hired from leading art schools and serving for a year each, the four helped the school keep abreast of modern design. Eight full-time workers helped execute the designs when Maryon joined in 1900, rising to 15 by 1903. Maryon also had the help of his sisters: Edith Maryon designed at least one work for the school, a 1901 relief plaque of Hardwicke Rawnsley, while Mildred Maryon, who the 1901 census listed as living with her sister, worked for a time as an enameller at the school. Both Herbert and Mildred Maryon worked on an oxidised silver and enamel casket that was presented to Princess Louise upon her 1902 visit to the Keswick School; Herbert Maryon was responsible for the design and his sister for the enamelling, with the resulting work being termed "of a character highly creditable to the School" in The Magazine of Art. Strife with colleagues eventually led to Maryon's departure. Already in July 1901 Collinson had left due to a poor working relationship. Maryon was often in conflict with the school's management committee, which was chaired by Edith Rawnsley and frequently made decisions without his knowledge. When in August 1904 Carpenter, in friction with Maryon, resigned, the committee decided to give Maryon three-months' notice.
Maryon left the school at the end of December, 1904. He spent 1905 as a teacher of metalwork at the Storey Institute in Lancaster. That October he published his first article, "Early Irish Metal Work" in The Art Workers' Quarterly. In 1906 Maryon, still listed as living in Keswick, again displayed works--this time a silver cup and silver chalice--for the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, held at the Grafton Galleries; one Mrs. Herbert J. Maryon was listed as exhibiting a Sicilian lace tablecloth.
From 1907 until 1927, Maryon taught sculpture, including metalwork, modelling, and casting, at the University of Reading. He was also the warden of Wantage Hall from 1920 to 1922. Maryon's first book, Metalwork and Enamelling: A Practical Treatise on Gold and Silversmiths' Work and their Allied Crafts, was published in 1912. Maryon described it as eschewing "the artistic or historical point of view", in favor of an "essentially practical and technical standpoint". The book focused on individual techniques such as soldering, enamelling, and stone-setting, rather than the methods of creating works such as cups and brooches. It was well received, as a vade mecum for both students and practitioners of metalworking.The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs wrote that Maryon "succeeds in every page in not only maintaining his own enthusiasm, but what is better in communicating it", and The Athenæum declared that his "critical notes on design are excellent". One such note, republished in The Jewelers' Circular in 1922, was a critique of the celebrated sixteenth-century goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini; Maryon termed him "one of the very greatest craftsmen of the sixteenth century, but ... a very poor artist", a "dispassionate appraisal" that led a one-time secretary of the Metropolitan Museum of Art to label Maryon not only "the dean of ancient metalwork", but also "a discerning critic".Metalwork and Enamelling went through four further editions, in 1923, 1954, 1959, and posthumously in 1971, along with a 1998 Italian translation, and as of 2020 is still in print by Dover Publications. As late as 1993, a senior conservator at the Canadian Conservation Institute wrote that the book "has not been equalled".
During World War I Maryon worked at Reading with another instructor, Charles Albert Sadler, to create a centre to train munition workers in machine tool work. Maryon began this work in 1915, officially as organising secretary and instructor at the Ministry of Munitions Training Centre, with no engineering school to build from. By 1918 the centre had five staff members, could accommodate 25 workers at a time, and had trained more than 400. Based on this work, Maryon was elected to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers on 6 March 1918.
