Help:IPA/Conventions For English
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Help:IPA/Conventions For English

The various English dictionaries use different and sometimes conflicting IPA transcriptions for English. For example, the transcription /i/ may be used for the vowel of sit, of seat, or at the end of city. A dictionary may not even be consistent between one edition and the next. This table correlates the more widely used dictionaries with the conventions of the IPA key that is used on Wikipedia.

Most dictionaries transcribe a specific dialect or accent, such as the Received Pronunciation (RP) of the Oxford English Dictionary, or a narrow range of dialects. Wikipedia's IPA key, on the other hand, is intended to cover RP, General American, Australian, and other national standards. As such, popflock.com resource transcribes /r/ where it is found in rhotic dialects, but also the vowel distinctions found in non-rhotic dialects, without distinct UK and US transcriptions. Specific dialects may also be transcribed--local pronunciations of place names are often useful, for example--but they are normally written in addition to a more universal pronunciation.

When entering IPA in an article, please use the {{IPA}} template so that it is formatted properly on all web browsers. /Slashes/ and [brackets] should be included inside the IPA template, so that they display in the same font as the IPA itself. Also, please use proper stress ' and length : marks (available at the bottom of your edit window) rather than the non-IPA shortcuts of apostrophe ' and colon :. Depending on the reader's font preferences, the latter can be ambiguous.

For a list of those languages other than English which have agreed-upon transcriptions in Wikipedia, see {{IPA keys}}. For a comparison of the non-IPA transcriptions found in many US dictionaries, see Pronunciation respelling for English.

Alternative pronunciations

When dictionaries give alternative pronunciations, they may mean that people disagree. For example, some people pronounce bath /bæ?/, with the vowel of bat, while others with the same accent pronounce it /b?:?/, with the vowel of bra. This is the kind of difference celebrated in "You like to-may-toes; I like to-mah-toes". On Wikipedia, we would normally need to transcribe both, unless only one is considered correct, as may be the case for personal and place names.

However, often variant transcriptions reflect distinctions between accents, and these we do not need to transcribe, since our IPA key already covers such distinctions. For example, Merriam-Webster transcribes merry as "/'m?ri/" and marry as "/'m?ri, 'mæri/". The two transcriptions of marry are meant to show that some people pronounce it the same as merry; it does not mean that there are two pronunciations of marry among those who either do or do not make this distinction (see Mary-marry-merry merger). It would not be possible to have the song lyric "You say marry and I say merry", because only those people who say those words differently would be able to sing it. Therefore on popflock.com resource we would only have one transcription for each: merry , marry . Since the IPA key defines the orthographic conventions of and according to basic English words, readers who do not make the marry-merry distinction will see and as being equivalent, much as the spelling pronunciations YOU-clid and EWE-clid for "Euclid" would be seen as equivalent.

Consonants

Consonants vary little between dictionaries. The ones which do are those in the words:

rich, char /r ~ ? ~ (r) ~ (?) ~ ?/;
which, /? ~ hw ~ (h)w ~ w/;
and new, /ju: ~ u:/.

Wikipedia editors have decided to go with , , , for these words.

A few dictionaries, such as dictionary.com, use "/y/" for /j/, which is at odds with the official IPA usage, which defines /y/ as close front rounded vowel (as in French tu or German über), and appears as such in transcriptions of French and German, as well as some dialects of English.

Vowels

The following tables compare the broad IPA pronunciation scheme of some dictionaries to the one used on Wikipedia. The overview is not exhaustive, but major pronouncing dictionaries have been included. Highlight colors:

  • Green highlights pronunciation symbols that are the same as on popflock.com resource (disregarding a syllable divider when it does not mean a two-syllable pronunciation, but only that the /r/ belongs to the next syllable, and disregarding different symbolizations of the syllable divider or of /r/);
  • yellow highlights pronunciation symbols that differ only in the use of the length symbol ?:?, in parentheses, in superscripts, in non-rhotic dropped /r/, or in inserting an optional sign;
  • red highlights pronunciation symbols that use different signs.

Other conventions:

  • A question mark (?) means that the sound has not been found in the respective dictionary.
  • A blank cell means that the dictionary has not been checked.
  • A slash (/) separates variant pronunciations signs. The order of the variant pronunciation symbols is the same as in the source.
  • Smaller text (like so) highlights variant pronunciations that are not preferred (only some dictionaries make such a distinction).
  • A comma (,) separates different pronunciation depending on the word or depending on the region. The differences are explained in a footnote or by broadly specifying the region.

