Help:IPA/Korean
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Help:IPA/Korean

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Korean language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. It is based on the standard dialect of South Korea and may not represent some of the sounds in the North Korean dialect or in other dialects. For a guide to adding IPA characters to popflock.com resource articles, see {{IPA-ko}}, {{IPAc-ko}} and popflock.com Resource: Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Korean phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Korean.

Korean consonants
IPA Hangul RR English approximation
b[1] ? b ball
d[1] ? d doll
dz[2] ? j beds
d?[1] ? j roughly like gee
?[1] ? g gall
h ? h hall
?[1] ? h behind
j [
][3]
y you
k ? [?][4] g, k lock
k? ? kk skin
k? ? [] k cup
l ? [?][5] l alike
m ? [?][6] m mall
n ?
[][7]
n not
? ? [?][8] ng king
p ? [?][9] b, p clip
p? ? pp spit
p? ? [] p paint
? ? r Scottish great or American ladder
s ? s like see, but aspirated (with more breath)
s? ? ss saw
?[10] ? s roughly like she
[10] ? ss see
t ?
[][11]
d, t let
t? ? tt stall
t? ? [] t tall
ts[2] ? j cats
ts?[2] ? jj
ts?[2] ? [] ch let's have
t? ? j roughly like patch
t ? jj roughly like pitcher
t ? [] ch roughly like cheek
w [?, ?][12] w wall
z[1] ? s like zee, but murmured (with more breath)
?[13] ? s roughly like illusion
Korean vowels and diphthongs[14]
IPA Hangul RR English approximation
a ? a American bot
a: spa
e ? e Scottish English sate
e: New Zealandic hair
? ? ae bet
?: RP bare
i ? i meat
i: mean
o ? o American short
o: RP broad
ø ?[12] oe weld
ø: wave
u ? u root
u: rule
? ? eo up
?: RP pearl
? ? eu somewhat like book
?: somewhat like rude
?i ? ui somewhat like we
y ?[12] wi somewhat like sweet
y: somewhat like swede

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f The plain stops and affricate /p t t? k/ and the fricatives /h s/ are voiced to [b d d? ? ? z] respectively between voiced sounds.
  2. ^ a b c d [ts ts? ts? dz] occur before back vowels.
  3. ^ /j/ cannot be spelled by itself, but by doubling the short line on the vowel which it phonetically precedes.
  4. ^ ? is and RR k at the end of a syllable.
  5. ^ ? is at the end of a syllable. and may be .
  6. ^ ? is before or /m/.
  7. ^ ? may be at the start of a word. ?, ?, ? are [n] before /n/ or .
  8. ^ ? is at the end of a syllable. ? is [?] before , , or .
  9. ^ ? is and RR p at the end of a syllable.
  10. ^ a b [? ] are the allophones of /s s?/ before /i/ and /j/.
  11. ^ ?, ?, ?, ? are and RR t at the end of a syllable.
  12. ^ a b c /w/ is spelled ? before , , (the latter combination producing ~[?i]), ? before , ; ? can also be pronounced [we].
  13. ^ [?] is the allophone of /z/ before /i/ and /j/.
  14. ^ In Standard Korean vowel length is contrastive, but this has mostly been lost in the spoken language.
  15. ^ Resulting from various sequences of consonants (and their relative transcriptions) in regressive assimilation.

References

  • Heo, Yong (2013). "An analysis and interpretation of Korean vowel systems". Acta Koreana. 16 (1): 23-43.
  • Lee, Hyun-bok (1999). "An IPA Illustration of Korean". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. p. 120-123.
  • Lee, Hyun-bok (2002). [Phonetic Notation in Phonetic Research: IPA and International Korean Phonetic Alphabet] (PDF). INTERSPEECH-2002.
  • Lee, Hyun-bok (2004). In search of a universal phonetic alphabet - theory and application of an organic visible speech (PDF). INTERSPEECH-2004.
  • Shin, J. (2015). Vowels and Consonants. In L. Brown & J. Yeon (Eds.). The Handbook of Korean Linguistics (pp. 36-21). Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell.
  • Shin, J., Kiaer, J., & Cha, J. (2012). The Sounds of Korean. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Sohn, Ho-min (2001). The Korean Language. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521369436.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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