Students dancing around the Statue of Industry after tarring and feathering it
In 1927 Maryon left the University of Reading and began teaching sculpture at Armstrong College, then part of Durham University, where he stayed until 1939. At Durham he was both master of sculpture, and lecturer in anatomy and the history of sculpture. While there in 1933 he published his second book, Modern Sculpture: Its Methods and Ideals. Maryon wrote that his aim was to discuss modern sculpture "from the point of view of the sculptors themselves", rather than from an "archaeological or biographical" perspective. The book received mixed reviews. Maryon's decision to treat criticism as secondary to intent meant grouping together artworks of unequal quality. Some critics attacked his taste, with The New Statesman and Nation claiming that "He can enjoy almost anything, and among his 350 odd illustrations there are certainly some camels to swallow",The Bookman that "All the bad sculptors ... will be found in Mr. Maryon's book ... Most of the good sculptors are here as well (even Henry Moore), but all are equal in Mr. Maryon's eye", and The Spectator that "[t]he few good works which have found their way into the 356 plates look lost and unhappy." Maryon responded with explanations of his purpose, saying that "I do not admire all the results, and I say so", and to one review in particular that "I believe that the sculptors of the world have a wider knowledge of what constitutes sculpture than your reviewer realizes." Other reviews praised Maryon's academic approach.The Times stated that "his book is remarkable for its extraordinary catholicity, admitting works which we should find it hard to defend ... with works of great merit", yet added that "[b]y a system of grouping, however, according to some primarily aesthetic aim ... their inclusion is justified".The Manchester Guardian praised Maryon for "a degree of natural good sense in his observations that cannot always be said to characterise current art criticism", and stated that "his critical judgments are often penetrating".
At Durham, as at Reading, Maryon was commissioned to create works of art. These included at least two plaques, memorialising George Stephenson in 1929, and Sir Charles Parsons in 1932,[note 2] as well as the Statue of Industry for the 1929 North East Coast Exhibition, a world's fair held at Newcastle upon Tyne. Depicting a woman with cherubs at her feet, the statue was described by Maryon as "represent[ing] industry as we know it in the North-east--one who has passed through hard times and is now ready to face the future, strong and undismayed". The statue was the subject of "adverse criticism", reported The Manchester Guardian; on the night of 25 October "several hundred students of Armstrong College" tarred and feathered the statue, and were dispersed only with the arrival of 80 police officers.[note 3]
One of two gold ornaments from the Kirkhaugh cairns, matching the one excavated by Maryon in 1935
Maryon retired from Armstrong College--by then known as King's College--in 1939, when he was in his mid-60s. He spent most of World War II, from 1939 to 1943, engaged in munition work. In 1941 he published a two-part article in Man on archaeology and metallurgy, part I on welding and soldering, and part II on the metallurgy of gold and platinum in Pre-Columbian Ecuador.
British Museum, 1944-61
On 11 November 1944 Maryon was recruited out of retirement by the trustees of the British Museum to serve as a Technical Attaché. Maryon, working under Harold Plenderleith's leadership, was tasked with the conservation and reconstruction of material from the Anglo-Saxon Sutton Hoo ship-burial. Widely identified with King Rædwald of East Anglia, the burial had previously attracted Maryon's interest; as early as 1941, he wrote a prescient letter about the preservation of the ship impression to Thomas Downing Kendrick, the museum's Keeper of British and Medieval Antiquities.[note 4] Nearly four years after his letter, in the dying days of World War II and the finds removed (or about to be removed) from safekeeping in the Aldwych tube station, he was assigned what Rupert Bruce-Mitford, who succeeded Kendrick's post in 1954, termed "the real headaches - notably the crushed shield, helmet and drinking horns". Composed in large part of iron, wood and horn, these items had decayed in the 1,300 years since their burial and left only fragments behind; the helmet, for one, had corroded and then smashed into more than 500 pieces. Painstaking work needing keen observation and patience, these efforts occupied several years of Maryon's career. Much of his work has seen revision, but as Bruce-Mitford wrote afterwards, "by carrying out the initial cleaning, sorting, and mounting of the mass of the fragmentary and fragile material he preserved it, and in working out his reconstructions he made explicit the problems posed and laid the foundations upon which fresh appraisals and progress could be based when fuller archaeological study became possible".
