Hephthalite
Get Hephthalite essential facts below. View Videos or join the Hephthalite discussion. Add Hephthalite to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Hephthalite

Hephthalites
Empire: 440s-560[1]
Principalities until 710
Hephthalite tamgha.jpg
Tamga of the Imperial Hephthalites[2][3]
StatusNomadic empire
Capital
Common languages
Religion
Historical eraLate Antiquity
o Established
Empire: 440s
o Disestablished
560[1]
Principalities until 710

The Hephthalites (Bactrian, Ebodalo),[9] sometimes called the White Huns,[10][11] were a people who lived in Central Asia during the 5th to 8th centuries. They existed as an Empire, the Imperial Hephthalites, and were militarily important from 450 CE, when they defeated the Kidarites, to 560 CE, date of their defeat to combined First Turkic Khaganate and Sasanian Empire forces.[12][1] After 560 CE, they formed "principalities" in the area of Tokharistan, under the suzerainty of the Western Turks (in the areas north of the Oxus) and the Sasanian Empire (in the areas south of the Oxus), before being taken over by the Tokhara Yabghus in 625 CE.[13]

The Imperial Hephthalites were based in Bactria and expanded east to the Tarim Basin, west to Sogdia and south through Afghanistan, but they never went beyond the Hindu-Kush, which was occupied by the Alchon Huns, previously mistakenly considered as an extension of the Hephthalites.[14] They were a tribal confederation and included both nomadic and settled urban communities. They were part of the four major states known collectively as Xyon (Xionites) or Huna, being preceded by the Kidarites, and the Alkhon, and succeeded by the Nezak Huns and the First Turkic Khaganate. All of these Hunnic peoples have often been linked to the Huns who invaded Eastern Europe during the same period, and/or have been referred to as "Huns", but there is no consensus among scholars about such a connection.

The stronghold of the Hephthalites was Tokharistan on the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush, in what is present-day southern Uzbekistan and northern Afghanistan, and their capital was probably at Kunduz, having come from the east, possibly from the area of Badakshan.[15] By 479, the Hephthalites had conquered Sogdia and driven the Kidarites eastwards, and by 493 they had captured parts of present-day Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin in what is now Northwest China. The Alchon Huns, formerly confused with the Hephthalites, expanded into Northern India as well.[16]

The sources for Hephthalite history are poor and historians' opinions differ. There is no king-list and historians are not sure how they arose or what language they spoke. The Sveta Huna who invaded Pakistan are probably the Hephthalites, but the exact relation is not clear. They seem to have called themselves Ebodalo (?, hence Hephthal), often abbreviated Eb (), a name they wrote in the Bactrian script on some of their coins.[17][18][19][20] The origin of the name "Hephthalites" is unknown, possibly from either a Khotanese word *Hitala meaning "Strong"[21] or from postulated Middle Persian *haft ?l "the Seven[22]Al"[23][a][b].

Name and ethnonyms

Hephthalite ruler
The Hephthalites called themselves ?bod?l (?) as seen in a seal of a Hephthalite king with the Bactrian script inscription "? ?" ("The Lord (Yabghu) of the Hephthalites"). End 5th century- early 6th century CE.[24][25][26]

The Hephthalites called themselves ?bod?l (Bactrian script) in their inscriptions, which was commonly abbreviated to in their coinage.[27][24] An important and unique seal, held in the private collection of Professor Dr. Aman ur Rahman, shows an early Hepthalite ruler with a radiate crown with a single crescent, and the inscription in Bactrian script legend ? ? ("The Lord (Yabghu) of the Hephthalites"). It is dated to the end 5th century- early 6th century CE.[24][25]

Hephthalites' endonym in Bactrian was Ebodalo (?). Byzantine Greek sources referred to them as Ephthalite (?),[28]Abdel or Avdel. To the Armenians, the Hephthalites were Hephthal, Hep't'al & Tetal and sometimes identified with the Kushans. To the Persians, Hephthalites are Hephtal, Hephtel, & H?vt?ls. To Arabs, Hephthalites were Haital, Hetal, Heithal, Haiethal, Heyâthelites, (al-)Haya?ila (), and sometimes identified as Turks.[6] According to Togan (1985), the form Haytal in Persian and Arabic sources in the first period was a clerical error for Habtal, as Arabic -b- resembles -y-.[29]

In Chinese chronicles, the Hephthalites are called Ye-tha-i-li-to (simp. ; trad. ; pinyin: Yàndàiyílìtuó), or the more usual abbreviated form Yada (pinyin: Yèd?), or ? (pinyin: Huá).[30][31] The latter name has been given various Latinised renderings, including Yeda, Ye-ta, Ye-tha; Ye-d? and Yanda. The corresponding Cantonese and Korean names Yipdaat and Yeoptal (Korean: ), which preserve aspects of the Middle Chinese pronunciation (roughly yep-daht, [?j?pd?t]) better than the modern Mandarin pronunciation, are more consistent with the Greek Hephthalite. Some Chinese chroniclers suggest that the root Hephtha- (as in Ye-ta-i-li-to or Yada) was technically a title equivalent to "emperor", while Hua was the name of the dominant tribe.[32]

In Ancient India, names such as Hephthalite were unknown. The Hephthalites were apparently part of, or offshoots of, people known in India as Hunas or Turushkas,[33] although these names may have referred to broader groups or neighbouring peoples. Ancient Sanskrit text Pravishyasutra mentions a group of people named Havitaras but it is unclear whether the term denotes Hephthalites.[34] The Indians also used the expression "White Huns" (Sveta Huna) for the Hephthalites.[35]

Geographical origin and expansion

According to recent scholarship, the stronghold of the Hephthalites was always Tokharistan on the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush, in what is present-day southern Uzbekistan and northern Afghanistan.[36] Their capital was probably at Kunduz, which was known to the Al-Biruni as War-Wal?z, a possible origin of one of the names given by the Chinese to Hephthalites: Hua (?, pinyin: Huá).[36]

The Hephthalites may have came from the East, through the Pamir Mountains, possibly from the area of Badakshan.[36] Alternatively, they may have migrated from the Altai region, among the waves of invading Huns.[37]

Following their westward or southward expansion, the Hephthalites settled in Bactria, and displaced the Alchon Huns, who expanded into Northern India. The Hephthalites came into contact with the Sasanian Empire, and were involved in helping militarily Peroz I seize the throne from his brother Hormizd III.[36]

Later, in the late 5th century, the Hephthalites expanded into vast areas of Central Asia, and occupied the Tarim Basin as far as Turfan, taking control of the area from the Ruanruans, who had been collecting heavy tribute from the oasis cities, but were now weakening under the assaults of the Chinese Wei Dynasty.[38]

Characteristics

Murals from Dilberjin Tepe, thought to represent early Hephthalites. The ruler wears a radiate crown.[39][40][41][42]

There are several theories regarding the origins of the Hephthalites, with the Iranian,[43][44][45] or Altaic theories[46][47][48][49][50][51] being the most prominent.

According to most specialist scholars, the Hephthalites adopted Bactrian as their official language, just as the Kushans had done, following their settlement in Bactria/ Tokharistan.[52] Bactrian was an Eastern Iranian language, but was written in the Greek alphabet, a remnant of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom in the 3rd-2nd century BCE.[52] The Bactrian, beyond being an official language, was also the language of the local populations ruled by the Hephthalites.[53][54]

The Hephthalites inscribed their coins in Bactrian, an Iranian language written in the Greek script,[55] the titles they held were Bactrian, such as XOA?HO or ?ao,[55] and of probable Chinese origin, such as Yabghu,[56] the names of Hephthalite rulers given in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh are Iranian,[55] and gem inscriptions and other evidence shows that the official language of the Hephthalite elite was East Iranian.[55] In 1959, Kazuo Enoki proposed that the Hephthalites were probably Indo-European (East) Iranians as some sources indicated that they were originally from Bactria, which is known to have been inhabited by Indo-Iranian people in antiquity.[43]Richard Nelson Frye cautiously accepted Enoki's hypothesis, while at the same time stressing that the Hephthalites "were probably a mixed horde".[57] According to the Encyclopaedia Iranica and Encyclopaedia of Islam, the Hephthalites possibly originated in what is today Afghanistan.[58][59] A few scholars, such as Marquart and Grousset proposed Proto-Mongolic origins.[60] Yu Taishan traced the Hephthalites' origins to the Xianbei and further to Goguryeo.[61] Other scholars such as de la Vaissière, based on a recent reappraisal of the Chinese sources, suggest that the Hephthalites were initially of Turkic origin, and later adopted the Bactrian language, first for administrative purposes, and possibly later as a native language; according to Rezakhani (2017), this thesis is seemingly the "most prominent at present".[62][63][c]