Checked vowels

Checked vowels
WP example
word
EPD
1930
EPD
2003
Longman OALD OED2 dict SOED OED3 K&K Mac WL CUBE
(BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (GA) (ES)
trap æ æ æ æ æ æ æ æ æ æ a a æ æ æ æ æ a
_V carry ær ær er/​ær ær ær ær ær ær ær ær ar ar ?r ær ær ær ær a?
dress e e e e e e e ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? e ?
_V merry er er er er er er er ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r er
kit i ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
_V mirror ir ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r
lot ? ? ?: ? ?: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? o ?
_V forage ?r ?r ?:r ?r ?:r/​?: ?r ?:r/​?:r ?r ?r ?r/​?r ?r ?r ?r/​?r ?r/​?r/​?r ?r/​?r/​?r ?r or,
AE?r
foot u ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
_V courier ur ?r ?r ?r/​ ?:/​?r ?r ?r ?r/​r r ?r/​r ?r ?r/​?r/​r ?r/​?r ?r/​? ?r/​?r/​?r/​? ?r ?r,
AE: ?r/​?
strut ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
_V hurry ?r ?r ? ?r ?: ?r ?:r ?r ?r ?r/​?r ?r ?r ?r ? ?r/​?r/​? ?r ?r,
AE?
WP example
word
EPD
1930
EPD
2003
Longman OALD OED2 dict SOED OED3 K&K Mac WL CUBE
(BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (GA) (ES)