Maryon's restorations were aided by his deep practical understandings of the objects he was working on, causing a senior conservator at the Canadian Conservation Institute in 1993 to label Maryon "[o]ne of the finest exemplars" of a conservator whose "wide understanding of the structure and function of museum objects ... exceeds that gained by the curator or historian in more classical studies of artefacts". Maryon was admitted as a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1949, and in 1956 his Sutton Hoo work led to his appointment as an Officer of the Order of the British Empire. Asked by Queen Elizabeth II what he did as she awarded him the medal, Maryon responded "Well, Ma'am, I am a sort of back room boy at the British Museum." Maryon continued restoration work at the British Museum, including on Oriental antiquities and the Roman Emesa helmet, before retiring--for a second time--at the age of 87.
Sutton Hoo helmet
The Valsgärde 6 helmet was one of the few published exemplar helmets at the time of Maryon's reconstruction.
From 1945 to 1946, Maryon spent six continuous months reconstructing the Sutton Hoo helmet. The helmet was only the second Anglo-Saxon example then known, the Benty Grange helmet being the first, and was the most elaborate. Yet its importance had not been realized during excavation, and no photographs of it were taken in situ. Bruce-Mitford likened Maryon's task to "a jigsaw puzzle without any sort of picture on the lid of the box", and, "as it proved, a great many of the pieces missing"; Maryon had to base his reconstruction "exclusively on the information provided by the surviving fragments, guided by archaeological knowledge of other helmets".[note 5]
Maryon began the reconstruction by familiarising himself with the fragments, tracing and detailing each on a piece of card. After what he termed "a long while", he sculpted a head out of plaster and expanded it outwards to simulate the padded space between helmet and head. On this he initially affixed the fragments with plasticine, placing thicker pieces into spaces cut into the head. Finally, the fragments were permanently affixed with white plaster mixed with brown umber; more plaster was used to fill the in-between areas. The fragments of the cheek guards, neck guard, and visor were placed onto shaped, plaster-covered wire mesh, then affixed with more plaster and joined to the cap. Maryon published the finished reconstruction in a 1947 issue of Antiquity.
Maryon's work was celebrated, and both academically and culturally influential. The helmet stayed on display for over 20 years, with photographs making their way into television programmes, newspapers, and "every book on Anglo-Saxon art and archaeology"; in 1951 a young Larry Burrows was dispatched to the British Museum by Life, which published a full page photograph of the helmet alongside a photo of Maryon. Over the succeeding quarter century conservation techniques advanced, knowledge of contemporaneous helmets grew, and more helmet fragments were discovered during the 1965-69 re-excavation of Sutton Hoo; accordingly, inaccuracies in Maryon's reconstruction--notably its diminished size, gaps in afforded protection, and lack of a moveable neck guard--became apparent.[note 6] In 1971 a second reconstruction was completed, following eighteen months' work by Nigel Williams. Yet "[m]uch of Maryon's work is valid", Bruce-Mitford wrote. "The general character of the helmet was made plain."[note 7] "It was only because there was a first restoration that could be constructively criticized", noted the conservation scholar Chris Caple, "that there was the impetus and improved ideas available for a second restoration"; similarly, minor errors in the second reconstruction were discovered while forging the 1973 Royal Armouries replica. In executing a first reconstruction that was reversible and retained evidence by being only lightly cleaned, Maryon's true contribution to the Sutton Hoo helmet was in creating a credible first rendering that allowed for the critical examination leading to the second, current, reconstruction.
After Sutton Hoo
A paper read by Maryon in December 1953 likely influenced Salvador Dalí's 1954 rendering of the Colossus. Dalí's work incorporates Maryon's proposal of 1) a tripod structure balanced by hanging drapery, 2) a pose in which Helios shades his eyes, and most significantly 3) a statue composed of many hammered bronze plates.
Maryon finished reconstructions of many of the significant objects from Sutton Hoo by 1946, although work on the remaining finds carried him to 1950; at this point Plenderleith decided that the work had been finished to the extent possible, and that the space in the research laboratory was needed for other purposes. Maryon continued working at the museum until 1961, turning his attention to other matters. This included some travel; in 1953 or 1954 he visited Toronto, lecturing on Sutton Hoo before a large audience at the Royal Ontario Museum; in 1954 he visited Philadelphia, where he appeared on an episode of What in the World?; and in 1957 or 1958, he paid a visit to the Gennadeion at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens.