The banquet scenes in the murals of Balalyk Tepe show the life of the Hephthalite ruling class of Tokharistan.[69][70][71][72]

In effect, the Hephthalites may have been a confederation of various people, speaking different languages. According to Richard Nelson Frye:

Just as later nomadic empires were confederations of many peoples, we may tentatively propose that the ruling groups of these invaders were, or at least included, Turkic-speaking tribesmen from the east and north, although most probably the bulk of the people in the confederation of Chionites and then Hephhtalites spoke an Iranian language. In this case, as normal, the nomads adopted the written language, institutions and culture of the settled folks.[73]

Relation to European Huns

According to Martin Schottky, the Hephthalites apparently had no direct connection with the European Huns, but may have been causally related with their movement. The tribes in question deliberately called themselves "Huns" in order to frighten their enemies.[74] On the contrary, de la Vaissière considers that the Hepthalites were part of the great Hunnic migrations of the 4th century CE from the Altai region that also reached Europe, and that these Huns "were the political, and partly cultural, heirs of the Xiongnu".[75][76] This massive migration was apparently triggered by climate change, with aridity affecting the moutain grazing grounds of the Altay Mountains during the 4th century CE.[77] According to Amanda Lomazoff and Aaron Ralby, there is a high synchronicity between the "reign of terror" of Attila in the west and the southern expansion of the Hephthalites, with extensive territorial overlap between the Huns and the Hephtalites in Central Asia.[78]

The 6th-century Byzantine historian Procopius of Caesarea (History of the Wars, Book I. ch. 3), related them to the Huns in Europe, but insisted on cultural and sociological differences, highlighting the sophistication of the Hephthalites:

The Ephthalitae Huns, who are called White Huns [...] The Ephthalitae are of the stock of the Huns in fact as well as in name, however they do not mingle with any of the Huns known to us, for they occupy a land neither adjoining nor even very near to them; but their territory lies immediately to the north of Persia [...] They are not nomads like the other Hunnic peoples, but for a long period have been established in a goodly land... They are the only ones among the Huns who have white bodies and countenances which are not ugly. It is also true that their manner of living is unlike that of their kinsmen, nor do they live a savage life as they do; but they are ruled by one king, and since they possess a lawful constitution, they observe right and justice in their dealings both with one another and with their neighbours, in no degree less than the Romans and the Persians[79]

Probable Hephthalite royal couple in the murals of the Buddhas of Bamiyan circa 600 CE. Their characteristics are similar to the figures in Balalyk Tepe, such as the right side triangular lapel, hairstyles, faces and ornaments.[71][72][70] The Bamiyan complex developed under Hephthalite rule.[80][81]

Chinese chronicles

Kurbanov presents four theories, compiled by Enoki (1958),[82] about Hephthalites' origins in imperial Chinese chronicles, and makes no attempt to reconcile them.[83]

  • They were descendants of the Jushi from Turfan;
  • They were descendants of the Greater Yuezhi tribes who remained behind after the rest of the people fled the Xiongnu;
  • They were descendants of the Kangju;
  • They were descendants of the Gaoju.

Chinese chronicles state that they were originally a tribe of the Yuezhi, living to the north of the Great Wall in Dzungaria,[84] and subject to the Rouran (Jwen-Jwen), as were some Turkic peoples at the time. Their original name was Hoa or Hoa-tun; subsequently they named themselves Ye-tha-i-li-to after their king (simp. , trad. , or more briefly Ye-tha ),[85][86] after their royal family, which descended from one of the five Yuezhi families which also included the Kushan.

The Hephthalite was a vassal state to the Rouran Khaganate until the beginning of the 5th century.[87] Between Hephthalites and Rourans were also close contacts, although they had different languages and cultures, and Hephthalites borrowed much of their political organization from Rourans.[6] In particular, the title "Khan", which according to McGovern was original to the Rourans, was borrowed by the Hephthalite rulers.[6] The reason for the migration of the Hephthalites southeast was to avoid a pressure of the Rourans. Further, the Hephthalites defeated the "Smaller Yuezhi" (Kidarites) in Bactria in 460 CE, and their leader Kidara led them to the south into northwestern India.[6]

Recent reappraisal of Chinese sources

According to a recent reappraisal of the Chinese sources by de la Vaissière, the Hephthalites were first known to the Chinese in 456 CE, when a Hephthalite embassy arrived at the Chinese court of the Northern Wei.[88] The earliest Chinese source on this encounter, the near-contemporary chronicles of the Northern Wei (Weishu) as quoted in the later Tongdian, reports that "they originated from the north of the Chinese frontier and came down south from the Jinshan (Altai) mountains" circa 360 CE, and that they originated from the Iranian-speaking Da Yuezhi or from an Oghuric-speaking tribe of the Gaoju or Tiele confederation, who in turn were related to the earlier Dingling, once conquered by the Xiongnu.[89][88]Weishu also mentioned the linguistic and ethnic proximity between the Gaoju and the Xiongnu.[90] According to de la Vaissière, the mention of the Da Yuezhi in this and many of the later Chinese chronicles only stems from the fact that the Hephthalites had settled in the Da-Yuezhi territory of Bactria, and only the Turkic Gaoju origin of the Hephthalites should be retained as indicative of their primary ethnicity.[91] Later Chinese sources become quite confused about the origins of the Hephthalites, and this may be due to their progessive assimilation of Bactrian culture and language once they settled there.[92] Overall, de la Vaissière considers that the Hepthalites were part of the great Hunnic migrations of the 4th century CE from the Altai region that also reached Europe, and that these Huns "were the political, and partly cultural, heirs of the Xiongnu".[75]

Appearance

Another painting of the Tokharistan school, from Tavka Kurgan.[93][94] It is closely related to Balalyk tepe, "especially in the treatment of the face". Termez Archaeological Museum.[93]

The Hepthalites appears in several mural paintings in the area of Tokharistan, especially in banquet scenes at Balalyk tepe and as donors to the Buddha in the ceiling painting of the 35 meter Buddha at the Buddhas of Bamiyan.[72] Several of the figures in these paintings have a characteristic appearance, with belted jackets with a unique lapel of their tunic being folded on the right side, the cropped hair, the hair accessories, their distinctive physionomy and their round beardless faces.[95][70] The figures at Bamiyan must represent the donors and potentates who supported the building of the monumental giant Buddha.[95] These remarkable paintings participate "to the artistic tradition of the Hephthalite ruling classes of Tukharistan".[72][71]

The paintings related to the Hephthalites have often been grouped under the appelation of "Tokharistan school of art",[96] or the "Hephthalite stage in the History of Central Asia Art".[97] The paintings of Tavka Kurgan, of very high quality, also belong to this school of art, and are closely related to other paintings of the Tokharistan school such as Balalyk tepe, in the depiction of clothes, and especially in the treatment of the faces.[93]

This "Hephthalite period" in art, with the caftans with a triangular collar folded on the right, the particular cropped hairstyle, the crowns with crescents, have been found in many of the areas historically occupied and ruled by the Hephthalites, in Sogdia, Bamiyan (modern Afghanistan), or in Kucha in the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China). This points to a "political and cultural unification of Central Asia" with similar artistic styles and iconography, under the rule of the Hephthalites.[98]

History

The Hephthalites formed in Bactria around 450, or sometime before.[16] They displaced the Alchon Huns, who expanded into Gandhara and Northern India. In 442 their tribes were fighting the Persians. In 456 a Hephthalite embassy arrived in China. By 458 they were strong enough to intervene in Persia.

Around 466 they probably took Transoxianan lands from the Kidarites with Persian help but soon took from Persia the area of Balkh and eastern Kushanshahr.[52] In the second half of the fifth century they controlled the deserts of Turkmenistan as far as the Caspian Sea and possibly Merv.[99] By 500 they held the whole of Bactria and the Pamirs and parts of Afghanistan. In 509, they captured Sogdia and they took 'Sughd' (the capital of Sogdiana).[69]

To the east, they captured the Tarim Basin and went as far as Urumqi.[69]

Around 560 CE their empire was destroyed by an alliance of the First Turkic Khaganate and the Sasanian Empire, but some of them remained as local rulers in the region of Tokharistan for the next 150 years, under the suzerainty of the Western Turks, followed by the Tokhara Yabghus.[52][69] Among the principalities which remained in Hephthalite hands even after the Turkic overcame their territory were: Chaganian, and Khuttal in the Vakhsh Valley.[69]

Ascendancy over the Sasanian Empire (442- c.530 CE)

Hephthalite coinage: a close imitation of a coin type of the Sasanian Emperor Peroz I (third period coinage of Peroz I, after 474 CE).[100] Late 5th century CE. This coinage is typically distinguished from Sasanian issues by dots around the border and a more or less clear in front of the bust of Peroz I, abbreviation of ? "?BODALO", for "Hepthalites".[101]
Hephthalite coin with Sasanian-style bust imitating Khavadh I, whom the Hephthalites had helped to the Sasanian throne. Hephthalite tamgha Hephthalite tamgha.jpg before the face of the ruler. A Hephthalite prince holding a drinking cup appears on the reverse, with probable Bactrian legend ? "?BODALO" to the right.[25][102] Late 5th century CE.