Free vowels

Free vowels
WP example
word
EPD
1930
EPD
2003
Longman OALD OED2 dict SOED OED3 K&K Mac WL CUBE
(BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (GA) (ES)
palm ?: ?: ?: ?: ?: ?: ?: ?: ?: ? ?: ?: ? ? ? a ? ?:
_? car ?:* ?:r ?:r ?: ?:r ?:(r) ?:r ?:(r) ?: ?r ?: ?: ?r ?r ?:(r a ?(r) ?:
_C start ?: ?: ?:r ?: ?:r ?: ?:r ?: ?: ?r ?: ?: ?r ?r ?: a ?,
AE: ?r
?:
_V safari,
starry
?:r ?:.r ?:r ?:r ?:r ?:r ?:r ?:r ?:r ?r ?:r ?:r ?r ?r ?r ar ?r ?:?
price ai a? a? a? a? a? a? a? a? a? a? a? a? a? ?j
_? fire ai?* ar a a? a?r a(r) ar a(r)[a] a[a] ar[a] a?(?)r a?r a(r a (r) ?j?
_C fireman ai? a a a? a?r a ar a a ar a?(?)r a?r a a ,
AE: r
?j?
_V irony, firing ai?r a??.r, a.r[b] a?.r, a[c] a??r, a?r[d] a??r, a?r[e] a?r a?r ar a?r a? r r, r[f] r, r[g] a?r, a?(?)r[h] a?r a?r ar r ?j?
_? flyer,
higher
ai?* a?.?r a?.? a? a?r a(r) ar a(r) a a? ?r ar a a?o?(r a (r) ?j?
mouth au a? a? a? a? a? a? a? a? a? a? a? a? a? a? a? aw
_? flour,
hour
au?* ar a?r, a?r/​a[i] a? a?r a(r) ar a(r)[a] a ar/​a? ?r a a[a] a?(?)r[a] a?r a(r a (r) ?w?
_C hourglass,
hourly
au? a a?r/​a a? a?r a ar a a ar/​a? ?r a a ar a?r a a ?w?
_V floury au?r a.r a??.r a?r a?r ar ar ar ar[j] ar/​a? ? r ar ar a?r ar ar ?w?
_? flower au?* ar a a? a?r a(r) ar a(r) a a? ?r a a/​a[a] ar a/​a?r a?o?(r/​a(r a (r) ?w?
_C flowerbed au? a a a? a?r a ar a a[k] ar a a?r a a ,
AE: r
?w?
_V flowery au?r a.r a a?r a?r ar ar ar ar a? ? r ar ar a?(r)r a?r ar ar ?w
face ei e? e? e? e? e? e? e? e? e? e? e? e? e e e? e? ?j
_? square * e?r er e? e?r/​æ?r e?(r) er (r) r ?: ?: ?(?)r ?r/​ær æ?(r,
E(r
e?,
AE: e?r
?:
_C bairn e? er e? e?r e? er r ?: ?: ?r ?r/​ær/​er æ?/​e?,
E
e?,
AE: e?r
?:
_V fairy r e?.r er e?r e?r er r r r ?:r ?:r ?r ?r/​?:r/​ær ?r/​?:r/​ær,
S: ær/​er
r e?r ?:?
_? prayer[l],
layer
ei?* e?.?r, e?.?r/e?r[m] e?.? e? ? e? ?r e(r)/​e?(r) er e(r) e e? ?r e e er/​?(?)r eo? eo?(r e e(r) ?j?
fleece i: i: i: i: i: i: i: i: i: i i: i: i i i i i ?j
_? near i?* r ?r ??r (r) ?r (r) r ?(?)r ?r (r (r) ?:
_C beard i? ?r ??r ?r r ?(?)r ?r ,
AEr
?:
_V eerie i?r .r ?r r ?r r ?r i:r r r r r ?r ?r/​ir ?r/​ir r r ?:?
_? seer,
freer
i(:)?* i:.?r/r, i:.?r[n] i:.? i: i:??r (r) ?r (r)/​i:?(r), i:?(r)[o] i:?[p] i ?r /​i:? i:?/​ i?r/​?(?)r i? io?(r (r) ?j?
thought ?: ?: ?:/​?: ?: ?: ?: ?: ?: ?: ? ?: ?: ? ? ? ? ? o:
_? war ?:*/​* ?:r ?:r ?: ?:r ?:(r) ?:r ?:(r) ?: ?r ?: ?: ?(?)r ?r (r ? ?(r) o:
_C north ?: ?: ?:r ?: ?:r ?: ?:r ?: ?: ?r ?: ?: ?(?)r ?r ? ?,
AE: ?r
o:
_V aural ?:r ?:.r ?:r ?:r ?:r ?:r ?:r ?:r ?:r ?r ?:r ?:r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r o:?
_? drawer[q],
rawer
?:?* ?:.?r ?:.?/​?:.? ?:r ? ?:??r/​?:??r ?:?(r) ?:?r ?:?(r) ?:? ? ?r ?:(r)? ?:? ?o? ?o?(r (r)
goat ou o? o? o? o? o? o o o? ?w