In 1955 Maryon restored another helmet for the British Museum. The Roman Emesa helmet had been found in the Syrian city Homs in 1936, and underwent several failed restorations before being brought to the museum--"the last resort in these things", according to Maryon. The restoration was published the following year by Plenderleith. Around that time Maryon and Plenderleith also collaborated on several other works: in 1954 they wrote a chapter on metalwork for the History of Technology series, and in 1959 they co-authored a paper on the cleaning of Westminster Abbey's bronze royal effigies.
In addition to his two books, Metalwork and Enamelling and Modern Sculpture, Maryon authored chapters in volumes one and two of Charles Singer's A History of Technology series. He also wrote some thirty archaeological and technical papers. Several of Maryon's earlier papers, in 1946 and 1947, described his restorations of the shield and helmet from the Sutton Hoo burial. In 1948 another paper introduced the term pattern welding to describe a method of strengthening and decorating iron and steel by welding into them twisted strips of metal; the method was employed on the Sutton Hoo sword among others, giving them a distinctive pattern.
In 1953 and 1954, a talk and paper on the Colossus of Rhodes received international attention for suggesting that the statue was hollow, and aside the harbour rather than astride it.[note 8] Made of hammered bronze plates less than a sixteenth of an inch thick, he suggested, it would have been supported by a tripod structure comprising the two legs and a hanging piece of drapery. Although "great ideas" according to the scholar Godefroid de Callataÿ, neither fully caught on; in 1957, Denys Haynes, then the Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities at the British Museum, suggested that Maryon's theory of hammered bronze plates relied on an errant translation of a primary source.[note 9] Maryon's view was nevertheless influential, likely shaping Salvador Dalí's 1954 surrealist imagining of the statue, The Colossus of Rhodes. "Not only the pose," wrote de Callataÿ, "but even the hammered plates of Maryon's theory find [in Dalí's painting] a clear and very powerful expression."
Maryon finally left the British Museum in 1961, a year after his official retirement. He donated a number of items to the museum, including plaster maquettes by George Frampton of Comedy and Tragedy, used for the memorial to Sir W. S. Gilbert along the Victoria Embankment. Before his departure Maryon had been planning a trip around the world, and at the end of 1961 he left for Fremantle, Australia, arriving on 1 January 1962. In Perth he visited his brother George Maryon, whom he had not seen in 60 years. From Australia Maryon departed for San Francisco, arriving on 15 February. Much of his North American tour was done with buses and cheap hotels, for, as a colleague would recall, Maryon "liked to travel the hard way--like an undergraduate--which was to be expected since, at 89, he was a young man".
Maryon devoted much of his time during the American stage of his trip to visiting museums and the study of Chinese magic mirrors, a subject he had turned to some two years before. By the time he reached Kansas City, Missouri, where he was written up in The Kansas City Times, he had listed 526 examples in his notebook. His trip included guest lectures, such as his talk "Metal Working in the Ancient World" at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on 2 May 1962, and when he came to New York City a colleague later said that "he wore out several much younger colleagues with an unusually long stint devoted to a meticulous examination of two large collections of pre-Columbian fine metalwork, a field that was new to him". Maryon scheduled the trip to end in Toronto, where his son John Maryon, a civil engineer, lived.
In July 1903 Maryon married Annie Elizabeth Maryon (née Stones). They had a daughter, Kathleen Rotha Maryon. Annie Maryon died on 8 February 1908. A second marriage, to Muriel Dore Wood in September 1920, produced two children, son John and daughter Margaret.
Maryon was interested in genealogy; his brother John published a family pedigree in 1895, and by 1954 Herbert Maryon had spent 60 years tracing back the history of the family. Maryon lived the majority of his life in London, and died in his 92nd year at a nursing home in Edinburgh.