The Hephthalites were originally vassals of the Rouran Khaganate but split from their overlords in the early fifth century. The next time they were mentioned was in Persian sources as foes of Yazdegerd II (435-457), who from 442, fought 'tribes of the Hephthalites', according to the Armenian Elisee Vardaped.

In 453, Yazdegerd moved his court east to deal with the Hephthalites or related groups.

In 458, a Hephthalite king called Akhshunwar helped the Sasanian Emperor Peroz I (458-484) gain the Persian throne from his brother.[103] Before his accession to the throne, Peroz had been the Sasanian for Sistan in the far east of the Empire, and therefore had been one of the first to enter into contact with the Hepthalites and request their help.[104]

The Hephthalites may have also helped the Sasanians to eliminate another Hunnic tribe, the Kidarites: by 467, Peroz I, with Hephthalite aid, reportedly managed to capture Balaam and put an end to Kidarite rule in Transoxiana once and for all.[105] The weakened Kidarites had to take refuge in the area of Gandhara.

Victories over the Sasanian Empire (474-484 CE)

Later however, from 474 CE, Peroz I fought three wars with his former allies the Hephthalites. In the first two he himself was captured and ransomed.[100] Following his second defeat, he has to offer thirty mules loaded with silver drachms to the Hephthalites, and also had to leave his son Kavad as a hostage.[104] The coinage of Peroz I in effect flooded Tokharistan, taking precedence over all other Sasanian issues.[106]

In the third battle, at the Battle of Herat (484), he was vanquished by the Hepthalite king Kun-khi, and for the next two years the Hephthalites plundered and controlled the eastern part of the Sasanian Empire.[103][107] Perozduxt, the daughter of Peroz, was captured and became a lady as the Hephtalite court, as Queen of king Kun-khi.[107] She became pregnant, and had a daughter who would later marry her uncle Kavad I.[104] From 474 until the middle of the 6th century, the Sasanian Empire paid tribute to the Hephthalites.

Bactria came under formal Hephthalite rule from that time.[25] Taxes were levied by the Hephthalites over the local population: a contract in the Bactrian language from the archive of the Kingdom of Rob, has been found, which mentions taxes from the Hephthalites, requiring the sale of land in order to pay these taxes. It is dated to 483/484 CE.[25]

With the Sasanian Empire paying tribute to the Hephthalites, from 474, the Hephthalites themselves adopted the winged, triple-crescent crowned Peroz I as the design for their coinage.[100] Benefiting from the influx of Sasanian silver coins, the Hephthalites did not develop their own coinage: they either minted coins with the same designs as the Sasanians, or simply countermarked Sasanian coins with their own symbols.[25] Exceptionally, one coin type deviates from the Sasanian design, by showing the bust of a Hepthalite prince holding a drinking cup.[25] Overall, the Sasanians payed "an enormous tribute" to the Hephthalites, until the 530s and the rise of Khosrow I.[77]

Protectors of Kavad

Following their victory over Peroz I, the Hepthalites became protectors and benefactors of his son Kavad I, as Balash, a brother of Peroz took the Sasanian throne.[104] In 488, a Hepthalite army vanquished the Sasaniana army of Balash, and was able to put Kavadh I (488-496, 498-531) on the throne.[104]

In 496-498, Kavadh I was overthrown by the nobles and clergy, escaped and restored himself with a Hephthalite army. Hephthalite troops helped Kavadh at a siege of Edessa.[103]

Hephthalite conquest of Sogdiana (479 CE)

Local coinage of Samarkand, Sogdia, with the Hepthalite tamgha on the reverse.[108]

The Hephthalites may have conquered Sogdiana as early as 479 CE, as this is the date of the last known embassy of the Sogdians to China, or possibly a bit later around 509 CE, date of the last embassy from Samarkand.[109][110] As early as 484, the name of the famous Hephthalite ruler Akhshunwar who defeated Peroz I may be understood as the Sogdian title "'xs'wnd'r" ("power-holder").[109] The Hepthalites conquered the territory of Sogdiana, beyond the Oxus, which was incorporated into their Empire.[110] The Hepthalites may have built major fortified Hippodamian cities (rectangular walls with an orthogonal network of streets) in Sogdiana, such as Bukhara and Panjikent, as they had also in Herat, continuing the city-building efforts of the Kidarites.[109] The Hephtalites probably ruled over a confederation of local rulers or governors, linked through alliance agreements. One of these vassals may have been Asbar, ruler of Vardanzi, who also minted his own coinage during the period.[111]

The wealth of the Sasanian ransoms and tributes may have been reinvested in Sogdia, possibly explaining the prosperity of the region from that time.[109] Sogdia, at the center of a new Silk Road between China to the Sasanian Empire and the Byzantine Empire became extremely prosperous under its nomadic elites.[112] The Hephthalites took on the role of major intermediary on the Silk Road, after their great predecessor the Kushans, and contracted local Sogdians to carry on the trade of silk and other luxury goods between the China Empire and the Sasanian Empire.[113]

Because of the Hephthalite occupation of Sogdia, the original coinage of Sogdia came to be flooded by the influx Sasanian coins received as tribute to the Hephthalites. This coinage then spread along the Silk Road.[110] The symbol of the Hephthalites appears on the residual coinage of Samarkand, probably as a consequence of the Hephthalite control of Sogdia, and becomes prominent in Sogdian coinage from 500 to 700 CE, ending with the Muslim conquest of Transoxiana.[114]

Hephthalites in Tokharistan

A tax receipt in Bactrian for the Hephthalites in Tokharistan, 483/484 CE.

Following the destruction of the Kidarites in 466, the Hepthalites probably expanded into the previous Kidarite territory of Tokharistan. The presence of the Hepthalites in Tokharistan (Bactria) is securely dated to 484 CE, date of a tax receipt from the Kingdom of Rob mentioning the need to sell some land in order to pay Hephthalite taxes.[115]

Around this time, an Alchon Hun ruler named Mehama is know to have to have been based in Eastern Tokharistan, possibly indicating a partition of the region between the Hephthalites in western Tokharistan, centered on Balkh, and the Alchon Huns in eastern Tokharistan, who would then go on to expand into northern India.[116]Mehama appears in a letter in the Bactrian language he wrote in 461-462 CE, where he describes himself as "Meyam, King of the people of Kadag, the governor of the famous and prosperous King of Kings Peroz".[116] Kadag is Kadagstan, an area in southern Bactria, in the region of Baghlan. Significantly, he presents himself as a vassal of the Sasanian Empire king Peroz I, but Mehama was probably later able to wrestle autonomy or even independence as Sasanian power waned and he moved into India, with dire consequences for the Gupta Empire.[116][117][118]

Tarim Basin (circa 480-550 CE)

Kizil Caves swordsmen in Hephthalite style.[119][120] This mural was carbon dated to 432-538 CE.[121][122]
Painter in single-lapel caftan, Kizil Caves, circa 500 CE (enlarged detail).[123][124] The label at his feet reads: "The Painter Tutuka".[125]

In the late 5th century CE they expanded eastward through the Pamir Mountains, which are comparatively easy to cross, as did the Kushans before them, due to the presence of convenient plateaus between high peaks.[126] They occupied the western Tarim Basin (Kashgar and Khotan), taking control of the area from the Ruanruans, who had been collecting heavy tribute from the oasis cities, but were now weakening under the assaults of the Chinese Wei Dynasty.[38] In 479 they took the east end of the Tarim Basin, around the region of Turfan.[38] In 497-509, they pushed north of Turfan to the Urumchi region. In the early years of the 6th century, they were sending embassies from their dominions in the Tarim Basin to the Wei Dynasty.[38] The Hephthalites continued to occupy the Tarim Basin until the end of their Empire, circa 560 CE.[38][127]

As the territories ruled by the Hephthalites expanded into Central Asia and the Tarim Basin, the art of the Hephthalites, characterized by the clothing and hairstyles of the figures being represented, also came to be used in the areas they ruled, such as Sogdiana, Bamiyan or Kucha in the Tarim Basin (Kizil Caves, Kumtura Caves, Subashi reliquary).[119][128][129] In these areas appear dignitaries with caftans with a triangular collar on the right side, crowns with three crescents, some crowns with wings, and a unique hairstyle. Another marker is the two-point suspension system for swords, which seems to have been an Hephthalite innovation, and was introduced by them in the territories they controled.[119] The paintings from the Kucha region, particularly the swordmen in the Kizil Caves, appear to have been made during Hephthalite rule in the region, circa 480-550 CE.[119][130] The influence of the art of Gandhara in some of the earliest paintings at the Kizil Caves, dated to circa 500 CE, is considered as a consequence of the political unification of the area between Bactria and Kucha under the Hephthalites.[131]

The early Turks of the First Turkic Khaganate then took control of the Turfan and Kucha areas from around 560 CE, and, in alliance with the Sasanian Empire, became instrumental in the fall of the Hepthalite Empire.[132]

End of the Imperial Hephthalites (560 CE)

Hephthalite ambassadors ( Baiti and ? Uar ethnicities) at the Chinese court of Emperor Yuan of Liang in his capital Jingzhou in 526-539 CE. Portraits of Periodical Offering of Liang, 11th century Song copy.[133]

After Kavad I, the Hephthalites seem to have shifted their attention away from the Sasanian Empire, and Kavad's successor Khosrow I (531-579) was able to resume an expansionist policy to the east.[104] In 552, the Göktürks took over Mongolia, formed the First Turkic Khaganate, and by 558 reached the Volga.