_? ore ?:*/​* ?:r ?:r ?: ?:r/​o?r ?:(r) ?:r (r) ?: ?r/​o?r ?: ?(?)r or/​?r o?(r ? ?(r) o:
_C force ?: ?: ?:r ?: ?:r/​o?r ?: ?:r ?: ?r/​o?r ?: ?: ?(?)r or/​?r o? ? ?,
AE: ?r
o:
_V oral ?:r ?:.r ?:r ?:r ?:r/​o?r ?:r ?:r r ?:r/​?r ?r/​o?r ?:r ?:r ?r or/​?r or/​?r,
S: or
?r ?r,
AEor
o:?
_? mower,
lower[r]
ou?* .?r o?.?  ? o? ?r (r) or (r) o? ?r or oo?(r oo?(r o ,
AE: r
?w?
choice ?i oj
_? coir ?i?* r r  ? ?r (r) r (r) [a] r r (r oj?
_? employer ?i?* .?r .?  ?  ?r (r) r (r)  ?r (j)?r/​?j?r u?/​?j? o?(r/​?j?(r oj?
goose u: u: u: u: u: u: u: u: u: u u: u: u u u u u ?w
_? cure u?*/​o?*/​*/​?:* ?r /​?: ??r (r) ?r (r) r /​?: ?(?)r ?r (r u?/​ (r) ?:/​o:[s]
_C procurement,
poorness
u?/​o?/​/​?: /?:, ?:/[t] ?r ?:/​ ?r/​?:r , ?:/[u] ?r, ?:r/?r[v] r /​?: ur/​?r ?r /​o?/​ ? /​?,
AEr
?:, o:[w]
_V fury u?r/​o?r/​r/​?:r .r ?r r/​?:r ?r r ?r r r r r r/?:r ur, ?r[x] ?r ?r ur r ?:?/​o:?
_? fewer,
sewer[y]
u?*/​o?* u:.?r, r[z] u:.? u: u:??r u:?(r) u:?r u:?(r) u:? u ?r u:? u:? u?r/​r uo? uo?(r u? u?(r) ?w?
_? fur ?:* ?:r ?: ?: ?: ?:(r) ?:r ?:(r) ?: ?r ?: ?: ?r ? ?(r/​? ? ? ?:
_C nurse ?: ?: ?: ?: ?: ?: ?:r ?: ?: ?r ?: ?: ?r ? ?/​? ? ? ?:
_V furry ?:r ?:.r ?: ?:r ?: ?:r ?:r ?:r ?:r ?r ?:r ?:r ?r ? ?r/​? ?r ?r ?:?
WP example
word
EPD
1930
EPD
2003
Longman OALD OED2 dict SOED OED3 K&K Mac WL CUBE
(BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (GA) (ES)
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h If there are no other syllables, the word bears no stress mark, indicating a mono-syllabic pronunciation.
  2. ^ EPD (BE): /a??.r/ in irony, Irish; /a.r/ in firing.
  3. ^ EPD (AE): /a?.r/ in irony, Irish; /a/ in firing.
  4. ^ Longman (BE): /a??r/ in irony; /a?r/ in firing.
  5. ^ Longman (AE): /a??r/ in irony; /a?r/ in firing.
  6. ^ SOED: /r/ in irony; /r/ in firing.
  7. ^ OED3 (BE): /r/ in irony; /r/ in firing.
  8. ^ OED3 (AE): /a?r/ in irony; /a?(?)r/ in firing.
  9. ^ EPD (AE): /a?r/ in flour; /a?r/ or /a/ in hour.
  10. ^ dict (BE): In dowry.
  11. ^ dict (BE): In flowerless.
  12. ^ Person who prays.
  13. ^ EPD (BE): /e?.?r/ in prayer; /e?.?r/ or /e?r/ in layer.
  14. ^ EPD (BE): /i:.?r/ or /r/ in seer; /i:.?r/ in freer.
  15. ^ /(r)/ or /i:?(r)/ in seer; /i:?(r)/ in freer.
  16. ^ dict (BE): In overseer.
  17. ^ Person who draws.
  18. ^ Cause to descend, or comp. of low.
  19. ^ See english speech services | The British English vowel system.
  20. ^ EPD (BE): // or /?:/ in procurement; /?:/ or // in poorhouse.
  21. ^ OALD (BE): // in procurement; /?:/ or // in poorhouse.
  22. ^ OALD (AE): /?r/ in procurement; /?:r/ or /?r/ in poorhouse.
  23. ^ CUBE: /?:/ in procurement; /o:/ in poorhouse.
  24. ^ OED3 (AE): /ur/ in fury; /?r/ in lurid.
  25. ^ Drain.
  26. ^ EPD (BE): /u:.?r/ in fewer; /r/ in sewer.