^The casket was auctioned in 2005 by Penrith Farmers' & Kidd's, with an estimate of £800 to £1,200.
^The Manchester Guardian did not explain the reason for the tarring and feathering. It followed on the heels of the tarring and feathering of Jacob Epstein's sculptures Rima on 9 October, and Night on 14 October. In the case of Rima, which was unveiled around 1926 and shortly thereafter covered in green paint, papers reported that it had come under criticism for its "'expressionistic' character". Then in 1928 Peter Pan, a statue by Maryon's late teacher Sir George Frampton, was itself tarred and feathered.
^Kendrick would become director of the museum in 1950. Dated 6 January 1941, Maryon's letter read:
"There is a question about the Sutton Hoo ship which has been rather on my mind. There exist many photographs of the ship, taken from many angles, and they provide much information as to its structure and general appearance. But has anything been done to preserve the actual form of the vessel--full size? The Viking ships in their museum in Scandinavia are most impressive, for they are surviving representatives of the actual vessels which played so great a part in the early history of Western Europe. The Sutton Hoo ship is our only representative in this class. I believe that all the timbers have perished, but the form remains--traced in the earth. That form could be preserved in a plaster cast. I have given some thought to the making of large casts for I have done figures up to 18 feet in height. The work could be done in the following manner: a light steel girder would be constructed, running the full length of the ship, but built in quite short sections. This would not rise above the level of the gunwale at any point but would follow the general curve of the central section of the vessel. It would extend right down to the keel, and would support all the lateral frames. The outer skin, which would preserve the actual external form of the vessel, would be of the usual canvas and plaster work. It would be cast in sections, each perhaps extending along five feet of the length and from keel to gunwale on one side. All sections would be assembled by bolting the frames together. Any roughness of surface due to accidental irregularities in the existing earth matrix could be removed. If it were desired to illustrate the inner structure of the vessel also, I think that that might be shown by constructing a wooden model on a reduced scale. Such a cast as that suggested above would be a very important document for the history of the time and it would provide a valuable introduction to Sutton Hoo's splendid array of furnishings."
Such an operation was not carried out at the time, largely due to time constraints imposed by World War II--impending during the original 1939 excavation, and in full swing by the time of Maryon's letter. When an impression was taken during the 1965-69 Sutton Hoo excavations, much the same methods that Maryon proposed were adopted.
^By contrast, photographs of the shield fragments suggested their spatial relationships, allowing Plenderleith to determine which pieces were part of the grip.
^Bruce-Mitford suggested that Maryon's reconstruction "was soon criticized, though not in print, by Swedish scholars and others". At least one scholar, however, did publish minor criticisms. In a 1948 article by Sune Lindqvist--translated into English by Bruce-Mitford himself--the Swedish professor wrote that "[t]he reconstruction of the Sutton Hoo helmet ... needs revision in certain respects." Nonetheless, his only specific criticism was that the face-mask was "set somewhat awry in the reconstruction".