Circa 555-567,[134] the Turks of the First Turkic Khaganate and the Sasanians under Khosrow I allied against the Hephthalites and defeated them after an eight-day battle near Qarshi, the Battle of Bukhara, perhaps in 557.[135] These events put an end to the Hephthalite Kingdom.[1] According to al-Tabari, Khosrow I had managed, through his expansionsit policy, to take control of "Sind, Bust, Al-Rukkhaj, Zabulistan, Tukharistan, Dardistan, and Kabulistan" as he ultimately defeated the Hephthalites with the help of the First Turkic Khaganate.[104]

The allies then fought each other and c. 571 drew a border along the Oxus, with the north of the Oxus belonging to the Turks, and the south belonging to the Sasanians.[1] After the battle, the Hephthalites withdrew to Bactria and replaced king Gatfar with Faghanish, the ruler of Chaghaniyan. Small Hephthalite principalities remained in the territory of today's Afghanistan, in the areas of Herat and Kabul.[1] What happened in the Tarim Basin is not clear.

By 581 or before, the western part of the First Turkic Khaganate separated and became the Western Turkic Khaganate.

Raids into the Sasanid Empire (7th century)

Circa 600, the Hephthalites were raiding the Sasanian Empire as far as Spahan in central Iran. The Hephthalites issued numerous coins imitating the coinage of Khosrow II, adding on the obverse a Hephthalite signature in Sogdian and a Tamgha symbol Hephthalite tamgha.jpg. Circa 606/607 CE, Khosrow recalled Smbat IV Bagratuni from Persian Armenia and sent him to Iran to repel the Hephthalites. Smbat, with the aid of a Persian prince named Datoyean, repelled the Hephthalites from Persia, and plundered their domains in eastern Khorasan, where Smbat is said to have killed their king in single combat.[136] Khosrow then gave Smbat the honorific title Khosrow Shun ("the Joy or Satisfaction of Khosrow"),[136] while his son Varaztirots II Bagratuni received the honorific name Javitean Khosrow ("Eternal Khosrow").[136]

Decline

The triple-crescent crown in this Penjikent mural (top left corner), is considered as a Hephthalite marker. 7th-early 8th century.[137][138]

The area around the Oxus in Bactria contained numerous Hephthalites principalities, remnants of the great Hephthalite Empire destroyed by the alliance of the Turks and the Sasanians.[139] They are reported in the Zarafshan valley, Chaghaniyan, Khuttal, Termez, Balkh, Badghis, Herat and Kabul.[140]

From 625 CE, the territory of the Hephthalites was taken over by the Western Turks, forming the new entity of the Tokhara Yabghus. The Tokhara Yabghus or "Yabghus of Tokharistan" (Chinese: ; pinyin: T?hu?luó Yèhù), were a dynasty of Western Turk sub-kings, with the title "Yabghus", who ruled from 625 CE south of the Oxus river, in the area of Tokharistan and beyond, with some smaller polities surviving in the area of Badakshan until 758 CE. Their legacy was extended to the southeast until the 9th century CE, with the Turk Shahis and the Zunbils.

Circa 651, during the Arab conquest, the ruler of Badghis was involved in the fall of the last Sassanian Shah Yazdegerd III. Circa 705, the Hephthalite rulers of Badghis and Chaghaniyan surrendered to the Arabs under Qutaiba ibn Muslim. Some remnants, not necessarily dynastic, of the Hephthalite confederation would be incorporated into the Göktürks, as an Old Tibetan document, dated to the 8th century, mentioned the tribe Heb-dal among 12 Dru-gu tribes ruled by Eastern Turkic khagan Bug-chor, i.e. Qapaghan Qaghan[141]

Religion and culture

The Buddhist "Hunter King" from Kakrak, a valley next to Bamiyan is often presented as a result of Hephthalite influence, especially in reference to the "triple-crescent crown". Wall paintings from the 7th-8th century, Kabul Museum.[142][143]

They were said to practice polyandry and artificial cranial deformation. Chinese sources said they worshiped 'foreign gods', 'demons', the 'heaven god' or the 'fire god'. The Gokturks told the Byzantines that they had walled cities. Some Chinese sources said that they had no cities and lived in tents. Litvinsky tries to resolve this by saying that they were nomads who moved into the cities they had conquered. There were some government officials but central control was weak and local dynasties paid tribute.[144]

According to Song Yun, the Chinese Buddhist monk who visited the Hephthalite territory in 540 and "provides accurate accounts of the people, their clothing, the empresses and court procedures and traditions of the people and he states the Hephthalites did not recognize the Buddhist religion and they preached pseudo gods, and killed animals for their meat."[5] It is reported that some Hephthalites often destroyed Buddhist monasteries but these were rebuilt by others. According to Xuanzang, the third Chinese pilgrim who visited the same areas as Song Yun about 100 years later, the capital of Chaghaniyan had five monasteries.[55]

Buddhas of Bamiyan
Smaller 38 meter "Eastern" Buddha
Larger 55 meter "Western" Buddha
The Buddhas of Bamiyan, carbon-dated to 544-595 CE and 591-644 CE respectively,[145][146] were built under Hephthalite rule in the region.[80][147]Murals of probable Hephthalite rulers as royal sponsors appear in the paintings of the ceiling over the smaller Buddha.[71][72][70]

According to historian André Wink, "...in the Hephthalite dominion Buddhism was predominant but there was also a religious sediment of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism."[7]Balkh had some 100 Buddhist monasteries and 30,000 monks. Outside the town was a large Buddhist monastery, later known as Naubahar.[55]

There were Christians among the Hephthalites by the mid-6th century, although nothing is known of how they were converted. In 549, they sent a delegation to Aba I, the patriarch of the Church of the East, asking him to consecrate a priest chosen by them as their bishop, which the patriarch did. The new bishop then performed obeisance to both the patriarch and the Sasanian king, Khosrow I. The seat of the bishopric is not known, but it may have been Badghis-Qadi?tan, the bishop of which, Gabriel, sent a delegate to the synod of Patriarch Ishoyahb I in 585.[148] It was probably placed under the metropolitan of Herat. The church's presence among the Hephthalites enabled them to expand their missionary work across the Oxus. In 591, some Hephthalites serving in the army of the rebel Bahram Chobin were captured by Khosrow II and sent to the Roman emperor Maurice as a diplomatic gift. They had Nestorian crosses tattooed on their foreheads.[8][149]

The Alchon Huns (formerly considered as Hephthalites) in South Asia

Find spots of epigraphic inscriptions indicating local control by the Alchon Huns in India between 500-530 CE.[150]

The Alchon Huns, who invaded northern India and were known there as "Has", have long been considered as a part or a sub-division of the Hephthalites, or as their eastern branch, but now tend to be considered as a separate entity, who may have been displaced by the settlement of the Hephthalites in Bactria.[151][152][153] Historians such as Beckwith, referring to Étienne de la Vaissière, say that the Hephthalites were not necessarily one and the same as the Hunas (Sveta Huna).[154] According to de la Vaissiere, the Hephthalites are not directly identified in classical sources alongside that of the Hunas.[155] They were initially based in the Oxus basin in Central Asia and established their control over Gandhara in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent by about 465 CE.[156] From there, they fanned out into various parts of northern, western, and central India.

