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It provides a set of symbols to represent the pronunciation of West Frisian in popflock.com resource articles, and example words that illustrate the sounds that correspond to them. Integrity must be maintained between the key and the transcriptions that link here; do not change any symbol or its value without establishing consensus on the talk page first.
^ abcdefghThe syllable-final (and also word-final) voiceless obstruents [p, t, k, f, s, ?] are voiced to [b, d, ?, v, z, ?] (note that [?] is velar when voiced) when the next syllable (including the next word) begins with a voiced stop and, in case of the fricatives [f, s, ?], also when the next word begins with a vowel (Tiersma (1999:24)).
^ ab[?] and [?] are allophones of a single phoneme /?/. The plosive [?] appears word-initially and syllable-initially (the latter only when stressed), whereas the fricative [?] occurs elsewhere (Hoekstra (2001:86), Sipma (1913:15, 17)).
^In most dialects, /h/ is deleted before [j] and [w] (Tiersma (1999:22)).
^ abcdeThe syllabic nasals [m?, n?, ] are all phonemically /?n/, whereas the syllabic [l?, r?] are phonemically /?l, ?r/. To read about their exact distribution, see e.g. Sipma (1913:36). The only sonorants that cannot be syllabic are [?, j].
^ abApart from being the phonetic realization of the phonemes /m, ?/, [m, ?] occur as allophones of /n/ before, bilabial and velar consonants (Tiersma (1999:24)).
^ abcWord-final /b, d/ are realized as voiceless [p, t] (van der Veen (2001:104)). Note, however, that final /b/ is rare (Tiersma (1999:21)), and that in loanwords from Standard Dutch, final /?/ can also appear, and is also devoiced and retracted to .
^/r/ is silent before other alveolar consonants, i.e. /n, t, d, s, z, l/ (Tiersma (1999:28-29), Keil (2003:8)). An exception to this rule are recent loanwords from Standard Dutch (e.g. sport), which may or may not be pronounced with [r] (Tiersma (1999:29)).
^Intervocalic ⟨d⟩, as well as the sequence ⟨rd⟩ are often rhotacized to /r/ (Tiersma (1999:21)).
^In various pronouns and function words, the initial /d/ becomes voiceless [t] when a voiceless obstruent ends the preceding word (Tiersma (1999:24)).
^ abBoth [?] and [v] can be regarded as allophones of a single phoneme /v/, though [v] is the most common realization. The approximant [?] can appear word-initially, whereas the fricative [v] occurs elsewhere (Keil (2003:7)).
^ abcAmong fricatives, neither the voiced /z/ nor the voiceless /?/ can occur word-initially (Sipma (1913:16-17)).
^When a sequence of any vowel and /n/ occurs before any continuant besides /h/ (that is, /f, v, ?, s, z, r, l, j/), it is realized as a nasalized vowel. When the following consonant is /s/, such a nasalized vowel is also lengthened (but only in stressed syllables (Hoekstra (2001:86))), so that e.g. jûns (phonemically /juns/) is pronounced [j?:s], whereas prins (phonemically /pr?ns/) is pronounced [pr?:s]. One exception to this lengthening rule is that when a short vowel precedes the sequence /nst/ in the second person singular verb form (as in wins?[vst]), it is kept short by most speakers (Tiersma (1999:13)). It is unclear whether the lengthened short monophthongs /?, ø/ (/o/ cannot be lengthened) are phonetically long monophthongs or diphthongs (as it is the case with the oral /e:, ø:/), hence the transcription [pr?:s] rather than [prs].
^[ø:] is the Hindeloopers realization of /ø:/. In other dialects, /ø:/ is commonly slightly diphthongal [øy] (van der Veen (2001:102)).
^ abNearly all words with /ø:/ are loanwords from Standard Dutch (Visser (1997:17)).
^ abThe open-mid front rounded vowels /oe, oe:/ have a phonemic status in the Hindeloopers and Súdwesthoeksk dialects, but not in the standard language (Hoekstra (2001:83), van der Veen (2001:102)).
^ ab[?] and [?] are the southwestern realizations of, respectively, /wo/ and /wa/ (Hoekstra (2003:202), citing Hof (1933:14)).
^[?i] is a dialectal realization of /ai/ (Booij (1989:319)).
^In some dialects, /ui/ and /u:i/ are distinct phonemes. In the standard language, however, only /ui/ appears (Tiersma (1999:12)).
^ abPhonetically, /?/ and /ø/ are quite similar, but the former appears only in unstressed syllables (Tiersma (1999:11)).
^ abcdSome speakers merge the long vowels /i:, u:/ with the centering diphthongs /i?, u?/ (Visser (1997:24)).
^ abThe long close rounded vowels /u:, y:/ do not appear in the dialect of Leeuwarden (van der Veen (2001:102)).
^ abcEven though they pattern with monophthongs, the long close-mid vowels /e:, ø:, o:/ are often realized as narrow closing diphthongs ((Visser (1997:22-23), Tiersma (1999:10-11))), and that is how we transcribe them here.
^ abcdefghijThe falling diphthongs [i?, , o?, u?, y?] alternate with the rising diphthongs [j?, j?, wa, wo, jø] in the phenomenon called breaking. The [y?-jø] alternation occurs only in the word pair sluere-slurkje (Booij (1989:319)).
Booij, Geert (1989). "On the representation of diphthongs in Frisian". Journal of Linguistics. 25: 319-332. JSTOR4176008.
Tiersma, Peter Meijes (1999) [First published 1985 in Dordrecht by Foris Publications]. Frisian Reference Grammar (2nd ed.). Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy. ISBN90-6171-886-4.
van der Veen, Klaas F. (2001). "13. West Frisian Dialectology and Dialects". In Munske, Horst Haider; Århammar, Hans (eds.). Handbook of Frisian studies. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag GmbH. pp. 98-116. ISBN3-484-73048-X. Retrieved 2017.