^Maryon's reconstruction correctly identified both the five designs depicted on its exterior, and the helmet's method of construction. Maryon wrote that the helmet was made of sheet iron, then "covered with sheets of very thin tinned bronze, stamped with patterns, and arranged in panels." The patterns were formed from dies carved in relief, while the panels were "framed by lengths of moulding ... swaged from strips of tin," themselves "fixed in place by bronze rivets," and gilded. Meanwhile, "the free edges of the helmet were protected by a U-shaped channel of gilt bronze, clamped on, and held in position by narrow gilt bronze ties, riveted on." Although likely not more than educated guesses, Maryon's statements were largely confirmed by scientific analysis carried out after completion of the second reconstruction. The nature of the moulding separating the panels, however, remains unclear. Maryon suggested they were swaged from tin and gilded, while Bruce-Mitford suggested they were made of bronze. The later analysis found results which were perhaps contradictory, yet themselves internally contradictory. A subsurface sample of the moulding "suggest[ed] that the original metal was tin," (Maryon's theory) while a surface sample showed an "?-copper/tin compound (Cu3Sn)" and thus suggested instead, because of a similar process observed on the shield, "that the surface of a bronze alloy containing at least 62% of copper had been coated with tin and heated." Additionally, a surface sample taken near the crest had a trace of mercury, suggestive of a fire-gilding process that requires a temperature at least 128 °C above the melting point of tin. An alloy containing at least 20% copper would thus be needed to sufficiently raise the melting point of the tin during the gilding process, a reality further inconsistent with the results of the subsurface sample of moulding. As to swageing, "if the strips [of moulding] were of high tin alloy throughout, swageing would be impossible as copper/tin alloys containing more than 20% of tin are very brittle", while an alloy containing less than 25% tin would no longer replicate the white colour of the helmet. Although the subsurface sample supports Maryon's theory of swaged tin--though not of universally gilded mouldings, which as reflected in the 1973 replica helmet were only found next to the crest--it contradicts the theory suggested by the surface sample, i.e., a copper alloy with a high tin content that was not swaged.
^Maryon used Johann Caspar von Orelli's translation of Philo of Byzantium, which Haynes argued "is frequently misleading". Using Rudolf Hercher's translation, Haynes suggested that " is a key word for the whole of Philo's description. An unfortunate slip in the translation used by Maryon confuses it with 'to fill up' and so destroys the sense of the passage. means 'to cast upon' the part already cast, and that implies casting in situ. It is contrasted with 'to place upon', which would imply that the casting was done at a distance. Since in 'casting upon' the molten metal which was to form the new part would presumably have come into direct contact with the existing part, fusion (i.e. 'casting on' in the technical sense) would probably have resulted." Yet the amount of bronze Philo claimed the Colossus to have been made from--500 talents--would not be enough for a statue that was cast, leading Haynes to argue that the figure had been corrupted. Haynes thus effectively conceded that if the 500-talent figure was correct, Maryon had a point.
Bruce-Mitford, Rupert (1983a). The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial, Volume 3: Late Roman and Byzantine Silver, Hanging-Bowls, Drinking Vessels, Cauldrons and Other Containers, Textiles, the Lyre, Pottery Bottle and Other Items. I. London: British Museum Publications. ISBN978-0-7141-0529-1.
Bruce-Mitford, Rupert (1983b). The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial, Volume 3: Late Roman and Byzantine Silver, Hanging-Bowls, Drinking Vessels, Cauldrons and Other Containers, Textiles, the Lyre, Pottery Bottle and Other Items. II. London: British Museum Publications. ISBN978-0-7141-0530-7.
Bruce-Mitford, Rupert (1989b). Anglo-Saxon and Mediaeval Archaeology, History and Art, with Special Reference to Sutton Hoo: The Highly Important Working Library and Archive of More than 6,000 Titles Formed by Dr. Rupert L.S. Bruce-Mitford FBA, D.Litt., FSA. Wickmere: Merrion Book Co.
Includes prefatory essays My Japanese Background and Forty Years with Sutton Hoo by Bruce-Mitford. The latter was republished in Carver 2004, pp. 23-28.
"By Balloon to Parnassus". The New Statesman and Nation. New Series. VI (148): 848. 23 December 1933.
Engstrom, Robert; Lankton, Scott Michael & Lesher-Engstrom, Audrey (1989). A Modern Replication Based on the Pattern-Welded Sword of Sutton Hoo. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University. ISBN978-0-918720-29-0.
"A Magnificent Silver and Iron Helmet -- A Portrait of a Syrian Royal General About the Time of the Crucifixion: Newly Restored and Now Exhibited on Loan at the British Museum". The Illustrated London News (6, 054). 27 August 1955. p. 769.
Maryon, Herbert (October 1960). "Review of Der Überfangguss. Ein Beitrag zur vergeschichtlichen Metalltechnik". American Journal of Archaeology. Archaeological Institute of America. 64 (4): 374-375. JSTOR501341.