In India, these invading people were called Hunas, or "Sveta Huna" (White Huns) in Sanskrit.[33] The Has are mentioned in several ancient texts such as the R?m?ya?a, Mah?bh?rata, Puras, and Kalidasa's Raghuvaa.[157] The first Hunas, probably Kidarites, were initially defeated by Emperor Skandagupta of the Gupta Empire in the 5th century CE.[158] In the early 6th century CE, the Alchon Hun Hunas in turn overran the part of the Gupta Empire that was to their southeast and had conquered Central and North India.[6] Gupta Emperor Bhanugupta defeated the Hunas under Toramana in 510, and his son Mihirakula was repulsed by Yashodharman in 528 CE.[159][160] The Hunas were driven out of India by the kings Yasodharman and Narasimhagupta, during the early 6th century.[161][162]

Possible descendants

Ambassador from Chaganian visiting king Varkhuman of Samarkand 648-651 CE. Afrasiyab murals, Samarkand.[9][163][164][165] Chaganian was an "Hephthalite buffer principality" between Denov and Termez.[9]

A number of groups may have descended from the Hephthalites.[166][167]

  • Pashtuns: The Hephthalites may have contributed to the ethnogenesis of Pashtuns. Yu. V. Gankovsky, a Soviet historian on Afghanistan, stated: "Pashtun began as a union of largely East Iranian tribes, which became the initial ethnic stratum of the Pashtun ethnogenesis dating from the middle of the first millennium CE, and is connected with the dissolution of the Hephthalite confederacy."[168]
    • Durrani: The Durrani Pashtuns of Afghanistan were called "Abdali" before 1747. According to linguist Georg Morgenstierne, their tribal name Abd?l? may have "something to do with" the Hephthalite.[169] This hypothesis was endorsed by historian Aydogdy Kurbanov, who indicated that after the collapse of the Hephthalite confederacy, they likely assimilated into different local populations and that the Abdali may be one of the tribes of Hephthalite origin.[170]
  • Khalaj: The Khalaj people are first mentioned in the 7th-9th centuries in the area of Ghazni, Qalati Ghilji, and Zabulistan in present-day Afghanistan. They spoke Khalaj Turkic. Al-Khwarizmi mentioned them as a remnant tribe of the Hephthalites. However, according to linguist Sims-Williams, archaeological documents do not support the suggestion that the Khalaj were the Hephthalites' successors,[171] while according to historian V. Minorsky, the Khalaj were "perhaps only politically associated with the Hephthalites." Some of the Khalaj were later Pashtunized, after which they transformed into the Pashtun Ghilji tribe.[172]
  • Kanjina: a Saka tribe linked to the Indo-Iranian Kumijis[173][174] and incorporated into the Hephthalites. Kanjinas were possibly Turkicized later, as al-Khwarizmi called them "Kanjina Turks". However, Bosworth and Clauson contended that al-Khwarizmi was simply using "Turks" "in the vague and inaccurate sense".[175]
  • Karluks: (or Qarlughids) were reported as settled in Ghazni and Zabulistan, present-day Afghanistan, in the thirteenth century. Many Muslim geographers identified "Karluks" Khallukh ~ Kharlukh with "Khalajes" Khalaj from confusion, as the two names were similar and these two groups dwelt near each other.[176][177]
  • Abdal is a name associated with the Hephthalites. It is an alternate name for the Äynu people.

