From its earliest days, hardboiled fiction was published in and closely associated with so-called pulp magazines. Pulp historian Robert Sampson argues that Gordon Young's "Don Everhard" stories (which appeared in Adventure magazine from 1917 onwards), about an "extremely tough, unsentimental, and lethal" gun-toting urban gambler, anticipated the hardboiled detective stories. In its earliest uses in the late 1920s, "hardboiled" did not refer to a type of crime fiction; it meant the tough (cynical) attitude towards emotions triggered by violence.
Hardboiled writing is also associated with "noir fiction". Eddie Duggan discusses the similarities and differences between the two related forms in his 1999 article on pulp writer Cornell Woolrich. In his full-length study of David Goodis, Jay Gertzman notes: "The best definition of hard boiled I know is that of critic Eddie Duggan. In noir, the primary focus is interior: psychic imbalance leading to self-hatred, aggression, sociopathy, or a compulsion to control those with whom one shares experiences. By contrast, hard boiled 'paints a backdrop of institutionalized social corruption'".
^Abbott, Megan (2002). The Street Was Mine: White Masculinity in Hardboiled Fiction and Film Noir. pp. 2-3..
^Sampson, Robert & Deandrea, William L. (Editor) (1994). "Pulps". Encyclopedia Mysteriosa. MacMillan. pp. 287-9. ISBN978-0-02-861678-0.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) "Extremely tough, unsentimental and lethal, Everhard foreshadowed the hard-boiled characters of the following decade".
Mizejewski, Linda (2004). Hardboiled and High Heeled: The Woman Detective in Popular Culture. Routledge Chapman Hall. ISBN0-415-96970-0.
O'Brien, Geoffrey (2005-08-27). "The Hardboiled Era: A Checklist, 1929-1958". miskatonic.org/rara-avis. A chronology of significant hardboiled novels, compiled by critic Geoffrey O'Brien for the 1981 edition of his Hardboiled America.