Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu
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Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Hindi and Urdu pronunciations in popflock.com resource articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to popflock.com resource articles, see {{IPA-hns}}, {{IPA-hi}}, {{IPA-ur}} and popflock.com Resource: Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Hindustani phonology, Devanagari, and Urdu alphabet for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Hindi-Urdu.

Key

Consonants
IPA[1] Hindi[1] ISO 15919 [1] Urdu Approximate English equivalent
b ? ba ? butter
b? ? bha abhor
d[2] ? da ? the
d?[2] ? dha within (as a dhh sound, tongue touches palate, strong air exhalation)
d? ? ja ? jazz
d ? jha hedgehog (strong jhh sound)
?[2] ? ?a ? gourd
[2] ? ?ha adhere
f fa ? food
? ? ga ? green
? gha big headed
? ?a ? similar to a French r (mostly Urdu; sometimes substituted for [?] (?) in Hindi).
? ? ha ? head
j ? ya ? yak
k ? ka ? sky
k? ? kha car
l ? la ? leaf
m ? ma ? much
n ? na ? not
? ? ?a ? burn (mostly Hindi; Urdu uses [n] (?)).
? ? ña ? roughly like canyon (mostly Hindi; Urdu uses [n] (?)).
? ? ?a ? bank (mostly Hindi; Urdu uses [n] (?)).
p ? pa ? sport
p? ? pha pencil
q qa ? quail (k in the throat, tongue not touching palate) (mostly Urdu; sometimes substituted for [k] (?) in Hindi)
? ? ra ? American butter (r may be trilled[3])
r
? ?a ? garter (GA)
?ha as [?] plus h; somewhat as the US: warhead
s ? sa ? sue
? ? ?a ?/? shrimp
(mostly Hindi; Urdu uses either [?] (?) or [s] (?)).
? ? ?a ? shoe
t[2] ? ta ? still
t?[2] ? tha tip
t? ? ca ? catch
t ? cha choose
?[2] ? ?a ? carts
[2] ? ?ha trip
?[4] ? va ? varies between w and v
x k?ha ? Scottish Loch (mostly Urdu; sometimes substituted for [k?] (?) in Hindi)
z za ? zen
? zha ? pleasure
Vowels
IPA Hindi ISO 15919 Urdu Approximate English equivalent
a: ?, ? ?, far
e: ?, ? Yale
?: ?, ai ? hen
?[5] ?, ? a strut
i:[6] ?, ? ? feed
?[6] ?, i dill
o: ?, ? story
?: ?, au ? dog
u:[6] ?, ? ? moon
?[6] ?, u wood
r? ?, r? (mostly Hindi, Urdu uses [r] (?)).
? m? nasal vowel faun
([ã:, õ:], etc.)
Suprasegmentals
IPA Hindi ISO 15919 Urdu Approximate English equivalent
'? stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
?: doubled consonant
(placed after doubled consonant)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c In the letter series beginning with ?, ? = + ?; ka = k + a. Thus '?' has the inherent vowel '?', giving '?' without added vowel sign using diacritics (The halanta "?" is removed). But the IPA shown here has the consonant 'k' only & does not include the vowel 'a'.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h To an English-speaker's ear, [? t t?] all sound like /t/, and [? d d?] all sound like /d/. However, to a Hindi-Urdu-speaker's ear, each is a very different sound. [t d] are like the Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth. [t? d?] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English [? ð] (the th and dh sounds). Hindi-Urdu [? ?] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth mid-palate. [ ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English t d, and [?] is how they hear the English t after an s (as in st).
  3. ^ /?/ can surface as a trill [r], mostly as an allophone in word-initial and syllable-final positions, and geminate /?:/ is always a trill, e.g. zar? [za:] (? - 'little') versus well-trilled zarr? [z?ra:] ( - ? 'particle').
  4. ^ , and intermediate [?] are allophonic in Hindi-Urdu. Some words, such as vrat ('?', '', religious fast), are pronounced with [v]; others, such as pakwan ('', '', cooked food), are pronounced with [w].
  5. ^ /?/ occurs as a conditioned allophone of /?/ near an /h/ surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa undergoes syncopation, and the resultant is just an /?/ preceding an /h/.
  6. ^ a b c d /i:, ?/ and /u:, ?/ are neutralised to , at the end of a word.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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