Hephthalite rulers

See also

Notes

  1. ^ la Vaisière proposes underlying Turkic Yeti-Al, later translated to Iranian Haft-Al
  2. ^ la Vaissière also cited Sims-Williams, who noted that initial ?- ? of Bactrian form ? ?bod?lo precluded etymology based on Iranian haft & consequently hypothetical underlying Turkic yeti "seven"
  3. ^ La Vaissière (2012: 144-150) pointed out that "[a] recently published seal gives the title of a fifth-century lord of Samarkand as 'king of the Oglar Huns.'" (? (?)? - ).[64][65] See the seal and this reading of the inscription in Hans Bakker (2020: 13, note 17), referencing from Sim-Williams (2011: 72-74).[66] "Oglar" is thought to derive from the Turk o?ul-lar > o?lar "sons; princes" plus an Iranian adjective suffix -g.[67] Alternatively, and less likely, "Oglarg" could correspond to "Walkon", and thus the Alchon Huns, although the seal is closer to Kidarites coin types.[67] Another seal found in the Kashmir reads "?(?)?" (seal AA2.3).[66] The Kashmir seal was published by Grenet, Ur-Rahman, and Sims-Williams (2006:125-127) who compared Ularg on the seal to the ethnonym "people of Wilarg" attested in a Bactrian document written in 629 CE.[68]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Benjamin, Craig (16 April 2015). The Cambridge World History: Volume 4, A World with States, Empires and Networks 1200 BCE-900 CE. Cambridge University Press. p. 484. ISBN 978-1-316-29830-5.
  2. ^ Alram, Michael; Filigenzi, Anna; Kinberger, Michaela; Nell, Daniel; Pfisterer, Matthias; Vondrovec, Klaus. "The Countenance of the other (The Coins of the Huns and Western Turks in Central Asia and India) 2012-2013 exhibit: 10. HEPHTHALITES IN BACTRIA". Pro.geo.univie.ac.at. Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna. Retrieved 2017.
  3. ^ Alram, Michael (2008). "EIN SCHATZFUND HEPHTHALITISCHER DRACHMEN AUS BAKTRIEN (A treasure discovery of Hephthalite Drachms from Bactria)" (PDF). Numismatische Zeitschrift. 116/117: 253-268.
  4. ^ a b Bivar, A. D. H. "HEPHTHALITES". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2017.
  5. ^ a b "Chinese Travelers in Afghanistan". Abdul Hai Habibi. alamahabibi.com. 1969. Retrieved 2012.
  6. ^ a b c d e f A.Kurbanov "THE HEPHTHALITES-ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL ANALYSIS" 2010
  7. ^ a b Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early medieval India. André Wink, p. 110. E. J. Brill.
  8. ^ a b David Wilmshurst, The Martyred Church: A History of the Church of the East (East and West Publishing, 2011), pp. 77-78.
  9. ^ a b c Dani, Ahmad Hasan; Litvinsky, B. A. (January 1996). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A.D. 250 to 750. UNESCO. p. 177. ISBN 978-92-3-103211-0.
  10. ^ Dignas, Assistant Professor of History Beate; Dignas, Beate; Winter, Engelbert (2007). Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity: Neighbours and Rivals. Cambridge University Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-521-84925-8.
  11. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). The Fall Of The West: The Death Of The Roman Superpower. Orion. ISBN 978-0-297-85760-0.
  12. ^ Rezakhani, Khodadad. From the Kushans to the Western Turks. p. 208.
  13. ^ Rezakhani, Khodadad. From the Kushans to the Western Turks. p. 208.
  14. ^ ALRAM, MICHAEL (2014). "From the Sasanians to the Huns New Numismatic Evidence from the Hindu Kush". The Numismatic Chronicle (1966-). 174: 279. ISSN 0078-2696. JSTOR 44710198.
  15. ^ Rezakhani, Khodadad. From the Kushans to the Western Turks. p. 208.
  16. ^ a b The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila, Michael Maas p.287
  17. ^ Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017). ReOrienting the Sasanians: East Iran in Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. p. 213. ISBN 9781474400312.
  18. ^ Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017). ReOrienting the Sasanians: East Iran in Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. p. 217. ISBN 9781474400312.
  19. ^ Whitfield, Susan (2018). Silk, Slaves, and Stupas: Material Culture of the Silk Road. Univ of California Press. p. 185. ISBN 9780520957664.
  20. ^ ALRAM, MICHAEL (2014). "From the Sasanians to the Huns New Numismatic Evidence from the Hindu Kush". The Numismatic Chronicle (1966-). 174: 278-279. ISSN 0078-2696. JSTOR 44710198.
  21. ^ Bailey, H.W. (1979) Dictionary of Khotan Saka. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 482
  22. ^ Kurbanov p. 27
  23. ^ quote: "Sept Aryas". Tremblay X., "Pour une histoire de la Sérinde. Le manichéisme parmi les peuples et religions d'Asie Centrale d'après les sources primaires, Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für Iranistik, 28, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademieder Wissenschaften, Vienne 2001, 185; cited in la Vaissière, Étienne de, "Theophylact's Turkish Exkurs Revisited" in De Samarcande à Istanbul: étapes orientales . Hommages à Pierre Chuvin II, Paris, CNRS Editions, 2015, p. 93-94 of pp. 91-102
  24. ^ a b c "A seal bearing the legend ? ?, "Yabghu/governor of the Hephthal," shows the local, Bactrian form of their name, ?bod?l, which is commonly abbreviated to on their coins" in Rezakhani, Khodadad. From the Kushans to the Western Turks. p. 208.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Alram, Michael; Filigenzi, Anna; Kinberger, Michaela; Nell, Daniel; Pfisterer, Matthias; Vondrovec, Klaus. "The Countenance of the other (The Coins of the Huns and Western Turks in Central Asia and India) 2012-2013 exhibit: 10. HEPHTHALITES IN BACTRIA". Pro.geo.univie.ac.at. Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna. Retrieved 2017.
  26. ^ Rezakhani, Khodadad (15 March 2017). ReOrienting the Sasanians: East Iran in Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-4744-0031-2.
  27. ^ HEIDEMANN, STEFAN (2015). "THE HEPHTHALITE DRACHMS MINTED IN BALKH. A HOARD, A SEQUENCE, AND A NEW READING" (PDF). The Numismatic Chronicle. 175: 340.
  28. ^ Rezakhani, Khodadad. "From the Kushans to the Western Turks": 209. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  29. ^ Kurbanov, Aydogdy. (2013) "The Hephthalites Disappeared Or Not?" in Studia et Documenta Turcologica, 1. Presa Universitar? Clujean?. p. 88 of 87-94
  30. ^ Balogh, Dániel (12 March 2020). Hunnic Peoples in Central and South Asia: Sources for their Origin and History. Barkhuis. pp. 44-47. ISBN 978-94-93194-01-4.
  31. ^ Theobald, Ulrich. "Yeda , Hephthalites (www.chinaknowledge.de)". www.chinaknowledge.de.
  32. ^ Enoki, K. "The Liang shih-kung-t'u on the origin and migration of the Hua or Ephthalites," Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 7:1-2 (December 1970):37-45
  33. ^ a b History of Buddhism in Afghanistan, Alexander Berzin, Study Buddhism
  34. ^ Dinesh Prasad Saklani (1998). Ancient Communities of the Himalaya. Indus Publishing. p. 187. ISBN 978-81-7387-090-3.
  35. ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 169. ISBN 978-81-208-1540-7.
  36. ^ a b c d e Rezakhani, Khodadad. From the Kushans to the Western Turks. p. 208-209.
  37. ^ Kageyama, Etsuko (2016). "Change of suspension systems of daggers and swords in eastern Eurasia: Its relation to the Hephthalite occupation of Central Asia" (PDF). ZINBUN. 46: 200.
  38. ^ a b c d e Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. pp. 30-31. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3.
  39. ^ KURBANOV, AYDOGDY (2010). THE HEPHTHALITES: ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL ANALYSIS (PDF). Berlin: Berlin Freie Universität. pp. 135-136.
  40. ^ "DELBARJ?N - Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org.
  41. ^ Ilyasov, Jangar. "The Hephthalite Terracotta // Silk Road Art and Archaeology. Vol. 7. Kamakura, 2001, 187-200": 187-197. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  42. ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan; Litvinsky, B. A. (January 1996). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A.D. 250 to 750. UNESCO. p. 183. ISBN 978-92-3-103211-0.
  43. ^ a b "On The Nationality of the Ephthalites" (PDF). Retrieved 2017. or "Hephtalites" or "On the Nationality of the Hephtalites".
  44. ^ Denis Sinor (1990). The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, volume 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521243049. Retrieved 2017.
  45. ^ University of Indiana (1954). "Asia Major, volume 4, part 1". Institute of History and Philology of the Academia Sinica. Retrieved 2017.
  46. ^ M. A. Shaban, "Khurasan at the Time of the Arab Conquest", in Iran and Islam, in memory of Vlademir Minorsky, Edinburgh University Press, (1971), p481; ISBN 0-85224-200-X.
  47. ^ David Christian A History of Russia, Inner Asia and Mongolia (Oxford: Basil Blackwell) 1998 p248
  48. ^ KURBANOV, AYDOGDY (2010). THE HEPHTHALITES: ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL ANALYSIS (PDF). Berlin: Berlin Freie Universität. p. 14.
  49. ^ Adas, Michael (2001). Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Temple University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-56639-832-9.
  50. ^ Baumer, Christoph (18 April 2018). History of Central Asia, The: 4-volume set. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-83860-868-2.
  51. ^ Talbot, Tamara Abelson Rice (Mrs David (1965). Ancient arts of Central Asia. Thames and Hudson. p. 93.
  52. ^ a b c d Baumer, Christoph (18 April 2018). History of Central Asia, The: 4-volume set. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 97-99. ISBN 978-1-83860-868-2.
  53. ^ Robert L. Canfield (2002). Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press P. 272.pp.49. ISBN 9780521522915. Retrieved 2017.
  54. ^ Denis Sinor, "The establishment and dissolution of the Türk empire" in Denis Sinor, "The Cambridge history of early Inner Asia, Volume 1", Cambridge University Press, 1990. p. 300.
  55. ^ a b c d e f Litvinsky, B.A.; Litvinsky, B. A. (1996). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A.D. 250 to 750. Paris: UNESCO. pp. 138-154. ISBN 978-92-3-103211-0.
  56. ^ Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017). ReOrienting the Sasanians: East Iran in Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. p. 135. ISBN 9781474400305.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  57. ^ R. Frye, "Central Asia in pre-Islamic Times" Archived 15 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Encyclopaedia Iranica