Reduced vowels

Reduced vowels
WP example
word
EPD
1930
EPD
2003
Longman OALD OED2 dict SOED OED3 K&K Mac WL CUBE
(BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (GA) (ES)
comma, ago ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
kitten n ?n ?n ?n ?n n n (?)n ?n n (?)n n? ?n n? n? n n ?n
rhythm m ?m ?m ?m ?m ?m ?m (?)m ?m ?m ?m m? ?m ?m/​m? ?m/​m? ?m m ?m
middle l l? l? ?l ?l l l (?)l ?l l (?)l l?/?l (?)l l? l? l l ?l
_? letter ?* ?r ? ? ?r ?(r) ?r ?(r) ? ?r ? ? ?r ? ?(r) ? ?(r) ?
_C bittersweet ? ? ? ? ?r ? ?r ? ? ?r ? ? ?r ? ? ? ?
_V murderer ?r ?r ? ??r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r[a] ?r (?)r (?)r ?r ?r ?r ?r ?r
happy i i i i i i i ? ? i i i i ? ? i ? ?j
situation, actuate u u u u u u u u: ? u ? ? ?w ?/​?w[b] ?/​?w[c] u ? ?w
roses, enough,
enounce, emission,
mistress
i, i/?, i/i:, i(:)[d] ?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/i:[e] ?, ?/?, ?/i:[f] ?/?, ?/?/i:, ?/i:, ?/?[g] ?, ?/?, ?/?/i:, ?/i:, ?/?[h] ?, ?, i[i] ?, ?, i[j] ? ? ? ?, i:/?[k] ?, ?[l] ?, ?[m] ?, ?/?, i[n] ?, ?/?, i[o] ?, ?/i, i[p] ?, ?/?, ?/?[q] ?, ?[r]
follow, cooperate,
omission, kilogram
ou, ou, o/ou/?, o/?[s] , ??[t] o?, o?/?[u] , ??, ?[v] o?, o?/?, ?[w] , ?[x] o?, ?[y] , ?[z] o?, ?[aa] , ?(?), ?[ab] , ?(?), ?[ac] o?, o?/?, ?[ad] o/?, o, ?[ae] o/?, o, ?[af] o?, o?/?, ?[ag] , ?/, ?[ah] ?w, ?[ai]
beautiful, curriculum u, u/?[aj] ?/?, ?/?[ak] ?/?, ?[al] ?/?, ?/?[am] ?/?, ?[an] -, ?[ao] -, ?[ap] ? ? ? ?/(?), ?[aq] (?), ?[ar] ? ?[as] ?[at] ?, ?[au] -, ?[av] ?
WP example
word
EPD
1930
EPD
2003
Longman OALD OED2 dict SOED OED3 K&K Mac WL CUBE
(BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (GA) (ES)
  1. ^ dict (BE): In murderous.
  2. ^ K&K (GA): /?s?t'en/ or /?s?t'wen/.
  3. ^ K&K (ES): /?s?t'en/ or /?s?t'wen/.
  4. ^ EPD 1930: /i/ in roses, mistress; /i/ or /?/ in enough; /i/ or /i:/ in emission; /i(:)/ in enounce.
  5. ^ EPD (BE): /?/ in roses, enounce; /?/ or /?/ in enough; /?/ or /?/ in mistress; /?/ or /i:/ in emission.
  6. ^ EPD (AE): /?/ in roses, enounce, mistres; /?/ or /?/ in enough; /?/ or /i:/ in emission.
  7. ^ Longman (BE): /?/ or /?/ in roses, enough; /?/ or /?, i:/ in emission; /?/ or /i:/ in enounce; /?/ or /?/ in mistress.
  8. ^ Longman (AE): /?/ in roses; /?/ or /?/ in enough; /?/ or /?, i:/ in emission; /?/ or /i:/ in enounce; /?/ or /?/ in mistress.
  9. ^ OALD (BE): /?/ in enough; /?/ in mistress; /i/ in emission.
  10. ^ OALD (AE): /?/ in enough; /?/ in mistress; /i/ in emission.
  11. ^ SOED: /?/ in enough, emission, mistress; /i:/ or /?/ in enounce.
  12. ^ OED3 (BE): /?/ in enough, enounce, emission, react; /?/ in mistress, design, beautiful.
  13. ^ OED3 (AE): /?/ in enough, enounce, emission; /?/ in mistress.
  14. ^ K&K (GA): /?/ in roses, emission, mistress; /?/ or /?/ in enough; /i/ in enounce.
  15. ^ K&K (ES): /?/ in roses, emission, mistress; /?/ or /?/ in enough; /i/ in enounce.
  16. ^ Mac: /?/ in roses, mistress; /?/ or /i/ in emission, enough; /i/ in enounce.
  17. ^ WL: /?/ in emission; /?/ or /?/ in enough; /?/ or /?/ in mistress.
  18. ^ CUBE: /?/ in roses, enough, emission; /?/ in mistress.
  19. ^ EPD 1930: /ou/ in follow; /ou/ in cooperate; /o/ or /ou/, /?/ in omission; /o/ or /?/ in kilogram.
  20. ^ EPD (BE): // in follow, cooperate; /??/ in omission, kilogram.
  21. ^ EPD (AE): /o?/ in follow, cooperate, omission; /o?/ or /?/ in kilogram.
  22. ^ Longman (BE): // in follow, cooperate; /??/ in omission, kilobyte; /?/ in kilogram.
  23. ^ Longman (AE): /o?/ in follow, cooperate; /o?/ or /?/ in omission; /?/ in kilogram.
  24. ^ OALD (BE): // in follow, cooperate; /?/ in omission, kilogram.
  25. ^ OALD (AE): /o?/ in follow, cooperate; /?/ in omission, kilogram.
  26. ^ OED2: // in follow, cooperate, omission; /?/ in kilogram.
  27. ^ dict (AE): /o?/ in cooperate, follow, omission; /?/ in kilogram.
  28. ^ SOED: // in follow, cooperate; /?(?)/ in omission; /?/ in kilogram.
  29. ^ OED3 (BE): // in follow, cooperate; /?(?)/ in omission; /?/ in kilogram.
  30. ^ OED (AE): /o?/ in follow, cooperate; /o?/ or /?/ in omission; /?/ in kilogram.
  31. ^ K&K (GA): /o/ or /?/ in follow; /o/ in cooperate, omission; /?/ in kilogram.
  32. ^ K&K (ES): /o/ or /?/ in follow; /o/ in cooperate, omission; /?/ in kilogram.
  33. ^ Mac: /o?/ in follow, cooperate; /o?/ or /?/ omission; /?/ in kilogram.
  34. ^ WL: // in follow, cooperate; /?/ or // in omission; /?/ in kilogram.
  35. ^ CUBE: /?w/ in follow, cooperate; /?/ in omission, kilogram.
  36. ^ EPD 1930: /u/ in beautiful; /u/ or /?/ in curriculum.
  37. ^ EPD (BE): /?/ or /?/ in beautiful; /?/ or /?/ in curriculum.
  38. ^ EPD (AE): /?/ or /?/ in beautiful; /?/ in curriculum.
  39. ^ Longman (BE): /?/ or /?/ in beautiful; /?/ or /?/ in curriculum.
  40. ^ Longman (AE): /?/ or /?/ in beautiful; /?/ in curriculum.
  41. ^ OALD (BE): - in beautiful /'bju:t?fl/; /?/ in curriculum.
  42. ^ OALD (BE): - in beautiful /'bju:t?fl/; /?/ in curriculum.
  43. ^ SOED: /?/ or /(?)/ in beautiful; /?/ in curriculum.
  44. ^ OED3 (BE): /(?)/ in beautiful; /?/ in pendulum.
  45. ^ K&K (GA): /?/ in beautiful, curriculum.
  46. ^ K&K (ES): /?/ in beautiful, curriculum.
  47. ^ Mac: /?/ in beautiful; /?/ in curriculum.
  48. ^ WL: - in beautiful /'bjut?fl/; /?/ in curriculum.

