Help:IPA/Russian
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Help:IPA/Russian

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Russian pronunciations in popflock.com resource articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to popflock.com resource articles, see {{IPA-ru}} and popflock.com Resource: Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Russian distinguishes hard (unpalatalized or plain) and soft (palatalized) consonants. Soft consonants, most of which are denoted by a superscript j, ⟨?⟩, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, like the articulation of the y sound in yes. /j, ?:, t?/ are always soft, whereas /?, ts, ?/ are always hard.

See Russian phonology and Russian alphabet for a more thorough look at the sounds of Russian.

Consonants
Hard Soft
IPA Examples English approximation IPA Examples English approximation
b About this sound?; ??[1] boot b? About this sound? beautiful
d About this sound?; About this sound??[1] do d? About this sound??; About this sound; About this sound[1] dew (UK)
f About this sound?; About this sound?;[1]About this sound?[2] fool f? About this sound?; About this sound; About this sound[2] few
? About this sound?[3][4]; About this sound??[1] goo About this sound? argue
N/A j About this sound? [je-]; About this sound?? [j?-]; About this sound?? [ju-]; About this sound? [ja]; About this sound?[5] yes, York, you, yard, boy
k About this sound??; About this sound??[1]; About this sound?[2] scar k? About this sound??; skew
l About this sound??[6] pill l? About this sound?; About this sound lean
m About this sound?? moot m? About this sound??; About this sound mute
n About this sound? noon n? About this sound?; About this sound; About this sound?[7] newt (for some dialects)
p About this sound?; About this sound?[1]; About this sound?[2] span p? About this sound??; About this sound; About this sound[2] spew
r About this sound? flapped or trilled r, like in Spanish r? About this sound?; About this sound flapped or trilled r, like in Spanish
s About this sound?; About this sound??[1]; About this sound?[2] soup s? About this sound?; About this sound; About this sound??; About this sound?[1] assume (for some dialects)
? About this sound??; About this sound??[1]; About this sound?[2]; About this sound?[8] rush ?: About this sound??; About this sound; About this sound?[9][10] wish sheep
t About this sound??; About this sound?;[1]About this sound?[2] stand t? About this sound?; About this sound?; About this sound; About this sound[2] stew (UK; for some dialects)
ts[11] About this sound??; About this sound?[10] cats t?[11] About this sound?; About this sound[10] chip
v About this sound??; ??[4]; ???[1] voodoo v? About this sound?; About this sound? view
x About this sound?; About this sound?[3][10] loch (Scottish) x? About this sound?; ; About this sound?[1][3][10] huge (for some dialects)
z About this sound?; About this sound?[1] zoo z? About this sound??; ; About this sound?; About this sound?[1] presume (for some dialects)
? About this sound?; ?[1] rouge ?: About this sound?[12] prestige genre
Stressed vowels
[-soft] [+soft]
IPA Examples English approximation IPA Examples English approximation
a About this sound? father æ About this sound??; About this sound?[13] pat (US)
? About this sound??; About this sound met e About this sound??; About this sound?[13] penny
? About this sound??; About this sound?; ? roses (for some dialects) i About this sound?; About this sound meet
o About this sound; About this sound?? chore ? About this sound??; About this sound?[13] foot
u About this sound? boot ? About this sound??; About this sound?[13] choose
Unstressed vowels
[-soft] [+soft]
IPA Examples English approximation IPA Examples English approximation
? About this sound??; About this sound???; About this sound??; About this sound?[14] bud N/A
? About this sound??; About this sound????; About this sound? about ? About this sound??; About this sound??; About this sound??[15] lasagna
? About this sound??; About this sound??; About this sound??; About this sound??; About this sound?? roses (for some dialects) ? About this sound??; About this sound????; About this sound??; About this sound??; About this sound??[16] bit
? About this sound?? put ? About this sound???; About this sound??[13] youth
? ????; ?[17] met N/A
o About this sound?; ???[17] chore ? ??; ??[18] foot
Suprasegmental
IPA Example Explanation
' About this sound? [t't?r] Stress mark, placed before the stressed syllable
: About this sound? ['z:ad][1] Consonant length mark, placed after the geminated consonant