  58. ^ G. Ambros/P.A. Andrews/L. Bazin/A. Gökalp/B. Flemming and others, "Turks", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition 2006
  59. ^ A.D.H. Bivar, "Hephthalites", in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition.
  60. ^ Enoki, K. (19659) "On the Nationality of Ephthalites", in Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko 18. Tokyo. p. 17-18 of pp. 1-58
  61. ^ Yu, Taishan (2011) "History of the Yeda tribe (Hephthalites) Further Issues" In Eurasian Studies, 1 Beijing: Commercial Press. pp. 66-119
  62. ^ Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017). ReOrienting the Sasanians: East Iran in Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. p. 135. ISBN 9781474400305. The suggestion that the Hephthalites were originally of Turkic origin and only later adopted Bactrian as their administrative, and possibly native, language (de la Vaissière 2007: 122) seems to be most prominent at present.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  63. ^ de la Vaissière, Étienne (2007). "Is There a "Nationality of the Hephthalites"?". Hephthalites. Bulletin of the Asia Institute 17. pp. 119-137.
  64. ^ Vaissière, Etienne de la (212). Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity: 5 Central Asia and the Silk Road. Oxford University Press. pp. 144-150.
  65. ^ Johnson, Scott Fitzgerald. The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity. Oxford University Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-19-027753-6.
  66. ^ a b Bakker, Hans T. The Alkhan: A Hunnic People in South Asia. Barkhuis. p. 13, note 17. ISBN 978-94-93194-00-7.
  67. ^ a b Wan, Xiang. "A study on the Kidarites: Reexamination of documentary sources". Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi, vol. 19: 286.
  68. ^ Grenet, Frantz; Ur-Rahman, Ur; Sim-Williams, Nicholas (2006). "A Hunnish Kushanshah". Journal in Inner Asian Art and Archaeology. 1: 125-131.
  69. ^ a b c d e Higham, Charles (14 May 2014). Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing. pp. 141-142. ISBN 978-1-4381-0996-1.
  70. ^ a b c d Azarpay, Guitty; Belenickij, Aleksandr M.; Mar?ak, Boris Il'i?; Dresden, Mark J. (January 1981). Sogdian Painting: The Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art. University of California Press. pp. 92-93. ISBN 978-0-520-03765-6.
  71. ^ a b c d KURBANOV, AYDOGDY (2010). "THE HEPHTHALITES: ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL ANALYSIS" (PDF): 67. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  72. ^ a b c d e Azarpay, Guitty; Belenickij, Aleksandr M.; Mar?ak, Boris Il'i?; Dresden, Mark J. (January 1981). Sogdian Painting: The Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art. University of California Press. p. 92-93. ISBN 978-0-520-03765-6.
  73. ^ Frye, Richard Nelson. Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-521-52291-5.
  74. ^ M. Schottky, "Huns", in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition
  75. ^ a b Vaissière, Etienne de la (2003). "Is There a "Nationality of the Hephtalites"?". Bulletin of the Asia Institute. 17: 122.
  76. ^ "The Huns are beyond doubt the political and ethnic inheritors of the old Xiongnu empire" in Vaissière, Etienne de la (212). Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity: 5 Central Asia and the Silk Road. Oxford University Press. pp. 144-155 (7-18).
  77. ^ a b Vaissière, Etienne de la (212). Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity: 5 Central Asia and the Silk Road. Oxford University Press. pp. 144-146 (7-9).
  78. ^ Lomazoff, Amanda; Ralby, Aaron. The Atlas of Military History. Simon and Schuster. p. 246. ISBN 978-1-60710-985-3.
  79. ^ Procopius, History of the Wars. Book I, Ch. III, "The Persian War"
  80. ^ a b Liu, Xinru (9 July 2010). The Silk Road in World History. Oxford University Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-19-979880-3.
  81. ^ History of Civilizations of Central Asia, The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750, Volume III (PDF). UNESCO Publishing. 1996. pp. 158-157.
  82. ^ Enoki, p. 1-14
  83. ^ Kurbanov pp2-32
  84. ^ "White Huns", Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia
  85. ^ Du You, Tongdian "Vol. 193" folio 5b-6a
  86. ^ "Ephthalites" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
  87. ^ Grousset (1970), p. 67.
  88. ^ a b Vaissière, Etienne de la (2003). "Is There a "Nationality of the Hephtalites"?". Bulletin of the Asia Institute. 17: 121.
  89. ^ Lee, Joo-Yup; Kuang, Shuntu (2017). "A Comparative Analysis of Chinese Historical Sources and Y-DNA Studies with Regard to the Early and Medieval Turkic Peoples". Inner Asia. (19): p. 199-201 of pp. 197-239
  90. ^ Weishu, vol. 103 txt: ",[...] ,", tr: "The Gaoju, [...] their language and the Xiongnu's are similar though differ a little; or to say it differently, they are the sororal nephews/sons-in-laws of the Xiongnu"
  91. ^ Vaissière, Etienne de la (2003). "Is There a "Nationality of the Hephtalites"?". Bulletin of the Asia Institute. 17: 120.
  92. ^ Vaissière, Etienne de la (2003). "Is There a "Nationality of the Hephtalites"?". Bulletin of the Asia Institute. 17: 123.
  93. ^ a b c Grenet, Frantz (15 May 2004). "Tavka (k istorii drevnix tamo?ennyx sooru?enij Uzbekistana). Ta?kent-Samarkand, Izd. A. Kadyri / Institut Arxeologii A.N. Uzb, 141 p., 68 ill. + 13 pl. couleurs h.-t. (Texte bilingue ouzbek-russe, résumé en anglais). [Tavka (contribution à l'histoire des anciens édifices frontaliers de l'Ouzbékistan)]". Abstracta Iranica. Revue bibliographique pour le domaine irano-aryen (in French). 25. doi:10.4000/abstractairanica.4213. ISSN 0240-8910.
  94. ^ Rakhmanov, Shaymardankul A. (1 January 2016). "Wall Paintings from Tavka, Uzbekistan". Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology. 7: 31-54. doi:10.1484/J.JIAAA.4.2017003. ISSN 1783-9025.
  95. ^ a b Margottini, Claudio (20 September 2013). After the Destruction of Giant Buddha Statues in Bamiyan (Afghanistan) in 2001: A UNESCO's Emergency Activity for the Recovering and Rehabilitation of Cliff and Niches. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 12-13. ISBN 978-3-642-30051-6.
  96. ^ Kurbanov, Aydogdy (2014). "THE HEPHTHALITES: ICONOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS" (PDF). Tyragetia. VIII.
  97. ^ Ilyasov, Jangar. "The Hephthalite Terracotta // Silk Road Art and Archaeology. Vol. 7. Kamakura, 2001, 187-200": 187. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  98. ^ Kageyama (Kobe City University of Foreign Studies, Kobe, Japan), Etsuko (2007). "The Winged Crown and the Triple-crescent Crown in the Sogdian Funerary Monuments from China: Their Relation to the Hephthalite Occupation of Central Asia" (PDF). Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology. 2: 12. doi:10.1484/J.JIAAA.2.302540. S2CID 130640638.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  99. ^ Kurbanov, p164; Merv p167.
  100. ^ a b c The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila by Michael Maas p.287
  101. ^ HEIDEMANN, STEFAN (2015). "THE HEPHTHALITE DRACHMS MINTED IN BALKH. A HOARD, A SEQUENCE, AND A NEW READING" (PDF). The Numismatic Chronicle. 175: 340.
  102. ^ Coins 47 and 48 in Alram, Michael (2008). "EIN SCHATZFUND HEPHTHALITISCHER DRACHMEN AUS BAKTRIEN (A treasure discovery of Hephthalite Drachms from Bactria)" (PDF). Numismatische Zeitschrift. 116/117: 253-268.
  103. ^ a b c History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Ahmad Hasan Dani, B. A. Litvinsky, Unesco p.38ff
  104. ^ a b c d e f g Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017). ReOrienting the Sasanians: East Iran in Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 125-156. ISBN 9781474400312.
  105. ^ Zeimal 1996, p. 130.
  106. ^ ZEIMAL', E. V. (1994). "The Circulation of Coins in Central Asia during the Early Medieval Period (Fifth-Eighth Centuries A.D.)". Bulletin of the Asia Institute. 8: 253. ISSN 0890-4464.
  107. ^ a b "The third incursion cost him his own life and his camp was captured together with his daughter who was taken as wife by the Hephtalite king Kun-khi" in Adylov, ?uhrat T.; Mirzaahmedov, Jamal K. (2006). ON THE HISTORY OF THE ANCIENT TOWN OF VARD?NA AND THE OBAVIJA FEUD in ?r?n ud An?r?n. Studies Presented to B. I. Mar?ak (1st part). Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina. p. 36.
  108. ^ See coin type 46 in Alram, Michael (2008). "EIN SCHATZFUND HEPHTHALITISCHER DRACHMEN AUS BAKTRIEN (A treasure discovery of Hephthalite Drachms from Bactria)" (PDF). Numismatische Zeitschrift. 116/117: 253-268.
  109. ^ a b c d de la Vaissière, Étienne (2007). "Is There a "Nationality of the Hephthalites"?". Hephthalites. Bulletin of the Asia Institute 17. pp. 128-129 and note 35.
  110. ^ a b c Pei ? (Northwest University ? Xi'an, China), Chengguo (2017). "The Silk Road and the economy of Gaochang: evidence on the Circulation of silver coins". Silk Road. 15: 57, note 5.
  111. ^ Adylov, ?uhrat T.; Mirzaahmedov, Jamal K. (2006). ON THE HISTORY OF THE ANCIENT TOWN OF VARD?NA AND THE OBAVIJA FEUD in ?r?n ud An?r?n. Studies Presented to B. I. Mar?ak (1st part). Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina. pp. 34-36.
  112. ^ "Sogdiana under its nomadic elites became the principal center of agricultural wealth and population in Central Asia." and paragraph on "The Shift of the Trade Routes" in Vaissière, Etienne de la (212). Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity: 5 Central Asia and the Silk Road. Oxford University Press. pp. 144-160.
  113. ^ Millward, James A. (2013). The Silk Road: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press USA. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-19-978286-4.
  114. ^ Rezakhani, Khodadad. ReOrienting the Sasanians: East Iran in Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-4744-0030-5.
  115. ^ Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017). ReOrienting the Sasanians: East Iran in Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. p. 126. ISBN 9781474400312.
  116. ^ a b c Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017). ReOrienting the Sasanians: East Iran in Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. p. 140-141. ISBN 9781474400305.