Stress

Stress need not be included in the notation of a monosyllabic word since it is self-evident. In phrases, however, it is advised to include stress even of a monosyllabic word because a lack of stress may indicate a different pronunciation than intended. For example, in the name Zack de la Rocha, Zack and Rocha have stress, but de la does not: . It would therefore convey an incorrect pronunciation to leave the stress mark off Zack.

OED2 does not indicate stress on monosyllables, but uses the stress mark to disambiguate disyllables: higher ('ha(r)) vs. hire (ha(r)). On WP, the distinction is made with the aid of the syllabification mark: , .

Dictionaries also disagree on secondary stress. Generally, any stressed syllable prior to the last is marked as secondary , and that convention is followed here. However, several dictionaries also mark full (unreduced) vowels as having secondary stress when they come after the primary stress, even though they are not actually stressed: cerebrate, dict.com /'s?rbre?t/, OED2 ('s?r?bre?t). This practice is avoided on Wikipedia; if you have a word transcribed /'CV?CV/, it should probably be /'CVCV/: .

References

  • Jones, Daniel (1930) [1917]. An English Pronouncing Dictionary (Revised ed.). London, Toronto: J. M. Dent & Sons.
  • Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917]. Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter (eds.). English Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
  • Kenyon, John Samuel; Knott, Thomas Albert (1953). A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English. Springfield, Mass.: Merriam.
  • The Macquarie Dictionary. McMahons Point, NSW, Australia: Macquary Library. 1982.
  • Wells, J. C. (2003) [1990]. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Longman.
  • Windsor Lewis, J. (1972). A Concise Pronouncing Dictionary of British and American English. London: Oxford University Press.

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