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Consonants in consonant clusters are assimilated in voicing if the final consonant in the sequence is an obstruent (except [v, v?]). All consonants become voiceless if the final consonant is voiceless or voiced if the final consonant is voiced (Halle 1959:31).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i The voiced obstruents /b, b?, d, d?, ?, v, v?, z, z?, ?/ are devoiced word-finally unless the next word begins with a voiced obstruent (Halle 1959:22).
  3. ^ a b c ?⟩ is usually pronounced or in some religious words and colloquial derivatives from them, such as About this sound?? and About this sound?, and in the interjections About this sound??, About this sound??, About this sound??, About this sound-??, and also in [b?'?altr] (Timberlake 2004:23). /?/ devoices and lenites to [x] before voiceless obstruents (dissimilation) in the word roots -?- or -?-, -?- or -?-, -?-, and also in the old-fashioned pronunciation of -?-, -?-, . Speakers of the Southern Russian dialects may pronounce ⟨?⟩ as (soft , devoiced and ) throughout.
  4. ^ a b Intervocalic ⟨?⟩ represents /v/ in certain words (About this sound?, About this sound?, ? ), and in the genitive suffix -/- (Timberlake 2004:23).
  5. ^ The soft vowel letters ⟨?, ë, ?, ?⟩ represent iotated vowels /je, jo, ju, ja/, except when following a consonant. When these vowels are unstressed (save for ⟨ë⟩, which is always stressed) and follow another vowel letter, the /j/ may not be present. The letter ⟨?⟩ produces iotated sound /ji/ only after ?.
  6. ^ /l/ is often strongly pharyngealized , but that feature is not distinctive (Ladefoged & Maddieson 1996:187-188).
  7. ^ Alveolo-palatal consonants are subjected to regressive assimilative palatalization; i.e. they tend to become palatalized in front of other phones with the same place of articulation.
  8. ^ Most speakers pronounce ⟨?⟩ in the pronoun and its derivatives as [?]. All other occurrences of cluster stay as affricate and stop.
  9. ^ ?⟩ is sometimes pronounced as [?:] or [] and sometimes as [?t?], but no speakers contrast the two pronunciations. It is generally includes the other spellings of the sound, but the word sometimes has [?t?] because of the morpheme boundary between the prefix ⟨?-⟩ and the root ⟨--⟩.
  10. ^ a b c d e [ts], [t?], [?:], [x], have voiced allophones, , , , respectively, before voiced stop consonants. Examples: About this sound?, ??, About this sound , ??, ?.
  11. ^ a b The affricates [ts] and [t?] are sometimes written with ligature ties: [t?s] and [t]. Ties are not used in transcriptions on popflock.com resource (except in phonology articles) because they may not display correctly in all browsers.
  12. ^ Geminated is pronounced as soft , the voiced counterpart to , in a few lexical items (such as ? or ) by conservative Moscow speakers; such realization is now somewhat obsolete (Yanushevskaya & Bun?i? (2015:224)).
  13. ^ a b c d e Vowels are fronted and/or raised in the context of palatalized consonants: /a/ and /u/ become [æ] and [?], respectively between palatalized consonants, /e/ is realized as [e] before and between palatalized consonants and /o/ becomes [?] after and between palatalized consonants.
  14. ^ Word-initial and pretonic (before the stress) /a/ and /o/, as well as when in a sequence.
  15. ^ Only in certain word-final morphemes (Timberlake 2004:48-51).
  16. ^ Unstressed /a/ is pronounced as [?] after ⟨?⟩ and ⟨?⟩ except when word-final.[]
  17. ^ a b In the careful style of pronunciation unstressed /e/ and /o/ in foreign words may be pronounced with little or no reduction.
  18. ^ Unstressed [?] only occurs in foreign words.

References

  • Cubberley, Paul (2002), "The phonology of Modern Russian", Russian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge University Press
  • Halle, Morris (1959), Sound Pattern of Russian, MIT Press
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Timberlake, Alan (2004), "Sounds", A Reference Grammar of Russian, Cambridge University Press
  • Yanushevskaya, Irena; Bun?i?, Daniel (2015), "Russian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (2): 221-228, doi:10.1017/S0025100314000395

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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