  117. ^ Alram, Michael; Filigenzi, Anna; Kinberger, Michaela; Nell, Daniel; Pfisterer, Matthias; Vondrovec, Klaus. "The Countenance of the other (The Coins of the Huns and Western Turks in Central Asia and India) 2012-2013 exhibit: 8. ALKHAN: CONTEMPORARIES OF KHINGILA". Pro.geo.univie.ac.at. Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna. Retrieved 2017.
  118. ^ Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017). ReOrienting the Sasanians: East Iran in Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 120-122. ISBN 9781474400305.
  119. ^ a b c d Kageyama, Etsuko (2016). "Change of suspension systems of daggers and swords in eastern Eurasia: Its relation to the Hephthalite occupation of Central Asia" (PDF). ZINBUN. 46: 200-202.
  120. ^ Kurbanov, Aydogdy (2014). "THE HEPHTHALITES: ICONOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS" (PDF). Tyragetia. 8: 324.
  121. ^ MUZIO, CIRO LO (2008). "Remarks on the Paintings from the Buddhist Monastery of Fayaz Tepe (Southern Uzbekistan)". Bulletin of the Asia Institute. 22: 202, note 45. ISSN 0890-4464. JSTOR 24049243.
  122. ^ "MIA Berlin: Turfan Collection: Kizil". depts.washington.edu.
  123. ^ Hertel, Herbert. Along the Ancient Silk Routes: Central Asian Art from the West Berlin State Museums. pp. 55-56.
  124. ^ Rowland, Benjamin (1970). The Art of Central Asia. p. 104.
  125. ^ Härtel, Herbert; Yaldiz, Marianne; Kunst (Germany), Museum für Indische; N.Y.), Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York. Along the Ancient Silk Routes: Central Asian Art from the West Berlin State Museums : an Exhibition Lent by the Museum Für Indische Kunst, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-87099-300-8.
  126. ^ Millward, James A. (2010). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3.
  127. ^ Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. p. 375. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3.
  128. ^ Ilyasov, Jangar (2001). "The Hephthalite Terracotta // Silk Road Art and Archaeology. Vol. 7. Kamakura, 2001, 187-200". Silk Road Art and Archaeology: 187-197.
  129. ^ "CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS xiv. E. Iranian Art - Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org.
  130. ^ Kurbanov, Aydogdy (2014). "THE HEPHTHALITES: ICONOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS" (PDF). Tyragetia. 8: 329.
  131. ^ Kageyama quoting the research of S. Hiyama, "Study on the first-style murals of Kucha: analysis of some motifs related to the Hephthalite's period", in Kageyama, Etsuko (2016). "Change of suspension systems of daggers and swords in eastern Eurasia: Its relation to the Hephthalite occupation of Central Asia" (PDF). ZINBUN. 46: 200.
  132. ^ Hiyama, Satomi. "Reflection on the Geopolitical Context of the Silk Road in the First and Second Indo-Iranian Style Wall Paintings in Kucha". Silk Road - Meditations: 2015 International Conference on the Kizil Cave Paintings, Collection of Research Papers: 81.
  133. ^ DE LA VAISSIÈRE, ÉTIENNE (2003). "Is There a "Nationality of the Hephtalites"?". Bulletin of the Asia Institute. 17: 127. ISSN 0890-4464. JSTOR 24049310.
  134. ^ The war is variously dated. 560-565 (Gumilyov, 1967); 555 (Stark, 2008, Altturkenzeit, 210); 557 (Iranica, Khosrow ii); 558-561 (Iranica.hephthalites); 557-563 (Baumer, Hist. Cent. Asia, 2, 174); 557-561 (Sinor, 1990, Hist. Inner Asia, 301); 560-563 (UNESCO, Hist. Civs. C. A., iii, 143); 562- 565 (Christian, Hist. Russia, Mongolia, C. A., 252); c. 565 (Grousset,Empire Steppes, 1970, p. 82); 567 (Chavannes, 1903, Documents, 236 and 229)
  135. ^ The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila, Michael Maas, Cambridge University Press, 2014 p.284sq
  136. ^ a b c Martindale, Jones & Morris (1992), pp. 1363-1364
  137. ^ Kageyama (Kobe City University of Foreign Studies, Kobe, Japan), Etsuko (2007). "The Winged Crown and the Triple-crescent Crown in the Sogdian Funerary Monuments from China: Their Relation to the Hephthalite Occupation of Central Asia" (PDF). Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology. 2: 20, drawing e. doi:10.1484/J.JIAAA.2.302540. S2CID 130640638.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  138. ^ The drawing referenced by Kageyama is located in MAR?AK, BORIS (1990). "LES FOUILLES DE PENDJIKENT" (PDF). Comptes redus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres: 298.
  139. ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan; Litvinsky, B. A. (January 1996). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A.D. 250 to 750. UNESCO. p. 368. ISBN 978-92-3-103211-0.
  140. ^ The Huns by Hyun Jin Kim, Routledge p.56
  141. ^ Venturi, Federica (2008). "An Old Tibetan document on the Uighurs: A new translation and interpretation". Journal of Asian History. 1 (42): 21.
  142. ^ Compareti, Matteo (2008). "The Painting of the "Hunter-King" at Kakrak: Royal Figure or Divine Being?". Studio Editoriale Gordini: 133.
  143. ^ Kurbanov, Aydogdy (2014). "THE HEPHTHALITES: ICONOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS" (PDF). Tyragetia. VIII: 329-330.
  144. ^ Litvinsky, pp144-47
  145. ^ Blänsdorf, Catharina (2015). "Dating of the Buddha Statues - AMS 14C Dating of Organic Materials". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  146. ^ Petzet (Ed.), Michael (2009). The Giant Buddhas of Bamiyan. Safeguarding the remains (PDF). ICOMOS. pp. 18-19.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  147. ^ History of Civilizations of Central Asia, The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750, Volume III (PDF). UNESCO Publishing. 1996. pp. 158-157.
  148. ^ Erica C. D. Hunter (1996), "The Church of the East in Central Asia", Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester 78(3): 129-142, at 133-134.
  149. ^ Mehmet Tezcan, "On 'Nestorian' Christianity Among the Hephthalites or the White Huns", in Li Tang and Dietmar W. Winkler (eds.), Artifact, Text, Context: Studies on Syriac Christianity in China and Central Asia (Lit Verlag, 2020), pp. 195-212.
  150. ^ Hans T. Bakker (26 November 2016). Monuments of Hope, Gloom, and Glory in the Age of the Hunnic Wars: 50 years that changed India (484 - 534) (Speech). 24th Gonda Lecture. Amsterdam. Archived from the original on 25 November 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  151. ^ Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017). ReOrienting the Sasanians: East Iran in Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 105-124. ISBN 9781474400305.
  152. ^ Compareti, Matteo (2014). Some Examples of Central Asian Decorative Elements in Ajanta and Bagh Indian Paintings (PDF). The Silk Road Foundation.
  153. ^ Rezakhani, Khodadad. From the Kushans to the Western Turks. p. 207.
  154. ^ Empires of the Silk Road. 2009. p. 406.
  155. ^ de la Vaissiere, Etienne. "Huns et Xiongnu". Central Asiatic Journal (49): 3-26.
  156. ^ Atreyi Biswas (1971). The Political History of the Has in India. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.
  157. ^ Upendra Thakur (1967). The Has in India. Chowkhamba Prakashan. p. 52-55.
  158. ^ Ancient India: History and Culture by Balkrishna Govind Gokhale, p.69
  159. ^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen, p.220
  160. ^ Encyclopaedia of Indian Events and Dates by S. B. Bhattacherje, p.A15
  161. ^ India: A History by John Keay, p.158
  162. ^ History of India, in Nine Volumes: Vol. II by Vincent A. Smith, p.290
  163. ^ Baumer, Christoph (18 April 2018). History of Central Asia, The: 4-volume set. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 243. ISBN 978-1-83860-868-2.
  164. ^ "Afrosiab Wall Painting". contents.nahf.or.kr. NORTHEAST ASIAN HISTORY FOUNDATION.
  165. ^ Whitfield, Susan (2004). The Silk Road: Trade, Travel, War and Faith. British Library. Serindia Publications, Inc. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-932476-13-2.
  166. ^ Kurbanov pp238-243
  167. ^ West, Barbara A. (2010). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. pp. 275-276. ISBN 978-1-4381-1913-7.
  168. ^ Gankovsky, Yu. V., et al. A History of Afghanistan, Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1982, p. 382
  169. ^ Morgenstierne, Georg. "The Linguistic Stratification of Afghanistan." Afghan Studies 2 (1979): 23-33.
  170. ^ Kurbanov, Aydogdy. "The Hephthalites: Archaeological and Historical Analysis." PhD dissertation, Free University of Berlin, 2010.
  171. ^ Bonasli, Sonel (2016). "The Khalaj and their language". Endagered Turkic Languages II A. Aral?k: 273-275.
  172. ^ The Khalaj West of the Oxus, by V. Minorsky: Khyber.ORG. Archived June 13, 2011, at the Wayback Machine; excerpts from "The Turkish Dialect of the Khalaj", Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, Vol 10, No 2, pp 417-437 (retrieved 10 January 2007).
  173. ^ <Golden, Peter B. (1992). An Introduction to the History of the Turkic People. Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden. p. 83
  174. ^ Bosworth, C.E. "The Rulers of Chagh?niy?n in Early Islamic Times" Iran. Vol. 19 (1981), p. 20
  175. ^ Bosworth, C.E.; Clauson, Gerard (1965). "Al-Xw?razm? on the Peoples of Central Asia". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland No. 1/2: 8-9.
  176. ^ Golden, Peter B. (1992). An Introduction to the History of the Turkic People. Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden. p. 387
  177. ^ Minorsky, V. "Commentary on ?ud?d al-lam's "§15. The Khallukh" and "§24. Khorasanian Marches" pp. 286, 347-348
  178. ^ Nilüfer Kö?ker (2015). "Abdals in Cultural Geography of Anatolia": 585. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  179. ^ Kurbanov pp. 241-242
  180. ^ "The third incursion cost him his own life and his camp was captured together with his daughter who was taken as wife by the Hephtalite king Kun-khi" in Adylov, ?uhrat T.; Mirzaahmedov, Jamal K. (2006). ON THE HISTORY OF THE ANCIENT TOWN OF VARD?NA AND THE OBAVIJA FEUD in ?r?n ud An?r?n. Studies Presented to B. I. Mar?ak (1st part). Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina. p. 36.
  181. ^ Adylov, ?uhrat T.; Mirzaahmedov, Jamal K. (2006). ON THE HISTORY OF THE ANCIENT TOWN OF VARD?NA AND THE OBAVIJA FEUD in ?r?n ud An?r?n. Studies Presented to B. I. Mar?ak (1st part). Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina. p. 37.

Sources

Further reading

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Hephthalite
 



 



 
Music Scenes