Hank Mobley
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Hank Mobley
Hank Mobley
Mobley c. 1956
Mobley c. 1956
Background information
Henry Mobley
Born(1930-07-07)July 7, 1930
Eastman, Georgia, U.S.
DiedMay 30, 1986(1986-05-30) (aged 55)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
GenresJazz, hard bop, soul jazz
Musician, composer
InstrumentsTenor saxophone
LabelsBlue Note, Prestige, Savoy

Henry "Hank" Mobley (July 7, 1930 – May 30, 1986) was an American hard bop and soul jazz tenor saxophonist and composer.[1] Mobley was described by Leonard Feather as the "middleweight champion of the tenor saxophone", a metaphor used to describe his tone, that was neither as aggressive as John Coltrane nor as mellow as Stan Getz, and his style that was laid-back, subtle and melodic, especially in contrast with players like Coltrane and Sonny Rollins. The critic Stacia Proefrock claimed him "one of the most underrated musicians of the bop era."[2]


Early life and education

Mobley was born in Eastman, Georgia, but was raised in Elizabeth, New Jersey, near Newark.[3] He described himself as coming from a musical family and spoke of his uncle playing in a jazz band.[4] As a child, Mobley played piano.[5]

When he was 16, an illness kept him in the house for several months. His grandmother thought of buying a saxophone to help him occupy his time, and it was then that Mobley began to play. He tried to enter a music school in Newark, but could not, since he was not a resident, so he instead studied music through books at home.


At 19, he started to play with local bands and, months later, worked for the first time with musicians like Dizzy Gillespie and Max Roach.[6] He took part in one of the earliest hard bop sessions, alongside Art Blakey, Horace Silver, Doug Watkins and trumpeter Kenny Dorham. The results of these sessions were released as Horace Silver and the Jazz Messengers. When The Jazz Messengers split in 1956, Mobley continued on with pianist Silver for a short time, although he did work again with Blakey some years later, when the drummer appeared on Mobley's albums in the early 1960s.

Mobley became addicted to heroin in the late 1950s and in 1958 was imprisoned.[7][8]

In 1956, Mobley recorded the album Mobley's Message with Jackie McLean and Donald Byrd. AllMusic gave the album 4 stars out of 5.[9]

During the 1960s, he worked chiefly as a leader, recording over 20 albums for Blue Note Records between 1955 and 1970, including Soul Station (1960), generally considered to be his finest recording,[10] and Roll Call (1960). He performed with many of the other important jazz players, such as Grant Green, Freddie Hubbard, Sonny Clark, Wynton Kelly and Philly Joe Jones, and formed a particularly productive partnership with trumpeter Lee Morgan. Mobley is widely recognized as one of the great composers of originals in the hard bop era, with interesting chord changes and room for soloists to stretch out.

Mobley spent a brief time in 1961 with Miles Davis,[1] during the trumpeter's search for a replacement for John Coltrane. He is heard on the album Someday My Prince Will Come (alongside Coltrane, who returned for the recording of two tracks), and several live recordings (In Person: Live at the Blackhawk and At Carnegie Hall).

In 1964, Mobley was again imprisoned for possession of narcotics. While in prison Mobley wrote songs that were later recorded for the album A Slice of the Top. The album was recorded in 1966 but was not released until 1979.[8]


A longtime smoker, Mobley was forced to retire in the mid-1970s, due to lung problems.[1] He also had problems with homelessness in his later years and struggled to stay in touch with his fellow musicians.[7] He worked two engagements at the Angry Squire in New York City November 22 and 23, 1985, and January 11, 1986, in a quartet with Duke Jordan and guest singer Lodi Carr a few months before his death from pneumonia in 1986; he had also been suffering from lung cancer.[11]



  1. ^ a b c Colin Larkin, ed. (1997). The Virgin Encyclopedia of Popular Music (Concise ed.). Virgin Books. p. 858. ISBN 1-85227-745-9.
  2. ^ Proefrock, Stacia. "Hank Mobley: Soul Station". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved 2015.
  3. ^ Steve Huey, "Artist Biography", AllMusic.
  4. ^ Byrczek, Jan (1970). "Interview with Hank Mobley". Polish Jazz Forum Magazine: 83-85.
  5. ^ Mathieson, Kenny (25 July 2013). "Mobley, Hank". Grove Music Online. Retrieved 2021.
  6. ^ Hank Mobley Quartet (Liner notes). Blue Note Records. 1955. BLP 5066.
  7. ^ a b Brody, Richard. "The Haunted Jazz of Hank Mobley". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2021.
  8. ^ a b Gilbreath, Aaron. "What Is and What Could Be: Hank Mobley". Conjunctions. Retrieved 2021.
  9. ^ "Mobley's Message - Hank Mobley | Songs, Reviews, Credits | AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved .
  10. ^ Blumenthal, Bob (1999) [1960]. "A NEW LOOK AT SOUL STATION". Soul Station (The Rudy Van Gelder Edition) (Media notes). Hank Mobley. Blue Note Records/Capitol Records.
  11. ^ Nelson, Nels (4 June 1986). "Hank Mobley, International Jazz Figure". The Philadelphia Inquirer.

Additional reading

External links

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